List of medieval universities


The list of medieval universities comprises universities (more precisely, studia generalia) which existed in Europe during the Middle Ages.[3] It also includes short-lived foundations and European educational institutions whose university status is a matter of debate. The degree-awarding university with its corporate organization and relative autonomy is a product of medieval Christian Europe.[3] Before the year 1500, over eighty universities were established in Western and Central Europe. During the subsequent Colonization of the Americas the university was introduced to the New World, marking the beginning of its worldwide spread as the center of higher learning everywhere (see List of oldest universities).[4]

Mob Quad, late medieval quarters of Merton College, University of Oxford
Bologna University in Italy, established in 1088 A.D., is the world's oldest university in continuous operation.
Established in 1224 by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, University of Naples Federico II in Italy is the world's oldest state-funded university in continuous operation.[1][2]



There were many institutions of learning (studia) in the Middle Ages in Latin Europecathedral schools, "schools of rhetoric" (law faculties), etc. Historians generally restrict the term "medieval university" to refer to an institution of learning that was referred to as a studium generale in the Middle Ages.

There is no official strict definition of a studium generale, the term having emerged from customary usage. The following properties were common among them, and are often treated as defining criteria:[5]

  1. It received students from everywhere (not merely the local district or region);
  2. It engaged in higher learning—i.e., that it went beyond teaching the Arts, and had at least one of the higher faculties (Theology, Law or Medicine).
  3. A significant part of the teaching was done by Masters (teachers with a higher degree)
  4. It enjoyed the privilege of jus ubique docendi—i.e., masters of that school were entitled to teach in any other school without a preliminary examination.
  5. Its teachers and students were allowed to enjoy any clerical benefices they might have elsewhere without meeting the mandatory residency requirements prescribed by Canon Law
  6. It enjoyed some degree of autonomy from local civil and diocesan authorities.

Charters issued by the Pope or Holy Roman Emperor were often needed to ensure privileges 4–6. The fourth condition (teaching elsewhere without examination) was originally considered by scholars of the time to be the most important criterion, with the result that the appellation studium generale was customarily reserved to refer only to the oldest and most prestigious schools—specifically Salerno, Bologna, Paris, and sometimes Oxford—until this oligopoly was broken by papal and imperial charters in the course of the 13th century.[5] The fifth criterion (continued benefices) was the closest there was to an "official" definition of a studium generale used by the Church and academics from the 14th century onwards, although there were some notable exceptions (e.g., neither Oxford nor Padua received this right, but they were nonetheless universally considered "Studia Generalia by custom").[5]

Modern historians have tended to focus on the first three requirements (students from everywhere, at least one higher faculty, teaching by masters). This has led to contention in making lists of Medieval universities. Some Italian universities, for instance, were quick to obtain papal charters and thus the privileges and title of a studium generale, but their student catchment never went much beyond the local district or they had only a couple of masters engaged in teaching. Other comparable schools (notably the more prestigious cathedral schools of France), may have had wider student catchment and more masters, but neglected or failed to secure the chartered privileges and thus were never referred to as studia generalia. It is common to include the former and exclude the latter from lists of "Medieval universities", but some historians have disputed this convention as arbitrary and unreflective of the state of higher learning in Europe.[6]

Some historians have discarded the studium generale definition, and come up with their own criteria for a definition of a "university"—narrowing it by requiring, for instance, that a university have all three higher faculties (Theology, Law, Medicine) in order to be considered a "Medieval university" (very few had all three), whereas others widen it to include some of the more prestigious cathedral schools, palace schools and universities outside of Latin Europe (notably in the Greek and Islamic world, for example the Pandidakterion founded by the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II in 425 or University of al-Qarawiyyin in Morocco founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, which may be the "first university in the world and the oldest existing, and continually operating educational institution in the world"[7]).

There is also contention on the founding dates of many universities. Using the date of acquisition of a papal and royal/imperial charter is inadequate, as the older universities, believing their status and reputations sufficient and indisputable, refused or resisted asking for an official charter for a long time. Some historians trace the founding of a university to the first date when evidence of some kind of teaching was done in that locality, even if only local and limited. Others wait until there is evidence of higher learning, a wide student catchment, the emergence of its masters teaching elsewhere or a more definitive mention of it as a studium generale.


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The list is sorted by the date of recognition. At places where more than one university was established, the name of the institution is given in brackets.

Ranking Year Name Contemporaneous location Current location Notes
1 C. 1088 (1158 charter granted) University of Bologna Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) Bologna, Italy The first university in the sense of a higher-learning, degree-awarding institute, the word universitas having been coined at its foundation.[8][9][10][11] Teaching there started much earlier since, for example, Gerard Sagredo, who was born in AD 980, learnt liberal arts there; by that time, the town already had a corporation of legis doctores and causidici[7]
2 1045-1150 (1200 charter granted) University of Paris Kingdom of France Paris, France The school predates the foundation of the university proper and is attested in 1045[12] which places its founding before that. The faculty and nation system of the University of Paris (along with that of the University of Bologna) became the model for all later medieval universities. The University of Paris was known as a universitas magistrorum et scholarium (a guild of teachers and scholars), by contrast with the Bolognese universitas scholarium.

The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine, Law, and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but also the largest as students had to graduate there to be admitted to one of the higher faculties. The students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy, Picardy, and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian (German) nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.

3 1096–1167 (1248 charter granted)[13] University of Oxford Kingdom of England Oxford, United Kingdom "Claimed to be the oldest university in the English speaking world, there is no clear date of foundation of Oxford University, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris."[14] Teaching suspended in 1209 (owing to the town execution of two scholars) and 1355 (owing to the St Scholastica riot), but was continuous during the English Civil War (1642–1651)—the university was Royalist. All Souls College and University College have repeatedly claimed[citation needed] that they own documents proving that teaching in Oxford started in the year 825, but these documents have never been produced (allegedly, John Speed dated his famous 1605 Oxford maps based on these documents). However, it was not until 1254 that Pope Innocent IV granted to Oxford the university charter by papal bull ("Querentes in agro").
4 1204 University of Vicenza Commune of Vicenza Vicenza, Italy Laical studium generale, it was closed early, in 1209.
5 1209 (1231 charter granted)[15] University of Cambridge Kingdom of England Cambridge, United Kingdom Founded by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute caused by the execution of two scholars in 1209, and royal charter was granted in 1231. The university takes 1209 as its official anniversary.
6 1212 University of Palencia Kingdom of León Palencia, Spain It was the oldest Studium Generale in the Iberian Peninsula. It disappeared c. 1264, and its remains transferred to University of Valladolid.
7 1218 (probably older) University of Salamanca Kingdom of León Salamanca, Spain It is the oldest university in operation in the Hispanic world. Although there are records of the university granting degrees many years before (James Trager's People's Chronology sets its foundation date in 1134), it received the royal chart of foundation as "Estudio General" only in 1218, making it possibly the fourth or even the third oldest European university in continuous operations. However, it was the first European university to receive the title of "university" as such, granted by king of Castile and León, Alfonso X, and the Pope in 1254. Having been excluded from the university in 1852 by the Spanish government, the Faculties of Theology and Canon Law became the Pontifical University of Salamanca in 1940.
8 1222 (probably older) University of Padua Commune of Padua Padua, Italy Founded by scholars and professors after leaving Bologna.
9 1224 University of Naples Federico II Kingdom of Sicily Naples, Italy The first public university, founded by Frederick II, king of the Kingdom of Sicily.
10 1229 University of Toulouse County of Toulouse Toulouse, France Founded by Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, as a consequence of the Treaty of Paris (1229) ending the Albigensian Crusade against Catharism. The treaty marks an unofficial end to the political autonomy of the County of Toulouse, and because he was suspected of sympathizing with the heretics, Raymond VII was forced to finance the teaching of theology as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. As a consequence, the teaching was done by members of the Dominican Order, which was founded by Saint Dominic in Toulouse in 1216 to oppose heresy.
11 1235 (1306) University of Orléans Orléans, Duchy of Orléans, Orléanais, Kingdom of France Orléans, France In 1219, Pope Honorius III forbade the teaching of Roman Law in the University of Paris. Then, a number of teachers and disciples took refuge in Orléans. In 1235 Pope Gregory IX, in a bull, affirmed that teaching Roman Law was not forbidden in Orléans. Later, Pope Boniface VIII, in 1298, promulgated the sixth book of the Decretals, he appointed the doctors of Bologna and the doctors of Orléans to comment upon it. Pope Clement V also studied law and letters in Orléans and, by a papal bull published at Lyon, 27 January 1306, he endowed the Orléans institutes with the title and privileges of a university.[16][17]
12 1240 University of Siena Republic of Siena Siena, Italy Originally called Studium Senese, was founded by Commune of Siena in 1240. In 1321, the studium was able to attract a larger number or pupils owing to a mass exodus from the prestigious University of Bologna. Closed temporarily in 1808–1815 when Napoleonic forces occupied Tuscany. On 7 November 1990 the university celebrated its 750th anniversary.
13 1241 University of Valladolid Kingdom of Castile Valladolid, Spain One hypothesis is that its foundation is the result of the transfer of Palencia's studium generale between 1208 and 1241 by Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and Bishop Tello Téllez de Meneses.
14 1261 University of Northampton Kingdom of England Northampton The University of Northampton was founded in 1261 by King Henry III. Abolished in 1265.[18]
15 1262 College of the Valley Scholars Kingdom of England Salisbury The College was founded in 1262 by Giles of Bridport, Bishop of Salisbury, and dissolved in 1542.[19]
16 1272 University of Murcia Crown of Castile Murcia, Spain The University of Murcia was founded in 1272 by King Alfonso X of Castile. It had no continuity after the 14th century, until it was refounded in 1915.
17 1220


University of Montpellier Lordship of Montpellier, Kingdom of Majorca Montpellier, France A bull issued by Pope Nicholas IV in 1289, combined all the long-existing schools, since 1160, into a university. The first statutes were given by Conrad of Urach in 1220.
18 1290 University of Macerata Papal States Macerata, Italy The University of Macerata (Italian: Università degli Studi di Macerata) was founded in 1290, organized into seven faculties.
19 1290 University of Coimbra Kingdom of Portugal Coimbra, Portugal Began its existence in Lisbon with the name Studium Generale (Portuguese: Estudo Geral). Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis, the royal charter announcing the institution of the university, was dated 1 March of that year, although efforts had been made at least since 1288 to create this first university in Portugal. The papal confirmation was also given in 1290 (on 9 August of that year), during the papacy of Pope Nicholas IV.
20 1293 University of Alcalá Crown of Castile Alcalá de Henares, Spain The University of Alcalá was founded by King Sancho IV of Castile as Studium Generale in 1293 in Alcalá de Henares. It was granted university status in a papal bull in 1499, and quickly gained international fame thanks to the patronage of Cardinal Cisneros and the production of the Complutensian Polyglot Bible in 1517, which is the basis for most of the current translations. The university moved to Madrid in 1836 by royal decree. The Moyano Law of 1857 established Complutense as the sole university in Spain authorized to confer the title of doctor on any scholar. This law remained in effect until 1969.
21 1300 University of Lleida Principality of Catalonia Lleida, Spain Founded in 1300 as Estudi General, after a 1297 granting papal bull. It was closed down in 1717 along with the banning of the rest of Catalan universities and the original political institutions of Catalonia. Refounded on 12 December 1991.
22 1303 La Sapienza University of Rome Papal States Rome, Italy Founded by Pope Boniface VIII, but became a state university in 1935. According to the Catholic Encyclopaedia, the university "remained closed during the entire pontificate of Clement VII".
23 1308 University of Perugia Papal States Perugia, Italy Attested by the Bull of Pope Clement V. On 19 May 1355, the Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor issued a bull confirming the papal erection and raising it to the rank of an imperial university.
24 1320 University of Dublin Lordship of Ireland Dublin, Ireland Papal brief granted by Pope Clement V in 1311 to John de Leche, Archbishop of Dublin, but it was not acted on until his successor, Alexander de Bicknor, issued an instrument establishing the university in 1320. The university had power to confer degrees, and three doctors of theology were appointed. It was based at St Patrick's Cathedral. The university struggled to attract benefactors and disappeared at the time of the Reformation (1530s). It has no relation to the current University of Dublin, which was founded in 1592.
25 1321 University of Florence Republic of Florence Florence, Italy The University of Florence evolved from the Studium Generale established by the Florentine Republic in 1321. The studium was recognized by Pope Clement VI in 1349.
26 1336 University of Camerino Papal States Camerino, Italy The great poet and jurist Cino da Pistoia, living in Marche in the years 1319–1321, and in Camerino in the spring of 1321, remembers the territory blooming with juridical schools. Camerino had been a center of learning since no later than 1200, offering degrees in civil law, canonical law, medicine, and literary studies. Gregory XI took the decision upon the request of Gentile III da Varano with the papal edict of 29 January 1377, directed to the commune and to the people, authorizing Camerino to confer (after appropriate examination) bachelor and doctoral degrees with apostolic authority.
27 1339 University of Grenoble Dauphiné Grenoble, France The university was founded in 1339 by Dauphin Humbert II of Viennois and Pope Benedict XII to teach civil and canon law, medicine, and the liberal arts.
28 1343 University of Pisa Republic of Pisa Pisa, Italy It was formally founded on 3 September 1343, by an edict of Pope Clement VI, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa since the 11th century. Today it is one of the most important universities in Italy.
29 1348 Charles University of Prague Kingdom of Bohemia Prague, Czech Republic Three of four faculties closed in 1419, joined with Jesuit university and renamed Charles-Ferdinand University in 1652, split into German and Czech parts in 1882. The Czech branch temporarily closed during the Nazi occupation (1939–1945), and the German branch definitively closed in 1945.
30 1349 University of Perpignan Principality of Catalonia Perpignan, France Founded in 1349 by Peter IV of Aragon, it was closed in 1794. Refounded in 1971, and in 1979 as independent university with the name Université de Perpignan Via Domicia.
31 1356 University of Angers Charles V of France Angers, France Founded in 1356, closed down in 1793, and re-established in 1971. By 1080, the Studium or the School of Angers was already a renowned scholarly institution. It received the title "university" in 1356, and in 1364, Charles V granted the university its autonomy and privileges.
32 1361 University of Pavia House of Visconti Pavia, Italy Closed for short periods during the Italian Wars, Napoleonic wars, and Revolutions of 1848.
33 1364 Jagiellonian University Kingdom of Poland Kraków, Poland Founded by Casimir the Great under the name Studium Generale, it was commonly referred to as the Kraków Academy. The institution's development stalled upon the king's death in 1370, owing primarily to a lack of funding. The academy lacked a permanent location, so lectures were held across the city at various churches and in the Kraków Cathedral School. Further development again resumed in the 1390s, by the initiative of King Władysław Jagiełło and his wife Jadwiga of Poland; at which point the school became a fully functioning university with a permanent location. The university was forcibly shut down during the German Occupation of Poland (1939–1945). The staff was deported to Nazi concentration camps, and many of its collections were deliberately destroyed by the occupying German authorities. Within a month after the city's liberation, the university again reopened with some of the original pre-war staff who survived the occupation.
34 1365 University of Vienna Holy Roman Empire Vienna, Austria Modeled on the University of Paris.
35 1367 University of Pécs Kingdom of Hungary Pécs, Hungary The first Hungarian university was founded by the Hungarian king Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos), in 1367 in Pécs.[20]
36 1379 University of Erfurt Holy Roman Empire Erfurt, Germany Disestablished 1816 and reopened 1994. The first universities founded in the German-speaking world were Prague (1348), Vienna (1365), and Erfurt (1379). The University of Erfurt claims to be the oldest university in what is present day Germany, although it was closed for 178 years.[21] Heidelberg University (founded 1386, before actual teaching started in Erfurt) also claims to be Germany's oldest university.[22]
37 1380 University of Dyrrachium Medieval Kingdom of Albania Durrës, Albania Established in 1380 it was a theological university (Studium generale) in Durrës (Dyrrhachium), Albania, then Medieval Kingdom of Albania.[23] The university was established around 1380, and then transferred to Zadar in 1396, amid the mounting Turkish threats in south-eastern Europe.[24][25][26]
38 1386 Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg Holy Roman Empire Heidelberg, Germany Founded by Rupert I, Elector Palatine.
39 1388 University of Cologne Holy Roman Empire Cologne, Germany Founded by the city council of the Free City of Cologne. Pope Urban VI granted a university charter in the year of foundation. Closed in 1798, refounded in 1919.
40 1391 University of Ferrara House of Este Ferrara, Italy Founded by Marquis Alberto d'Este.
41 1395 University of Óbuda Kingdom of Hungary Óbuda, Hungary Founded by the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxembourg. On 6 October 1395 Pope Boniface IX signed Óbuda University’s first deed of foundation on the Hungarian king’s, Sigismund of Luxemburg’s request, thus this university became the country’s second and the capital’s first university.[20]
42 1396 University of Zadar Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia Zadar, Croatia Founded by Raimund de Vineis.
43 1404 University of Turin Duchy of Savoy Turin, Italy Founded by the Prince Louis of Piedmont during the reign of Amadeus VIII.
44 1409 University of Leipzig Holy Roman Empire Leipzig, Germany Founded when German-speaking staff left Prague due to the Jan Hus crisis.
45 1409 University of Provence County of Provence Aix-en-Provence/Marseille, France Founded as a studium generale by Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, and recognized by a papal bull issued by the Pisan Antipope Alexander V.
46 1413 University of St Andrews Kingdom of Scotland St Andrews, United Kingdom Founded by a papal bull
47 1419 University of Rostock Holy Roman Empire Rostock, Germany During the Reformation, "the Catholic university of Rostock closed altogether and the closure was long enough to make the re-founded body feel a new institution".
48 1423 Université de Besançon Duchy of Burgundy Dole/Besançon, France Founded by Philippe le Bon, Duke of Burgundy.
49 1425 University of Leuven Duchy of Brabant Leuven, Belgium Founded by a papal bull.
50 1432 University of Caen Kingdom of England Caen, France Founded by John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, during the period of English control of Normandy during the Hundred Years' War. When the French regained control of Normandy the university was recognized by French King Charles VII.
51 1434 University of Catania Kingdom of Sicily Catania, Italy The oldest in Sicily. Founded by Alfonso V.
52 1441 University of Bordeaux Kingdom of England Bordeaux, France Founded by a papal bull.
53 1446 University of Girona Principality of Catalonia Girona, Spain Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon (known as King Alfonso the Magnanimous) in 1446, when he granted the privilege of teaching degrees in grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, theology, law and medicine in the city of Girona, which led to the creation of the General Studies ("Estudis Generals").
54 1450 University of Barcelona Principality of Catalonia Barcelona, Spain Founded by Alfonso V of Aragon as Estudi general de Barcelona after the unification of all university education. For forty-nine years before that foundation, however, the city had had a fledgling medical school founded by King Martin of Aragon, and in the 13th century Barcelona already possessed several civil and ecclesiastical schools.
55 1451 University of Glasgow Kingdom of Scotland Glasgow, United Kingdom Founded by a papal bull.
56 1456 University of Greifswald Holy Roman Empire Greifswald, Germany Teaching had started by 1436. Founded by initiative of Heinrich Rubenow, Lord Mayor of Greifswald (and first rector), with approval of Pope Callixtus III and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, under the protection of Wartislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania. Teaching paused temporarily during the Protestant Reformation (1527–39).
57 1457 Freiburg (im Breisgau) Germany Teaching started in 1460 (three weeks after the opening of the nearby University of Basel with which it was competing at the time.
58 1459 Basel City of Basel, located in the Holy Roman Empire, part of the Swiss Confederation after 1501 Switzerland Established by papal bull in 1459, the university started teaching in 1460 and has never interrupted its activities since. The Protestant Reformation triggered a crisis during which the university lost part of the students and faculty to its neighbouring rival in Freiburg-im-Breisgau.
59 1459 Ingolstadt Moved to Landshut in 1800 and to Munich as Ludwig Maximilian University in 1826 Germany Place where Illuminati were founded by professor Adam Weishaupt in 1776
60 1460 Nantes France
61 1464 Bourges France
62 1465 Universitas Istropolitana Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary Bratislava, Slovakia Founded by king Matthias Corvinus
63 1470 Venice Italy
64 1471 Genoa Italy
65 1474 Zaragoza Kingdom of Aragon Spain
66 1476 Mainz Germany
67 1476 Tübingen Germany
68 1477 Uppsala Sweden
69 1479 Copenhagen Denmark
70 1483 Palma, Majorca Kingdom of Majorca Spain
71 1485 Toledo Crown of Castile Spain On 3 May 1485 Pope Innocencio III established by papal bull. The university started teaching in 1485 and interrupted its activities since 1845. Refounded in 1969.
72 1489 Sigüenza Crown of Castile Spain
73 1495 University of Santiago de Compostela Kingdom of Galicia Crown of Castile

The university traces its roots back to 1495, when a school was opened in Santiago.[27] In 1504, Pope Julius II approved the foundation of the university.[28]

74 1495 University of Aberdeen Kingdom of Scotland Aberdeen, United Kingdom Founded by a papal bull.
75 1498 Viadrina European University Frankfurt on the Oder Germany
76 1499 Valencia Kingdom of Valencia Spain

See also



  1. ^ Storia d'Italia. Vol. 4. Torino: UTET. 7 August 1981. p. 122. ISBN 88-02-03568-7.
  2. ^ Delle Donne, Fulvio (2010). Storia dello Studium di Napoli in età sveva (in Italian). Mario Adda Editore. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-8880828419.
  3. ^ a b Rüegg 1992, pp. XIX–XX
  4. ^ Roberts, Rodriguez & Herbst 1996, pp. 256–284
  5. ^ a b c Rashdall, H. (1895) The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, Vol. 1, pp. 8–12
  6. ^ Rashdall, H. (1895) The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, Vol. 2, pp. 4–5
  7. ^ a b Pierre Riché (1999). Ecoles et enseignement dans le haut moyen age. Editions Picard. p. 176.
  8. ^ Top Universities Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine World University Rankings Retrieved 6 January 2010
  9. ^ Paul L. Gaston (2010). The Challenge of Bologna. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-57922-366-3. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  10. ^ Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.
  11. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55
  12. ^ Pierre Riché (1999). Ecoles et enseignement dans le haut moyen age. Editions Picard. p. 184.
  13. ^ Adolphus Ballard, James Tait. (2010). British Borough Charters 1216–1307. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108010344. Archived from the original on 2023-03-07. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
  14. ^ "Introduction and history". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  15. ^ Hilde De Ridder-Symoens (2003). Cambridge University Press (ed.). A History of the University in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. Vol. 1. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8.
  16. ^ Charles Vulliez, « Les bulles constitutives de l'université d'Orléans du pape Clément V (27 janvier 1306) : un évènement ? 700e anniversaire de l'université d'Orléans (1306–2006) », Bulletin de la Société archéologique et historique de l'Orléanais, nouvelle série, vol. XVIII, no 150, octobre 2006, p. 5
  17. ^ Histoire de l'Université de lois d'Orléans, par Jean-Eugène Bimbenet. 1853. Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
  18. ^ Arthur Francis Leach, "Northampton University encouraged and suppressed, 1261–1265" in Educational Charters and Documents 598 to 1909 (Cambridge University Press, 1911), p. 158
  19. ^ Arthur Francis Leach, "The earliest University College in England at Salisbury, 1262", in Educational Charters and Documents 598 to 1909 (Cambridge University Press, 1911), p. 168
  20. ^ a b "Universities in the Middle Ages". Archived from the original on 2018-11-25. Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  21. ^ "Timeline". Archived from the original on 2017-01-27.
  22. ^ Watzke, Christian. "History – Heidelberg University". Archived from the original on 2017-07-13. Retrieved 2017-07-18.
  23. ^ Hajrullah Koliqi: Historia e arsimit dhe e mendimit pedagogjik shqiptar, Universiteti i Prishtinës & Libri shkollor, Prishtinë, 2002, fq. 53.
  24. ^ "University of Zadar : About us". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
  25. ^ Jahja Drançolli: Universiteti i Durrësit, i themeluar rreth vitit 1380 Archived 2017-09-12 at the Wayback Machine 25 mars 2016, RadiandRadi, Vizituar më 30.09.2016.
  26. ^ Dr. Jahja Drançolli: Universiteti i Durrësit (Shek. XV), Buletin i Fakultetit Filozofik, Nr. XXIII/1993, Prishtinë, 1995, fq. 108
  27. ^ "La Universidad de Santiago cumple 500 años". El Mundo (in Spanish). March 22, 1995. Archived from the original on 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
  28. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Santiago de Compostela" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 191.



Further reading