Metel Anti-Ship Complex

Summary

Metel Anti-Ship Complex (Russian: противолодочный комплекс «Метель» 'Snowstorm'; NATO reporting name: SS-N-14 Silex) is a Russian family of anti-submarine missiles. There are different anti-submarine variants ('Metel') for cruisers and frigates, and a later version with a shaped charge ('Rastrub') that can be used against shipping as well as submarines.

RPK-3 Metel
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-14 'Silex')
Постоянная группировка ВМФ России в Средиземном море обеспечивает противовоздушную оборону над территории Сирии (15).jpg
Launcher with SS-N-14 missiles on an Udaloy-class destroyer.
TypeAnti-submarine/ship missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1969–current
Used byRussia
Production history
Designed1960s
Specifications
Mass3,930 kg (8,660 lb)
Length7.2 m (24 ft) (85R missile)
WarheadVarious ASW torpedoes or nuclear depth charge. Later multi purpose torpedoes and 185 kg shaped charge warhead against ships.

Propellantsolid fuel rocket
Operational
range
10 – 90 km for 85RU/URPK-5 Rastrub [1](versus ship)
5 – 50 km (anti-sub )
Maximum depth20–500 metres
Maximum speed Mach 0.95, 290 m/s (650 mph)
Guidance
system
Radio command via helicopter or other external guidance plus an IR seeker.
Launch
platform
Kresta II, Kara, Burevestnik 1 & 2, Udaloy I, Kirov

The missile carries an underslung anti-submarine torpedo which it drops immediately above the suspected position of a submarine. The torpedo then proceeds to search and then home in on the submarine. In the case of the 85RU/URPK-5, the UGMT-1 torpedo is a multi-purpose torpedo and can be used against submarines as well as surface ships. The missile has been in operational service since 1968, but is no longer in production; it was superseded by the RPK-2 Viyuga (SS-N-15 'Starfish').

DevelopmentEdit

In the early 1960s the Soviet Union introduced the RBU-6000 and RBU-1000 anti-submarine rocket launchers, which worked on a similar principle to the Royal Navy's Hedgehog system of the Second World War, propelling small depth charges up to 5,800 metres (6,300 yd) from a ship. However this meant that a ship would still be in range of the submarine's torpedoes and missiles, and depth charges were less accurate than homing torpedoes. In 1963 the US Navy introduced ASROC, a missile that flew to the estimated position of the target submarine, and then dropped a torpedo into the water to destroy it. The SS-N-14 was the Soviet response.

In 1993, an upgraded version, designated YP-85, with a range of 250 km (130 nmi), was proposed for export.[2]

DesignEdit

The missile is based on the P-120 Malakhit (NATO: SS-N-9 'Siren') anti-shipping missile. The missile itself is radio command guided and is powered by a solid fuel rocket motor. The later 'Rastrub' models of the weapon were "universal" carrying a UGMT-1 multi-purpose torpedo and in addition had 185 kg (408 lb) shaped charge warhead for use against ships guided by radio command and infrared seeker.[3] In anti-submarine mode the missile flew at approximately 400 m (1,300 ft) altitude, and when it was over the estimated position of the target submarine the missile was commanded to release the torpedo or depth charge. In anti-shipping mode the missile flies much lower, at 15 m (49 ft).[1]

Operational historyEdit

The URPK-3 entered service in 1969 on the Kresta II and Kara classes of cruisers.[2] The URPK-4 was introduced in 1973, and the anti-ship version URPK-5 Rastrub in 1976.[2] The URPK-4 has been used With the first batch of the Udaloy-class destroyers; the Udaloy II carries the SS-N-15 'Starfish'. The system was installed on the battlecruiser Admiral Ushakov (ex-Kirov) but not on her sister ships.[2]

Of these the Krestas and all but two Karas have been retired, along with most of the Burevestniks and half the Udaloys; the Kirov appears to have been upgraded to the SS-N-16 'Stallion' at some point. 100 missiles are estimated to remain in service as of 2006.

VariantsEdit

  • 60R - Original version armed with 5 kt nuclear depth charge
  • 70R - Original version armed with AT-2U ASW torpedo
  • 83R/URPK-3 Metel - Cruiser version of the missile using the guidance system from the SA-N-3 missile and the KT-106 launcher. Uses AT-1 torpedo (EA-45-70A)
  • 84R/URPK-4 Metel-U, KT-106U launcher, used on Udaloy-class destroyers. Entered service 1973. Uses AT-2 (AT-2UM) torpedo (E53-72), which has either 100 kg HE warhead or possibly a 5 kt nuclear warhead.
  • 85RU/URPK-5 Rastrub, KT-100U launcher. Entered service 1975. Carries UGMT-1 (AT-3 Orlan) anti- sub and anti-ship torpedo and is in addition anti-shipping missile with a warhead of 185 kg.
    • 85RUS/URPK-5 Nuclear tipped version of the missile.
  • YP-85 Proposed long-range version - see above.

OperatorsEdit

  Russia
  Soviet Union

GalleryEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "УРК-5 «Раструб-Б» - универсальный ракетный комплекс". kollektsiya.ru. Archived from the original on 2014-07-28.
  2. ^ a b c d "URPK-3/-4/-5 (SS-N-14 'Silex'/83R and 84R Metel, 85RU Rastrub)", Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 2008-09-10, retrieved 2009-01-28
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-13. Retrieved 2014-12-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  • Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1997 to 1998
  • Jane's Underwater Warfare Systems 2006-2007

External linksEdit

  • Images of the missiles in the launch tubes at wonderland.org.nz
  • Page about the SS-N-14 in Russian
  • Manufacturer's page about the URK-5