YJ-83

Summary

The YJ-83 (Chinese: 鹰击-83; pinyin: yingji-83; lit. 'eagle strike 83'; NATO reporting name: CSS-N-8 Saccade) is a Chinese subsonic anti-ship cruise missile. It is manufactured by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation Third Academy.[3]

YJ-83
YJ-83J Missile 20170902.jpg
YJ-83J Missile
TypeAnti-ship cruise missile
Place of originPeople's Republic of China
Service history
In service1998
Used byPeople's Republic of China
Production history
ManufacturerChina Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation
Specifications
Warhead190 kg high-explosive fragmentation (YJ-83)
165 kg high-explosive, semi-armour piercing (YJ-83K)

EngineCTJ-2 turbojet
Operational
range
180 km (YJ-83, YJ-83K)
230 km (YJ-83KH)
120 km (C-802)
180 km (C-802A)[1][2]
Maximum speed Mach 0.9
Guidance
system
Inertial navigation/active radar homing terminal guidance
Launch
platform
Surface and air launched

DescriptionEdit

The YJ-83 uses microprocessors and a strapdown inertial reference unit (IRU); these are more compact than the equivalent electronics used in the YJ-8 and the export C-802, allowing the YJ-83 to have a 180-km range at Mach 0.9. The missile is powered by the Chinese CTJ-2 turbojet, and carries 190-kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead. Terminal guidance is by an active radar.[3]

The air-launched YJ-83K has a range of 180-km, a cruise speed of Mach 0.9, and a 165 kg high-explosive, semi-armour piercing warhead. The improved YJ-83KH uses a imaging-infrared seeker and has a range of 230 km;[4] reportedly it may receive course corrections by remote link.[5]

The YJ-83 entered service with the People's Liberation Army Navy in 1998-1999,[3] equipping large numbers of its surface warships.[6] The YJ-83K is the standard anti-ship missile carried by the People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force;[4] the United States reported the usage in 2014.[7] The People's Liberation Army Air Force was using the YJ-83K by February 2020.[4]

Operational historyEdit

On 14 July 2006 during the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired two Chinese-built C-802 missiles with upgraded Iranian radar seekers. The first hit a Cambodian-flagged Egyptian freighter 60 km offshore. The other hit the Israeli Navy's Sa'ar 5-class corvette INS Hanit, which was patrolling 8.5 nm offshore of Beirut. The missile hit the corvette's unstealthy crane near the rear helicopter pad; the explosion holed the pad, set fire to fuel storage, and killed four crewmembers. The fire was extinguished after four hours and Hanit returned to Ashdod under its own power for three weeks of repairs. The corvette's automatic anti-missile systems were deactivated before the attack; Israel was unaware that Hezbollah had C-802s, and there were concerns over friendly fire with the Israeli Air Force.[8]

On 9 October 2016, the United States Navy guided-missile destroyer USS Mason (DDG-87) reported coming under attack in the Red Sea by cruise missiles fired from territory in Yemen controlled by the Houthi group. The missiles appeared similar to one fired from Yemen a week earlier that damaged HSV-2 Swift, a leased transport ship under the control of the United Arab Emirates, who are supporting the Yemeni government in a civil war against the Houthis. Analysis of the damage caused by that missile led experts to believe it was a C-802. None of the missiles fired at USS Mason hit their targets; U.S. authorities claimed that defensive countermeasures were used, including firing defensive missiles.[9][10]

C-802AEdit

 
C-802

The C-802 precedes the closely related YJ-83.[11] It is powered by the French TRI 60-2 turbojet[3] and has a range of 65 nautical miles (120 km). The C-802 is considered a part of the YJ-83 family by the US military.[6] The C-802 is sometimes and erroneously considered the export version of the YJ-82; the two are separate developments.[12]

The C-802A[11] and C-802AK are the export surface- and air-launched variants.[3] The C-802A has a range of 97 nautical miles (180 km).[1][2][6]

VariantsEdit

YJ-83

Initial surface-launched version with 120km range.[3]

YJ-83A/YJ-83J

Variant with enhanced range; 180 km for surface-launch and 250 km for air-launch.[3]

YJ-83K

Air-launched variant with 130km range.[3]

YJ-83KH

Air-launched variant with imaging-infrared seeker and 230 km.[4]

C-802

Predecessor of the YJ-83.[11]

C-802A

Export variant of the surface-launched YJ-83.[3][11]

C-802K

Export version of the air-launched YJ-83.[3]

OperatorsEdit

 
Map with YJ-83 operators in blue
  Algeria
  Bangladesh
  Indonesia
  Iran
  Myanmar
  Pakistan
  People's Republic of China
  Syria

Syrian Navy: C-802[22]

  Thailand
  Yemen
  Venezuela

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Thailand flexes anti-ship missile capabilities in Andaman Sea with C-802A firing". Janes. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Bangladesh Navy has launched five new warships including 2 frigates - 1 corvette and 2 survey ships". Navy Recognition. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gromley et al.: page 101
  4. ^ a b c d e f Rupprecht, Andreas (18 February 2020). "Images show PLAAF J-16 armed with YJ-83K anti-ship missile". Janes. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  5. ^ Gromley et al.: page 102
  6. ^ a b c United States Office of Naval Intelligence: page 16
  7. ^ United States Office of the Secretary of Defense (June 2014). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2014 (PDF) (Report). p. 40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  8. ^ Zakheim, Dov S. (February 2012). The United States Navy and Israeli Navy: Background, current issues, scenarios, and prospects (PDF) (Report). CNA. p. 27-28. COP D0026727.A1/Final.
  9. ^ "USS Mason Fired 3 Missiles to Defend From Yemen Cruise Missiles Attack". USNI. 11 October 2016. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  10. ^ "U.S. Navy ship targeted in failed missile attack from Yemen: U.S." NAVSEA. 10 September 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d Carlson, Christopher P. (8 February 2013). "China's Eagle Strike-Eight Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles, Part 3". DefenseMediaNetwork. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  12. ^ Carlson, Christopher P. (6 February 2013). "China's Eagle Strike-Eight Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles, Part 2". DefenseMediaNetwork. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  13. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 333.
  14. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 251.
  15. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 273.
  16. ^ "IRAN FIRST CUSTOMER TO BUY CHINESE C802 ANTI-SHIP MISSILE". Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  17. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 293.
  18. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 294.
  19. ^ Dominguez, Gabriel (6 March 2018). "PN, PAF successfully test-fire C-802 anti-ship cruise missiles". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  20. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 298.
  21. ^ United States Office of Naval Intelligence: page 17
  22. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 370.
  23. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 312.
  24. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (29 October 2015). "Yemeni rebels claim third anti-ship missile attack". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  25. ^ "China Arming Venezuelan Navy With Anti-Ship Missiles". USNI News. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  26. ^ The International Institute for Strategic Studies 2022, p. 383.
Bibliography
  • Gormley, Dennis M.; Erickson, Andrew S.; Yuan, Jingdong (30 September 2014). "A Potent Vector: Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments". Joint Forces Quarterly. National Defense University (75). Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  • The International Institute for Strategic Studies (2022). The Military Balance 2022. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-032-27900-8.
  • United States Navy Office of Naval Intelligence (2015). The PLA Navy: New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.