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In mathematics and Fourier analysis, a rectangular mask short-time Fourier transform (rec-STFT) has the simple form of short-time Fourier transform. Other types of the STFT may require more computation time than the rec-STFT.

Spectrograms produced from applying a rec-STFT on a function consisting of 3 consecutive cosine waves. (top spectrogram uses smaller B of 0.5, middle uses B of 1, and bottom uses larger B of 2.)

From the image, when B is smaller, the time resolution is better. Otherwise, when B is larger, the frequency resolution is better.

Advantage and disadvantageEdit

Compared with the Fourier transform:

Advantage: The instantaneous frequency can be observed.

Advantage: Least computation time for digital implementation.

Disadvantage: Quality is worse than other types of time-frequency analysis. The jump discontinuity of the edges of the rectangular mask results in Gibbs ringing artifacts in the frequency domain, which can be alleviated with smoother windows.