Magnesium perchlorate

Summary

Magnesium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Mg(ClO4)2. The salt is also a superior drying agent for gas analysis.

Magnesium perchlorate
Magnesium perchlorate
Identifiers
  • 10034-81-8 checkY
  • 64010-42-0 (hydrate) checkY
  • 13446-19-0 (hexahydrate) checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
ChemSpider
  • 23223 checkY
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.086 Edit this at Wikidata
  • 24840
RTECS number
  • SC8925000
UNII
  • 7N77Z541YF ☒N
  • DTXSID70890617 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/2ClHO4.Mg/c2*2-1(3,4)5;/h2*(H,2,3,4,5);/q;;+2/p-2 checkY
    Key: MPCRDALPQLDDFX-UHFFFAOYSA-L checkY
  • InChI=1/2ClHO4.Mg/c2*2-1(3,4)5;/h2*(H,2,3,4,5);/q;;+2/p-2
    Key: MPCRDALPQLDDFX-NUQVWONBAH
  • [Mg+2].O=Cl(=O)(=O)[O-].[O-]Cl(=O)(=O)=O
Properties
Mg(ClO4)2
Molar mass 223.206 g/mol
Appearance white powder,
deliquescent
Odor odorless
Density 2.21 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.98 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
Melting point 251 °C (484 °F; 524 K) (anhydrous)
95-100 °C (hexahydrate)
Boiling point decomposition
99.3 g/100 mL
Solubility in ethanol 23.96 g/100 mL
Hazards[1]
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Oxidizer
GHS labelling:
GHS03: OxidizingGHS07: Exclamation mark
Danger
H272, H315, H319, H335
P220, P261, P305+P351+P338
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Safety data sheet (SDS) External MSDS
Related compounds
Other cations
Calcium perchlorate
Barium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Magnesium perchlorate decomposes at 250 °C.[2] The heat of formation is -568.90 kJ mol−1.[3]

The enthalpy of solution is quite high, so reactions are done in large amounts of water to dilute it.

It is sold under the trade name anhydrone. Manufacture of this product on a semi-industrial scale was first performed by G. Frederick Smith in his garage in Urbana Illinois, but later at a permanent facility in Columbus, OH called G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co. He sold the magnesium perchlorate to A. H. Thomas Co., now Thomas Scientific, under the trade name Dehydrite.

UsesEdit

It is used as desiccant to dry gas or air samples,[4][5] but is no longer advised, for use as a general desiccant, due to hazards inherent in perchlorates.[6] It is dried by heating at 220 °C under vacuum.

Magnesium perchlorate and other perchlorates have been found on Mars.[7] Being a drying agent, magnesium perchlorate retains water from the atmosphere and may release it when conditions are favorable and temperature is above 273 K. Briny solutions that contain salts such as magnesium perchlorate have a lower melting point than that of pure water. Therefore the abundance of magnesium and other perchlorate salts on Mars could support the theory that liquid aqueous solutions might exist on or below the surface, where temperature and pressure conditions would ordinarily cause the water to freeze.

ProductionEdit

Magnesium perchlorate is produced by the reaction of magnesium hydroxide and perchloric acid.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Magnesium Perchlorate, Anhydrous". American Elements. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  2. ^ CRC Handbook
  3. ^ Lange's
  4. ^ H. H. Willard, G. F. Smith (1922). "The Preparation and Properties of Magnesium Perchlorate and its Use as a Drying Agent". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 44 (10): 2255–2259. doi:10.1021/ja01431a022.
  5. ^ L. Wu, H. He (1994). "Preparation of perlite-based magnesium perchlorate desiccant with colour indicator". The Chemical Educator. 41 (5): 633–637. doi:10.1016/0039-9140(94)80041-3.
  6. ^ W. L. F. Armarego and C. Chai (2003). Purification of laboratory chemicals. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-7571-3.
  7. ^ Hand, Eric (2008-08-06). "Perchlorate found on Mars". Nature: news.2008.1016. doi:10.1038/news.2008.1016. ISSN 0028-0836.
HClO4 He
LiClO4 Be(ClO4)2 B(ClO
4
)
4

B(ClO4)3
ROClO3 N(ClO4)3
NH4ClO4
NOClO4
H3OClO4 FClO4 Ne
NaClO4 Mg(ClO4)2 Al(ClO4)3
Al(ClO
4
)
4

Al(ClO
4
)2−
5

Al(ClO
4
)3−
6
Si P S ClO
4

ClOClO3
Cl2O7
Ar
KClO4 Ca(ClO4)2 Sc(ClO4)3 Ti(ClO4)4 VO(ClO4)3
VO2(ClO4)
Cr(ClO4)3 Mn(ClO4)2 Fe(ClO4)2 Co(ClO4)2,
Co(ClO4)3
Ni(ClO4)2 Cu(ClO4)2 Zn(ClO4)2 Ga(ClO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbClO4 Sr(ClO4)2 Y(ClO4)3 Zr(ClO4)4 Nb(ClO4)5 Mo Tc Ru Rh(ClO4)3 Pd(ClO4)2 AgClO4 Cd(ClO4)2 In(ClO4)3 Sn(ClO4)4 Sb TeO(ClO4)2 I Xe
CsClO4 Ba(ClO4)2   Hf(ClO4)4 Ta(ClO4)5 W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2(ClO4)2,
Hg(ClO4)2
Tl(ClO4),
Tl(ClO4)3
Pb(ClO4)2 Bi(ClO4)3 Po At Rn
FrClO4 Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La Ce(ClO4)x Pr Nd(ClO4)3 Pm Sm(ClO4)3 Eu(ClO4)3 Gd(ClO4)3 Tb(ClO4)3 Dy(ClO4)3 Ho(ClO4)3 Er(ClO4)3 Tm(ClO4)3 Yb(ClO4)3 Lu(ClO4)3
Ac Th(ClO4)4 Pa UO2(ClO4)2 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr