STS-40 Spacelab.jpg
Spacelab Module LM1 in Columbia's payload bay, serving as the Spacelab Life Sciences laboratory
Mission typeBiosciences
COSPAR ID1991-040A
SATCAT no.21399
Mission duration9 days, 2 hours, 14 minutes, 20 seconds
Distance travelled6,083,223 kilometers (3,779,940 mi)
Orbits completed146
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSpace Shuttle Columbia
Landing mass102,283 kilograms (225,495 lb)
Payload mass12,374 kilograms (27,280 lb)
Crew size7
Start of mission
Launch date5 June 1991, 13:24:51 (1991-06-05UTC13:24:51Z) UTC
Launch siteKennedy LC-39B
End of mission
Landing date14 June 1991, 15:39:11 (1991-06-14UTC15:39:12Z) UTC
Landing siteEdwards Runway 22
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude287 kilometres (178 mi)
Apogee altitude296 kilometres (184 mi)
Inclination39.0 degrees
Period90.4 min
Sts-40-patch.png STS-40 crew.jpg
Left to right - front row: Gaffney, Fulford, Seddon, Bagian; Back row: O'Connor, Jernigan, Gutierrez
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STS-40, the eleventh launch of Space Shuttle Columbia, was a nine-day mission in June 1991. It carried the Spacelab module for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1), the fifth Spacelab mission and the first dedicated solely to biology. STS-40 was the first spaceflight that included three women crew members.


Position Astronaut
Commander Bryan D. O'Connor
Second and last spaceflight
Pilot Sidney M. Gutierrez
First spaceflight
Mission Specialist 1 James P. Bagian
Second and last spaceflight
Mission Specialist 2 Tamara E. Jernigan
First spaceflight
Mission Specialist 3 M. Rhea Seddon
Second spaceflight
Payload Specialist 1 F. Drew Gaffney
Only spaceflight
Payload Specialist 2 Millie Hughes-Fulford
Only spaceflight

Backup crew

Position Astronaut
Payload Specialist 2 Robert W. Phillips
First spaceflight

Crew seating arrangements

Seat[1] Launch Landing STS-121 seating assignments.png
Seats 1–4 are on the Flight Deck. Seats 5–7 are on the Middeck.
S1 O'Connor O'Connor
S2 Gutierrez Gutierrez
S3 Bagian Seddon
S4 Jernigan Jernigan
S5 Seddon Bagian
S6 Gaffney Gaffney
S7 Hughes-Fulford Hughes-Fulford

Mission highlights

Launch of STS-40

Launch originally set for 22 May 1991. Mission postponed less than 48 hours before launch when it became known that a leaking liquid hydrogen transducer in orbiter main propulsion system which was removed and replaced during leak testing in 1990, had failed an analysis by vendor. Engineers feared that one or more of the nine liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen transducers protruding into fuel and oxidizer lines could break off and be ingested by the engine turbopumps, causing engine failure.

In addition, one of orbiter five general purpose computers failed completely, along with one of the multiplexer demultiplexers that control orbiter hydraulics ordinance and orbiter maneuvering system / reaction control system functions in the aft compartment.

A new general purpose computer and multiplexer demultiplexer were installed and tested. One liquid hydrogen and two liquid oxygen transducers were replaced upstream in propellant flow system near the 17-inch (43 cm) disconnect area, which is protected by internal screen. Three liquid oxygen transducers replaced at engine manifold area, while three liquid hydrogen transducers here were removed and openings plugged. Launch reset for 8 am EDT, 1 June, but postponed again after several attempts to calibrate inertial measurement unit 2 failed. Unit was replaced and retested, and launch was rescheduled for 5 June. The mission launched successfully on 5 June 1991, at 9:24:51 am EDT and the mission had a launch orbiter weight of 114,290 kilograms (251,970 lb). The launch was also captured on IMAX cameras, and used in the 2015 documentary film Journey to Space.

It was the fifth dedicated Spacelab mission, Spacelab Life Sciences-1, and first dedicated solely to life sciences, using the habitable module. Mission featured most detailed and interrelated physiological measurements in space since 1973–1974 Skylab missions. Subjects were humans, 30 rodents and thousands of tiny jellyfish. Primary SLS-1 experiments studied six body systems; of 18 investigations, ten involved humans, seven involved rodents, and one used jellyfish.

Six body systems investigated were cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary (heart, lungs and blood vessels); renal/endocrine (kidneys and hormone-secreting organs and glands); blood (blood plasma); immune system (white blood cells); musculoskeletal (muscles and bones); and neurovestibular (brains and nerves, eyes and inner ear). Other payloads included twelve Getaway Special (GAS) canisters installed on GAS bridge in cargo bay for experiments in materials science, plant biology and cosmic radiation (see G-616); Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE); and seven Orbiter Experiments (OEX).

Landing was on 14 June 1991, at 8:39:11 am PDT, on Runway 22, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Rollout distance: 2,866 metres (9,403 ft). Rollout time: 55 seconds. Orbiter returned to KSC 21 June. Landing Weight: 102,755 kilograms (226,536 lb).

Wake-up calls

NASA began its longstanding tradition of waking up astronauts with music during Apollo 15. Each track is specially chosen, often by the astronauts' families, and usually has a special meaning to an individual member of the crew, or is applicable to their daily activities.

Day Song Artist/Composer Played For
Day 2 Great Balls of Fire Jerry Lee Lewis
Day 3 A Military medley O'Connor, Gutierrez
Day 4 Yakety Yak The Coasters
Day 5 Greetings from the crews' children

Somewhere out there from the film An American Tail

Day 6 "Cow Patty" Tammy Jernigan
Day 7 "Shout - The Faber College Theme" from the movie "Animal


Otis Day and the Knights
Day 8 "Twistin' the Night Away" from the movie, "Animal House" Sam Cooke
Day 9 Chain Gang The Nylons
Day 10 What a Wonderful World Louis Armstrong

See also


  1. ^ "STS-40". Spacefacts. Retrieved 26 February 2014.

External links

  • NASA mission summary
  • STS-40 Video Highlights

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.