Kingdom of Thailand
Anthem: Phleng Chat Thai
(English: "Thai National Anthem")
and largest city
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|House of Representatives|
|6 April 1782|
|24 June 1932|
|6 April 2017|
|513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (50th)|
• Water (%)
|0.4 (2,230 km2)|
• 2018 estimate
• 2010 census
|132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.755|
high · 83rd
|Currency||Baht (฿) (THB)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
|ISO 3166 code||TH|
Thailand,[a] officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam,[b] is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by total area and the 22nd-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. It is a unitary state. Although nominally the country is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup, in 2014, established a de facto military dictatorship under a junta.
Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon kingdoms, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which rivaled each other. Documented European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, now one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–1688), gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in the 1767 Burmese–Siamese War. Taksin (r. 1767–1782) quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (r. 1782–1809), the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century.
Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory; nevertheless, it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States, and played a key anti-communist role in the region as a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In 2013, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by a military junta.
Thailand is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia, and the 20th-largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy; manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy.
Thailand (/ˈtaɪlænd/ TY-land or /ˈtaɪlənd/ TY-lənd; Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGS: Prathet Thai, pronounced [pratʰêːt tʰaj] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, RTGS: Ratcha-anachak Thai [râːtt͡ɕʰaʔaːnaːt͡ɕàk tʰaj] (listen), Chinese: 泰国), formerly known as Siam (Thai: สยาม, RTGS: Sayam [sajǎːm]), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Etymology of Siam
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders, prior to 1949 it was usually known by the exonym Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGS: sayam, pronounced [sajǎːm], also spelled Siem, Syâm, or Syâma). The word Siam may have originated from Pali (suvaṇṇabhūmi, 'land of gold') or Sanskrit श्याम (śyāma, 'dark') or Mon ရာမည(rhmañña, 'stranger'). The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion.[clarification needed] Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam.":8 A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves syem as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula.
The signature of King Mongkut (r. 1851–1868) reads SPPM (Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha) Mongkut Rex Siamensium (Mongkut King of the Siamese), giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to "Thailand". Thailand was renamed Siam from 1946 to 1948, after which it again reverted to "Thailand".
Etymology of "Thailand"
According to George Cœdès, the word Thai (ไทย) means 'free man' in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".:197 A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai (ไท) simply means 'people' or 'human being', since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word khon (คน) for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai-Tai (or Thay-Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰajA2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > tajA2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei). Michel Ferlus's work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter (1992).
While Thai people will often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย), they most commonly use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย) or simply Thai; the word mueang, archaically referring to a city-state, is commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means 'kingdom of Thailand' or 'kingdom of Thai'. Etymologically, its components are: ratcha (Sanskrit: राजन्, rājan, 'king, royal, realm'); -ana- (Pali āṇā 'authority, command, power', itself from the Sanskrit आज्ञा, ājñā, of the same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- 'wheel', a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line of the national anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย), 'Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood'.
There is evidence of continued human habitation in present-day Thailand from 20,000 years ago to the present day.:4 The earliest evidence of rice growing is dated at 2,000 BCE.:4 Bronze appeared circa 1,250–1,000 BCE.:4 The site of Ban Chiang in northeast Thailand currently ranks as the earliest known center of copper and bronze production in Southeast Asia. Iron appeared around 500 BCE.:5 The Kingdom of Funan was the first and most powerful Southeast Asian kingdom at the time (2nd century BCE).:5 The Mon people established the principalities of Dvaravati and Kingdom of Hariphunchai in the 6th century. The Khmer people established the Khmer empire, centered in Angkor, in the 9th century.:7 Tambralinga, a Malay state controlling trade through the Malacca Strait, rose in the 10th century.:5 The Indochina peninsula was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India from the time of the Kingdom of Funan to that of the Khmer Empire.
The Thai people are of the Tai ethnic group, characterized by common linguistic roots.:2 Chinese chronicles first mention the Tai peoples in the 6th century BCE. While there are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K. Wyatt, a historian of Thailand, argued that their ancestors which at the present inhabit Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, India, and China came from the Điện Biên Phủ area between the 5th and the 8th century.:6 Thai people began migrating into present-day Thailand around the 11th century, which Mon and Khmer people occupied at the time. Thus Thai culture was influenced by Indian, Mon, and Khmer cultures.
According to French historian George Cœdès, "The Thai first enter history of Farther India in the eleventh century with the mention of Syam slaves or prisoners of war in Champa epigraphy, and "in the twelfth century, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat" where "a group of warriors" are described as Syam.:190–191, 194–195
After the decline of the Khmer Empire and Kingdom of Pagan in the early-13th century, various states thrived in their place. The domains of Tai people existed from the northeast of present-day India to the north of present-day Laos and to the Malay peninsula.:38–9 During the 13th century, Tai people had already settled in the core land of Dvaravati and Lavo Kingdom to Nakhon Si Thammarat in the south. There are, however, no records detailing the arrival of the Tais.:50–1 Around 1240, Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao, a local Tai ruler, rallied the people to rebel against the Khmer. He later crowned himself the first king of Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238.:52–3 Mainstream Thai historians count Sukhothai as the first kingdom of Thai people. Sukhothai expanded furthest during the reign of Ram Khamhaeng (r. 1279–1298). However, it was mostly a network of local lords who swore fealty to Sukhothai, not directly controlled by it.:55–6 He is believed have invented Thai script and Thai ceramics were an important export in his era. Sukhothai embraced Theravada Buddhism in the reign of Maha Thammaracha I (1347–1368).
To the north, Mangrai, who descended from a local ruler lineage of Ngoenyang, founded the kingdom of Lan Na in 1292, centered in Chiang Mai. He unified the surrounding area and his dynasty would rule the kingdom continuously for the next two centuries. He also created a network of states through political alliances to the east and north of the Mekong.:8 While in the port in Lower Chao Phraya Basin, a federation around Phetchaburi, Suphan Buri, Lopburi, and the Ayutthaya area was created in the 11th century.:8
According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, the Ayutthaya Kingdom rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi with Uthong as its first king. Ayutthaya was a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the King of Ayutthaya under the mandala system.:355 Its initial expansion was through conquest and political marriage. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya invaded the Khmer Empire three times and sacked its capital Angkor.:26 Ayutthaya then became a regional power in place of the Khmer. Constant interference of Sukhothai effectively made it a vassal state of Ayutthaya and it was finally incorporated into the kingdom. Borommatrailokkanat brought about bureaucratic reforms which lasted into the 20th century and created a system of social hierarchy called sakdina, where male commoners were conscripted as corvée labourers for six months a year.:107 Ayutthaya was interested in the Malay peninsula, but failed to conquer the Malacca Sultanate which was supported by the Chinese Ming Dynasty.:11, 13
European contact and trade started in the early-16th century, with the envoy of Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511, followed by the French, Dutch, and English. Rivalry for supremacy over Chiang Mai and the Mon people pitted Ayutthaya against the Burmese Kingdom. Several wars with its ruling dynasty Taungoo Dynasty starting in the 1540s in the reign of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung were ultimately ended with the capture of the capital in 1570.:146–7 Then was a brief period of vassalage to Burma until Naresuan proclaimed independence in 1584.:11
Ayutthaya then sought to improve relations with European powers for many successive reigns. The kingdom especially prospered during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–1688) when some European travelers regarded Ayutthaya as an Asian great power, alongside China and India.:ix However, growing French influence later in his reign was met with nationalist sentiment and led eventually to the Siamese revolution of 1688.:185–6 However, overall relations remained stable, with French missionaries still active in preaching Christianity.:186
After that, there was a period of relative peace but the kingdom's influence gradually waned, partly due to bloody struggles over each succession, until the capital Ayutthaya was destroyed in 1767 by Burma's new Alaungpaya dynasty. Anarchy followed the destruction of the former capital, with its territories split into five different factions, each controlled by a warlord. Taksin (r. 1767–1782) rose to power and proclaimed Thonburi as temporary capital in the same year. He also quickly subdued the other warlords. His forces engaged in wars with Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, which successfully drove the Burmese out of Lan Na in 1775,:225 captured Vientiane in 1778:227–8 and tried to install a pro-Thai king in Cambodia in the 1770s. In his final years there was a coup, caused supposedly by his "insanity", and eventually Taksin and his sons were executed by longtime companion General Chao Phraya Chakri (the future Rama I). He was the first king of the ruling Chakri Dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom on 6 April 1782.
Modernization and centralization
Under Rama I (1782–1809), Rattanakosin successfully defended against Burmese attacks and put an end to Burmese incursions. He also created suzerainty over large portions of Laos and Cambodia. In 1821, Briton John Crawfurd was sent to negotiate a new trade agreement with Siam — the first sign of an issue which was to dominate 19th century Siamese politics. Bangkok signed the Burney Treaty in 1826, after the British victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War.:281 Anouvong of Vientiane, who misunderstood that Britain was about to attack Bangkok, started the Lao rebellion in 1826 and was defeated.:283–5 Vientiane was destroyed and a large number of Lao people was relocated to Khorat Plateau as a result.:285–6 Bangkok also waged several wars with Vietnam, where Bangkok successfully regained influence over Cambodia.:290–2
From the late-19th century, Siam tried to rule the ethnic groups in the realm as colonies.:308 In the reign of Mongkut (1851–1868), who recognized the threat of Western powers, his court contacted the British government directly to defuse tensions.:311 A British mission led by Sir John Bowring, Governor of Hong Kong, led to the signing of the Bowring Treaty, the first of many unequal treaties with Western countries. This, however, brought trade and economic development in Bangkok. The unexpected death of Mongkut from malaria led to the reign of Prince Chulalongkorn, with Somdet Chaophraya Sri Suriwongse (Chuang Bunnag) acting as regent.:327
Chulalongkorn (r. 1868–1910) initiated centralization, set up a privy council, and abolished slavery and the corvée system. The Front Palace crisis of 1874 stalled attempts at reform.:331–3 In the 1870s and 1880s, he incorporated the protectorate up north into the kingdom proper, which later expanded to the protectorate in the northeast and the south.:334–5 He established twelve krom in 1888, which were equivalent to present-day ministries.:347 The crisis of 1893 erupted, caused by French demands for Lao territory east of Mekong.:350–3 Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation not to have been colonized by a Western power, in part because Britain and France agreed in 1896 to make the Chao Phraya valley a buffer state. Not until the 20th century could Siam renegotiate every unequal treaty dating from the Bowring Treaty, including extraterritoriality, but it had to pay with many territorial exchanges. The advent of the monthon system marked the creation of the modern Thai nation-state.:362–3 In 1905, there were rebellions in the ancient Pattani area, Ubon Ratchathani, and Phrae in opposition to an attempt to blunt the power of local lords.:371–3
The Palace Revolt of 1912 was a failed attempt by Western-educated military officers to overthrow the absolute monarchy.:397 Vajiravudh (r. 1910–1925) responded by propaganda for the entirety of his reign.:402 He promoted the idea of the Thai nation.:404 In 1917, Siam joined World War I on the side of the Allies as there were concerns that the Allies might punish neutral countries and refuse to amend past unequal treaties.:407 In the aftermath Siam joined the Paris Peace Conference, and gained freedom of taxation and the revocation of extraterritoriality.:408
Constitutional monarchy, World War II, and Cold War
A bloodless revolution took place in 1932, carried out by the Khana Ratsadon group of military and civilian officials, resulting in a transition of power, when Prajadhipok was forced to grant the people of Siam their first constitution, thereby ending centuries of absolute monarchy. The combined results of economic hardships brought on by the Great Depression, sharply falling rice prices, and a significant reduction in public spending caused discontent among aristocrats.:25 In 1933, A counter-revolutionary rebellion occurred which aimed to reinstate absolute monarchy, but failed.:446–8 Prajadhipok's conflict with the government eventually led to abdication. The government selected Ananda Mahidol, who was studying in Switzerland, to be the new king.:448–9
Later that decade, the military wing of Khana Ratsadon came to dominate Siamese politics. Plaek Phibunsongkhram who became premier in 1938, started political oppression and took an openly anti-royalist stance.:457 His government adopted nationalism and Westernization, anti-Chinese and anti-French policies.:28 In 1940, there was a decree changing the name of the country from "Siam" to "Thailand". In 1941, Thailand was in a brief conflict with Vichy France resulting in Thailand gaining Lao and Cambodian territories.:462 On 8 December 1941, the Empire of Japan launched an invasion of Thailand, and fighting broke out shortly before Phibun ordered an armistice. Japan was granted free passage, and on 21 December Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol, wherein Tokyo agreed to help Thailand regain territories lost to the British and French. The Thai government declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom.:465 The Free Thai Movement was launched both in Thailand and abroad to oppose the government and Japanese occupation.:465–6 After the war ended in 1945, Thailand signed formal agreements to end the state of war with the Allies. Most Allied powers had not recognized Thailand's declaration of war.
In June 1946, young King Ananda was found dead under mysterious circumstances. His younger brother Bhumibol Adulyadej ascended to the throne. Thailand joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) to become an active ally of the United States in 1954.:493 Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat launched a coup in 1957, which removed Khana Ratsadon from politics. His rule (premiership 1959–1963) was autocratic; he built his legitimacy around the god-like status of the monarch and by channeling the government's loyalty to the king.:511 His government improved the country's infrastructure and education.:514 After the US joined the Vietnam War in 1961, there was a secret agreement wherein the US promised to protect Thailand.:523
The period brought about increasing modernisation and Westernisation of Thai society. Rapid urbanization occurred when the rural populace sought work in growing cities. Rural farmers gained class consciousness and were sympathetic to the Communist Party of Thailand.:528 Economic development and education enabled the rise of a middle class in Bangkok and other cities.:534 In October 1971, there was a large demonstration against the dictatorship of Thanom Kittikachorn (premiership 1963–1973), which led to civilian casualties.:541–3 Bhumibol installed Sanya Dharmasakti (premiership 1973–1975) to replace him, making it the first time that the king intervened in Thai politics directly since 1932. The aftermath of the event marked a short-lived parliamentary democracy, often called the "era when democracy blossomed." (ยุคประชาธิปไตยเบ่งบาน)
Constant unrest and instability, as well as fear of a communist takeover after the fall of Saigon, made some ultra-right groups brand leftist students as communists.:548 This culminated in the Thammasat University massacre in October 1976.:548–9 A coup d'état on that day brought Thailand a new ultra-right government, which cracked down on media outlets, officials, and intellectuals, and fueled the communist insurgency. Another coup the following year installed a more moderate government, which offered amnesty to communist fighters in 1978. The communists abandoned the insurgency by 1983. Thailand had its first elected prime minister in 1988.
Suchinda Kraprayoon, who was the coup leader in 1991 and said he would not seek to become prime minister, was nominated as one by the majority coalition government after the 1992 general election. This caused a popular demonstration in Bangkok, which ended with a military crackdown. Bhumibol intervened in the event and Suchinda then resigned.
The 1997 Asian financial crisis originated in Thailand and ended the country's 40 years of uninterrupted economic growth.:3 Chuan Leekpai's government took an IMF loan with unpopular provisions.:576 The populist Thai Rak Thai party, led by prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra, governed from 2001 until 2006. His policies were successful in reducing rural poverty and initiated universal healthcare in the country. A South Thailand insurgency escalated starting from 2004. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami hit the country, mostly in the south. Massive protests against Thaksin led by the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) started in his second term as prime minister and his tenure ended with a coup d'état in 2006. The junta installed a military government which lasted a year.
In 2007, a civilian government led by the Thaksin-allied People's Power Party (PPP) was elected. Another protest led by PAD ended with the dissolution of PPP, and the Democrat Party led a coalition government in its place. The pro-Thaksin United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) protested both in 2009 and in 2010.
After the general election of 2011, the populist Pheu Thai Party won a majority and Yingluck Shinawatra, Thaksin's younger sister, became prime minister. The People's Democratic Reform Committee organized another anti-Shinawatra protest[c] after the ruling party proposed an amnesty bill which would benefit Thaksin. Yingluck dissolved parliament and a general election was scheduled, but was invalidated by the Constitution Court. The crisis ended with another coup d'état in 2014, the second coup in a decade.[d] The National Council for Peace and Order, a military junta led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, has led the country since. Civil and political rights were restricted, and the country saw a surge in lèse-majesté cases. Political opponents and dissenters were sent to "attitude adjustment" camps. Bhumibol, the longest-reigning Thai king, died in 2016, and his son Vajiralongkorn ascended to the throne. The referendum and adoption of Thailand's current constitution happened under the junta's rule.[e] In 2019, the junta agreed to schedule a general election in March. Prayut continued his premiership with the support of Palang Pracharath Party-coalition in the House and junta-appointed Senate, amid allegations of election fraud.
Politics and government
Prior to 1932, Thai kings were absolute monarchs. During Sukhothai Kingdom, the king was seen as a Dharmaraja or 'king who rules in accordance with Dharma'. The system of government was a network of tributaries ruled by local lords. Modern absolute monarchy and statehood was established by Chulalongkorn when he transformed the decentralized protectorate system into a unitary state. On 24 June 1932, Khana Ratsadon (People's Party) carried out a bloodless revolution which marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy.
Thailand has had 20 constitutions and charters since 1932, including the latest and current 2017 Constitution. Throughout this time, the form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy. Thailand has had the fourth-most coups in the world. "Uniformed or ex-military men have led Thailand for 55 of the 83 years" between 1932 and 2009. Since May 2014, Thailand has been ruled by a military junta, the National Council for Peace and Order.
The politics of Thailand is conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby a hereditary monarch is head of state. The current King of Thailand is Vajiralongkorn (or Rama X), who has reigned since October 2016. The powers of the king are limited by the constitution and he is primarily a symbolic figurehead. The monarch is head of the armed forces and is required to be Buddhist as well as the Defender of the Faith. He has the power to appoint his heirs, the power to grant pardons, and the royal assent. The king is aided in his duties by the Privy Council of Thailand. However, the monarch still occasionally intervenes in Thai politics, as all constitutions pave the way for customary royal rulings. The monarchy is widely revered and lèse majesté is a severe crime in Thailand.
Government is separated into three branches:
- The legislative branch: the traditional National Assembly was nullified by the current junta. It was replaced by a rubber stamp, unicameral National Legislative Assembly. In the current 2017 Constitution the new National Assembly, which is scheduled to meet after the 2019 general election, will be composed of the Senate, the 150-member fully appointed upper house, and House of Representatives, the 350-member lower house.
- The executive branch consisting of the Prime Minister of Thailand who was elected by the National Assembly and other cabinet members of up to 35 people. The cabinet was appointed by the king on the advice of the prime minister. The prime minister is the head of government.
- The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the executive and the legislative branches, although judicial rulings are suspected of being based on political considerations rather than on existing law.
Military and bureaucratic aristocrats fully controlled political parties between 1946 and 1980s.:16 Most parties in Thailand are short-lived.:246 Between 1992 and 2006, Thailand had a two-party system.:245 Since 2000, two political parties dominated Thai general elections: one was the Pheu Thai Party (which was a successor of People's Power Party and the Thai Rak Thai Party), and the other was the Democrat Party. The political parties which support Thaksin Shinawatra won the most representatives every general election since 2001. Later constitutions created a multi-party system where a single party cannot gain a majority in the house.
Thailand's kings are protected by lèse-majesté laws which allow critics to be jailed for three to fifteen years. After the 2014 Thai coup d'état, Thailand had the highest number of lèse-majesté prisoners in the nation's history. In 2017, the military court in Thailand sentenced a man to 35 years in prison for violating the country's lèse-majesté law. Thailand has been rated not free on the Freedom House Index since 2014. Thai activist and magazine editor Somyot Prueksakasemsuk, who was sentenced to eleven years' imprisonment for lèse-majesté in 2013, is a designated prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International.
Thailand comprises several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is the mountainous area of the Thai highlands, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon in the Thanon Thong Chai Range at 2,565 metres (8,415 ft) elevation. The northeast, Isan, consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong River. The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand.
Southern Thailand consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula. Politically, there are six geographical regions which differ from the others in population, basic resources, natural features, and level of social and economic development. The diversity of the regions is the most pronounced attribute of Thailand's physical setting.
The Chao Phraya and the Mekong River are the indispensable water courses of rural Thailand. Industrial scale production of crops use both rivers and their tributaries. The Gulf of Thailand covers 320,000 square kilometres (124,000 sq mi) and is fed by the Chao Phraya, Mae Klong, Bang Pakong, and Tapi Rivers. It contributes to the tourism sector owing to its clear shallow waters along the coasts in the southern region and the Kra Isthmus. The eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand is an industrial centre of Thailand with the kingdom's premier deepwater port in Sattahip and its busiest commercial port, Laem Chabang.
The Andaman Sea is a precious natural resource as it hosts popular and luxurious resorts. Phuket, Krabi, Ranong, Phang Nga and Trang, and their islands, all lay along the coasts of the Andaman Sea and, despite the 2004 tsunami, they remain a tourist magnet.
Plans have resurfaced for a canal which would connect the Andaman Sea to the Gulf of Thailand, analogous to the Suez and the Panama Canals. The idea has been greeted positively by Thai politicians as it would cut fees charged by the Ports of Singapore, improve ties with China and India, lower shipping times, eliminate pirate attacks in the Strait of Malacca, and support the Thai government's policy of being the logistical hub for Southeast Asia. The canal, it is claimed, would improve economic conditions in the south of Thailand, which relies heavily on tourism income, and it would also change the structure of the Thai economy by making it an Asian logistical hub. The canal would be a major engineering project and has an estimated cost of US$20–30 billion.
Thailand's climate is influenced by monsoon winds that have a seasonal character (the southwest and northeast monsoon).:2 The southwest monsoon, which starts from May until October is characterized by movement of warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean to Thailand, causing abundant rain over most of the country.:2 The northeast monsoon, starting from October until February brings cold and dry air from China over most of Thailand.:2 In southern Thailand, the northeast monsoon brings mild weather and abundant rainfall on the eastern coast of that region.:2 Most of Thailand has a "tropical wet and dry or savanna climate" type (Köppen's Tropical savanna climate). The majority of the south as well as the eastern tip of the east have a tropical monsoon climate. Parts of the south also have a tropical rainforest climate
Thailand is divided into three seasons.:2 The first is the rainy or southwest monsoon season (mid–May to mid–October) which prevails over most of the country.:2 This season is characterized by abundant rain with August and September being the wettest period of the year.:2 This can occasionally lead to floods.:4 In addition to rainfall caused by the southwest monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and tropical cyclones also contribute to producing heavy rainfall during the rainy season.:2 Nonetheless, dry spells commonly occur for 1 to 2 weeks from June to early July.:4 This is due to the northward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to southern China.:4 Winter or the northeast monsoon starts from mid–October until mid–February.:2 Most of Thailand experiences dry weather during this season with mild temperatures.:2:4 The exception is the southern parts of Thailand where it receives abundant rainfall, particularly during October to November.:2 Summer or the pre–monsoon season runs from mid–February until mid–May and is characterized by warmer weather.:3
Due to its inland nature and latitude, the north, northeast, central and eastern parts of Thailand experience a long period of warm weather.:3 During the hottest time of the year (March to May), temperatures usually reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) or more with the exception of coastal areas where sea breezes moderate afternoon temperatures.:3 In contrast, outbreaks of cold air from China can bring colder temperatures; in some cases (particularly the north and northeast) close to or below 0 °C (32 °F).:3 Southern Thailand is characterized by mild weather year-round with less diurnal and seasonal variations in temperatures due to maritime influences.:3
Most of the country receives a mean annual rainfall of 1,200 to 1,600 mm (47 to 63 in).:4 However, certain areas on the windward sides of mountains such as Ranong province in the west coast of southern Thailand and eastern parts of Trat Province receive more than 4,500 mm (180 in) of rainfall per year.:4 The driest areas are on the leeward side in the central valleys and northernmost portion of south Thailand where mean annual rainfall is less than 1,200 mm (47 in).:4 Most of Thailand (north, northeast, central and east) is characterized by dry weather during the northeast monsoon and abundant rainfall during the southwest monsoon.:4 In the southern parts of Thailand, abundant rainfall occurs in both the northeast and southwest monsoon seasons with a peak in September for the western coast and a peak in November–January on the eastern coast.:4
Thailand has a mediocre but improving performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 91 out of 180 countries in 2016. This is also a mediocre rank in the Asia Pacific region specifically, but ahead of countries like Indonesia and China. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in implementing the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. The environmental areas where Thailand performs worst (i.e., highest ranking) are air quality (167), environmental effects of the agricultural industry (106), and the climate and energy sector (93), the later mainly because of a high CO2 emission per KWh produced. Thailand performs best (i.e., lowest ranking) in water resource management (66), with some major improvements expected for the future, and sanitation (68).
The elephant is Thailand's national symbol. Although there were 100,000 domesticated elephants in Thailand in 1850, the population of elephants has dropped to an estimated 2,000. Poachers have long hunted elephants for ivory and hides, and now increasingly for meat. Young elephants are often captured for use in tourist attractions or as work animals, although their use has declined since the government banned logging in 1989. There are now more elephants in captivity than in the wild, and environmental activists claim that elephants in captivity are often mistreated.
Poaching of protected species remains a major problem. Hunters have decimated the populations of tigers, leopards, and other large cats for their pelts. Many animals (including tigers, bears, crocodiles, and king cobras) are farmed or hunted for their meat, which is considered a delicacy, and for their supposed medicinal properties. Although such trade is illegal, the well-known Bangkok market Chatuchak is still known for the sale of endangered species.
The practice of keeping wild animals as pets threatens several species. Baby animals are typically captured and sold, which often requires killing the mother. Once in captivity and out of their natural habitat, many pets die or fail to reproduce. Affected populations include the Asiatic black bear, Malayan sun bear, white-handed lar, pileated gibbon, and binturong.
Thailand is divided into 76 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which are gathered into five groups of provinces by location. There are also two specially governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya. Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a province.
Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts (tambons). As of 2017[update] there were 878 districts (อำเภอ, amphoe) and the 50 districts of Bangkok (เขต, khet), which is further divided into 7,255 subdistricts (ตำบล, tambon) in the 76 provinces or Bangkok's subdistricts (แขวง, khwaeng). Some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok are also referred to as Greater Bangkok (ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). These provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon. The name of each province's capital city (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that of the province. For example, the capital of Chiang Mai Province (Changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai.
Thai provinces are administrated by regions. The regions that Thailand uses to divide the provinces is the four-region division system. It divides the country into the four regions: Northern Thailand, Northeastern Thailand, Central Thailand and Southern Thailand. Each region has its own different historical background, culture, language and people.
In contrast to the administrative divisions of the Provinces of Thailand, Thailand is a Unitary state, the provincial Governors, district chiefs, and district clerks are appointed by the central government. The regions themselves do not have an administrative character, but are used for geographical, statistical, geological, meteorological or touristic purposes.
Thailand controlled the Malay Peninsula as far south as Malacca in the 15th century and held much of the peninsula, including Temasek (Singapore), some of the Andaman Islands, and a colony on Java, but eventually contracted when the British used force to guarantee their suzerainty over the sultanate.
Mostly the northern states of the Malay Sultanate presented annual gifts to the Thai king in the form of a golden flower—a gesture of tribute and an acknowledgement of vassalage. The British intervened in the Malay State and with the Anglo-Siamese Treaty tried to build a railway from the south to Bangkok. Thailand relinquished sovereignty over what are now the northern Malay provinces of Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu to the British. Satun and Pattani Provinces were given to Thailand.
The Malay peninsular provinces were occupied by the Japanese during World War II, and infiltrated by the Malayan Communist Party (CPM) from 1942 to 2008, when they sued for peace with the Malaysian and Thai governments after the CPM lost its support from Vietnam and China subsequent to the Cultural Revolution. Recent insurgent uprisings may be a continuation of separatist fighting which started after World War II with Sukarno's support for the PULO. Most victims since the uprisings have been Buddhist and Muslim bystanders.
The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Thailand participates fully in international and regional organisations. It is a major non-NATO ally and Priority Watch List Special 301 Report of the United States. The country remains an active member of ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Thailand has developed increasingly close ties with other ASEAN members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam, whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings. Regional co-operation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In 2003, Thailand served as APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) host. Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, currently serves as Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). In 2005 Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.
In recent years, Thailand has taken an increasingly active role on the international stage. When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, Thailand, for the first time in its history, contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort. Its troops remain there today as part of a UN peacekeeping force. As part of its effort to increase international ties, Thailand has reached out to such regional organisations as the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Thailand has contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Thaksin initiated negotiations for several free trade agreements with China, Australia, Bahrain, India, and the US. The latter especially was criticised, with claims that uncompetitive Thai industries could be wiped out.
Thaksin also announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Thaksin sought to position Thailand as a regional leader, initiating various development projects in poorer neighbouring countries like Laos. More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship.
Abhisit appointed Peoples Alliance for Democracy leader Kasit Piromya as foreign minister. In April 2009, fighting broke out between Thai and Cambodian troops on territory immediately adjacent to the 900-year-old ruins of Cambodia's Preah Vihear Hindu temple near the border. The Cambodian government claimed its army had killed at least four Thais and captured 10 more, although the Thai government denied that any Thai soldiers were killed or injured. Two Cambodian and three Thai soldiers were killed. Both armies blamed the other for firing first and denied entering the other's territory.
The Royal Thai Armed Forces (กองทัพไทย; RTGS: Kong Thap Thai) constitute the military of the Kingdom of Thailand. It consists of the Royal Thai Army (กองทัพบกไทย), the Royal Thai Navy (กองทัพเรือไทย), and the Royal Thai Air Force (กองทัพอากาศไทย). It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.
The Thai Armed Forces have a combined manpower of 306,000 active duty personnel and another 245,000 active reserve personnel. The head of the Thai Armed Forces (จอมทัพไทย, Chom Thap Thai) is the king, although this position is only nominal. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand, which is headed by the Minister of Defence (a member of the cabinet of Thailand) and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand. In 2011, Thailand's known military expenditure totalled approximately US$5.1 billion. Thailand ranked 16th worldwide in the Military Strength Index based on the Credit Suisse report in September 2015.
According to the constitution, serving in the armed forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. However, only males over the age of 21, who have not gone through reserve training of the Territorial Defence Student, are given the option of volunteering for the armed forces, or participating in the random draft. The candidates are subjected to varying lengths of training, from six months to two years of full-time service, depending on their education, whether they have partially completed the reserve training course, and whether they volunteered prior to the draft date (usually 1 April every year).
Candidates with a recognised bachelor's degree serve one year of full-time service if they are conscripted, or six months if they volunteer with the military officer at their district office (สัสดี, satsadi). Likewise, the training length is also reduced for those who have partially completed the three-year reserve training course of the Territorial Defence Students (ร.ด., ro do). A person who completed one year out of three will only have to serve full-time for one year. Those who completed two years of reserve training will only have to do six months of full-time training, while those who complete three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely.
Royal Thai Armed Forces Day is celebrated on 18 January, commemorating the victory of Naresuan of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in battle against the crown prince of the Toungoo dynasty in 1593.
In 2014 the literacy rate was 93.5%. Education is provided by a well-organized school system of kindergartens, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet with public establishments. Education is compulsory up to and including age 14, with the government providing free education through to age 17.
Teaching relies heavily on rote learning rather than on student-centred methodology. The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatility. Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, Thai education has seen its greatest progress in the years since 2001. Most of the present generation of students are computer literate. Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia.
Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardised national and international tests.   This is likely due to unequal allocation of educational resources, weak teacher training, poverty, and low Thai language skill, the language of the tests.  
Extensive nationwide IQ tests were administered to 72,780 Thai students from December 2010 to January 2011. The average IQ was found to be 98.59, which is higher than previous studies have found. IQ levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of 88.07 found in the southern region of Narathiwat Province and the highest average of 108.91 reported in Nonthaburi Province. The Ministry of Public Health blames the discrepancies on iodine deficiency and steps are being taken to require that iodine be added to table salt, a practice common in many Western countries.
In 2013, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27,231 schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet.[dead link]
Science and technology
The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and its application in the Thai economy.
The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) is a Thai synchrotron light source for physics, chemistry, material science, and life sciences. It is at the Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), in Nakhon Ratchasima, about 300 kilometres (190 miles) northeast of Bangkok. The institute, financed by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), houses the only large-scale synchrotron in Southeast Asia. It was originally built as the SORTEC synchrotron in Japan and later moved to Thailand and modified for 1.2 GeV operation. It provides users with regularly scheduled light.
In Bangkok, there are very many free public Wi-Fi Internet hotspots. The Internet in Thailand includes 10Gbit/s high speed fibre-optic lines that can be leased and ISPs that provide residential Internet services.
The Internet is censored by the Thai government, making some sites unreachable. The organisations responsible are the Royal Thai Police, the National Broadcasting and Telecommunication Commission (NBTC), and the Ministry of Digital Economy and Society (MDES).
|Nominal GDP||฿14.53 trillion (2016)|||
|GDP growth||3.9% (2017)|||
|Employment-to-population ratio||68.0% (2017)||:29|
|Total public debt||฿6.37 trillion (Dec. 2017)|||
|Net household worth||฿20.34 trillion (2010)||:2|
Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised country. Thailand had a 2017 GDP of US$1.236 trillion (on a purchasing power parity basis). Thailand is the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth spread in Southeast Asia as it is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia.
Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbouring developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. In the third quarter of 2014, the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0.84% according to Thailand's National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB).
Recent economic history
Thailand experienced the world's highest economic growth rate from 1985 to 1996 – averaging 12.4% annually. In 1997 increased pressure on the baht, a year in which the economy contracted by 1.9%, led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration to float the currency. Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the economic crisis. The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from 1978 to 1997. The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.8% that year, triggering the Asian financial crisis.
Thailand's economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2–4.4% in 2000, thanks largely to strong exports. Growth (2.2%) was dampened by the softening of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years owing to strong growth in Asia, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports, and increased domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Growth in 2002, 2003, and 2004 was 5–7% annually.
Growth in 2005, 2006, and 2007 hovered around 4–5%. Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March 2008 the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark. While Thaksinomics has received criticism, official economic data reveals that between 2001 and 2011, Isan's GDP per capita more than doubled to US$1,475, while, over the same period, GDP in the Bangkok area increased from US$7,900 to nearly US$13,000.
With the instability surrounding major 2010 protests, the GDP growth of Thailand settled at around 4–5%, from highs of 5–7% under the previous civilian administration. Political uncertainty was identified as the primary cause of a decline in investor and consumer confidence. The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0.1% GDP growth in 2011, to 5.5% in 2012 and then 7.5% in 2013, due to the monetary policy of the Bank of Thailand, as well as a package of fiscal stimulus measures introduced by the former Yingluck Shinawatra government.
Following the Thai military coup of 22 May 2014, the AFP global news agency published an article that claimed that the nation was on the verge of recession. The article focused on the departure of nearly 180,000 Cambodians from Thailand due to fears of an immigration clampdown, but concluded with information on the Thai economy's contraction of 2.1% quarter-on-quarter, from January to the end of March 2014.
Income, poverty and wealth
Thais have median wealth per one adult person of $1,469 in 2016,:98 increasing from $605 in 2010.:34 In 2016, Thailand was ranked 87th in Human Development Index, and 70th in the inequality-adjusted HDI.
In 2017, Thailand's median household income was ฿26,946 per month.:1 Top quintile households had a 45.0% share of all income, while bottom quintile households had 7.1%.:4 There were 26.9 million persons who had the bottom 40% of income earning less than ฿5,344 per person per month.:5 During 2013–2014 Thai political crisis, a survey found that anti-government PDRC mostly (32%) had a monthly income of more than ฿50,000, while pro-government UDD mostly (27%) had between ฿10,000 and ฿20,000.:7
In 2014, Credit Suisse reported that Thailand was the world's third most unequal country, behind Russia and India. Top 10% richest held 79% of the country's asset. Top 1% richest held 58% worth of the economy. Thai 50 richest families had a total net worth accounting to 30% of GDP.
In 2016, 5.81 million people lived in poverty, or 11.6 million people (17.2% of population) if "near poor" is included.:1 Proportion of the poor relative to total population in each region was 12.96% in the Northeast, 12.35% in the South, and 9.83% in the North.:2 In 2017, there were 14 million people who applied for social welfare (yearly income of less than ฿100,000 was required). At the end of 2017, Thailand's total household debt was ฿11.76 trillion.:5 In 2010, 3% of all household were bankrupt.:5 In 2016, there were estimated 30,000 homeless persons in the country.
Exports and manufacturing
The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP). Thailand exports over US$105 billion worth of goods and services annually. Major exports include cars, computers, electrical appliances, rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, and jewellery.
Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer components, and vehicles. Thailand's recovery from the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis depended mainly on exports, among various other factors. As of 2012[update], the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 9th largest in the world. The Thailand industry has an annual output of near 1.5 million vehicles, mostly commercial vehicles.
Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by foreign producers, mainly Japanese and South Korean. The Thai car industry takes advantage of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) to find a market for many of its products. Eight manufacturers, five Japanese, two US, and Tata of India, produce pick-up trucks in Thailand. As of 2012, Thailand was the second largest consumer of pick-up trucks in the world, after the US. In 2014, pick-ups accounted for 42% of all new vehicle sales in Thailand.
The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) operates all of Thailand's national rail lines. Bangkok Railway Station (Hua Lamphong Station) is the main terminus of all routes. Phahonyothin and ICD Lat Krabang are the main freight terminals.
As of 2017[update] SRT had 4,507 km (2,801 mi) of track, all of it meter gauge except the Airport Link. Nearly all is single-track (4,097 km), although some important sections around Bangkok are double (303 km or 188 mi) or triple-tracked (107 km or 66 mi) and there are plans to extend this. By comparison, Thailand has 390,000 km (242,335 miles) of highways.
Rail transport in Bangkok includes long-distance services, and some daily commuter trains running from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour, but passenger numbers have remained low. There are also three rapid transit rail systems in the capital.
As of 2012, Thailand had 103 airports with 63 paved runways, in addition to 6 heliports. The busiest airport in the county is Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport.
Thailand has 390,000 km (242,335 miles) of highways. According to the BBC Thailand has 462,133 roads and many multi-lane highways. As of 2017[update] Thailand has 37 million registered vehicles, 20 million of them motorbikes.
There are 4,125 public vans operating on 114 routes from Bangkok to the provinces alone. They are classed as Category 2 public transport vehicles (routes within 300 kilometres). Until 2016, most operated from a Bangkok terminus at Victory Monument. They are being moved from there to the Department of Land Transport's three Bangkok bus terminals.
Tourism makes up about 6% of the country's economy. Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia in 2013, according to the World Tourism Organisation. Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percent (1 trillion baht) (2013) to 16 percent. When including the indirect effects of tourism, it is said to account for 20.2 percent (2.4 trillion baht) of Thailand's GDP.:1
The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) uses the slogan "Amazing Thailand" to promote Thailand internationally. In 2015, this was supplemented by a "Discover Thainess" campaign.
Asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok and the historical, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity. Western tourists not only visit Bangkok and surroundings, but in addition many travel to the southern beaches and islands. The north is the chief destination for trekking and adventure travel with its diverse ethnic minority groups and forested mountains. The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan in the northeast. To accommodate foreign visitors, the Thai government established a separate tourism police with offices in the major tourist areas and its own central emergency telephone number.
Thailand's attractions include diving, sandy beaches, hundreds of tropical islands, nightlife, archaeological sites, museums, hill tribes, flora and bird life, palaces, Buddhist temples and several World Heritage sites. Many tourists follow courses during their stay in Thailand. Popular are classes in Thai cooking, Buddhism and traditional Thai massage. Thai national festivals range from Thai New Year Songkran to Loy Krathong. Many localities in Thailand also have their own festivals. Among the best-known are the "Elephant Round-up" in Surin, the "Rocket Festival" in Yasothon, Suwannaphum District, Phanom Phrai District both district are located in Roi Et Province and the "Phi Ta Khon" festival in Dan Sai. Thai cuisine has become famous worldwide with its enthusiastic use of fresh herbs and spices.
Bangkok shopping malls offer a variety of international and local brands. Towards the north of the city, and easily reached by skytrain or underground, is the Chatuchak Weekend Market. It is possibly the largest market in the world, selling everything from household items to live, and sometimes endangered, animals. The "Pratunam Market" specialises in fabrics and clothing. The night markets in the Silom area and on Khaosan Road are mainly tourist-oriented, selling items such as T-shirts, handicrafts, counterfeit watches and sunglasses. In the vicinity of Bangkok one can find several floating markets such as the one in Damnoen Saduak. The "Sunday Evening Walking Street Market", held on Rachadamnoen Road inside the old city, is a shopping highlight of a visit to Chiang Mai up in northern Thailand. It attracts many locals as well as foreigners. The "Night Bazaar" is Chiang Mai's more tourist-oriented market, sprawling over several city blocks just east of the old city walls towards the river.
Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a de facto part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as exotic to attract tourists. Cultural milieu combined with poverty and the lure of money have caused prostitution and sex tourism in particular to flourish in Thailand. One estimate published in 2003 placed the trade at US$4.3 billion per year or about 3% of the Thai economy. According to research by Chulalongkorn University on the Thai illegal economy, prostitution in Thailand in the period between 1993 and 1995, made up around 2.7% of the GDP. It is believed that at least 10% of tourist dollars are spent on the sex trade.
Thailand is at the forefront of the growing practice of sex-reassignment surgery (SRS). Statistic taken from 2014, illustrated the country's medical tourism industry attracting over 2.5 million visitors per year. In 2017 and 2018 Thailand saw 2.4 million and 2.5 million medical tourists, respectively, with data showing more modern forms of cosmetic surgery growing in popularity. In 1985–1990, only 5% of foreign transsexual patients visited Thailand for sex-reassignment surgery. In more recent years, 2010–2012, more than 90% of the visitors traveled to Thailand for SRS.
Agriculture and Natural Resources
Forty-nine per cent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture. This is down from 70% in 1980. Rice is the most important crop in the country and Thailand had long been the world's leading exporter of rice, until recently falling behind both India and Vietnam. Thailand has the highest percentage of arable land, 27.25%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. About 55% of the arable land area is used for rice production.
Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector. Between 1962 and 1983, the agricultural sector grew by 4.1% per year on average and continued to grow at 2.2% between 1983 and 2007. The relative contribution of agriculture to GDP has declined while exports of goods and services have increased.
Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Thailand is lower than world average. In 2016, Thailand had 1.2 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, a little less than world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In contrast, in 2016, they used 2.5 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use about twice as much biocapacity as Thailand contains. As a result, Thailand is running a biocapacity deficit.
75% of Thailand's electrical generation is powered by natural gas in 2014. Coal-fired power plants produce an additional 20% of electricity, with the remainder coming from biomass, hydro, and biogas.
Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet. After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand.
Thailand has an diverse and robust informal labor sector—in 2012, it was estimated that informal workers comprised 62.6% of the Thai workforce. The Ministry of Labor defines informal workers to be individuals who work in informal economies and do not have employee status under a given country's Labor Protection Act (LPA). The informal sector in Thailand has grown significantly over the past 60 years over the course of Thailand's gradual transition from an agriculture-based economy to becoming more industrialized and service-oriented. Between 1993 and 1995, ten percent of the Thai labor force moved from the agricultural sector to urban and industrial jobs, especially in the manufacturing sector. It is estimated that between 1988 and 1995, the number of factory workers in the country doubled from two to four million, as Thailand's GDP tripled. While the Asian Financial Crisis that followed in 1997 hit the Thai economy hard, the industrial sector continued to expand under widespread deregulation, as Thailand was mandated to adopt a range of structural adjustment reforms upon receiving funding from the IMF and World Bank. These reforms implemented an agenda of increased privatization and trade liberalization in the country, and decreased federal subsidization of public goods and utilities, agricultural price supports, and regulations on fair wages and labor conditions. These changes put further pressure on the agricultural sector, and prompted continued migration from the rural countryside to the growing cities. Many migrant farmers found work in Thailand's growing manufacturing industry, and took jobs in sweatshops and factories with few labor regulations and often exploitative conditions.
Those that could not find formal factory work, including illegal migrants and the families of rural Thai migrants that followed their relatives to the urban centers, turned to the informal sector to provide the extra support needed for survival—under the widespread regulation imposed by the structural adjustment programs, one family member working in a factory or sweatshop made very little. Scholars argue that the economic consequences and social costs of Thailand's labor reforms in the wake of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis fell on individuals and families rather than the state. This can be described as the "externalization of market risk", meaning that as the country's labor market became increasingly deregulated, the burden and responsibility of providing an adequate livelihood shifted from employers and the state to the workers themselves, whose families had to find jobs in the informal sector to make up for the losses and subsidize the wages being made by their relatives in the formal sector. The weight of these economic changes hit migrants and the urban poor especially hard, and the informal sector expanded rapidly as a result.
Today, informal labor in Thailand is typically broken down into three main groups: subcontracted/self employed/home-based workers, service workers (including those that are employed in restaurants, as street vendors, masseuses, taxi drivers, and as domestic workers), and agricultural workers. Not included in these categories are those that work in entertainment, nightlife, and the sex industry. Individuals employed in these facets of the informal labor sector face additional vulnerabilities, including recruitment into circles of sexual exploitation and human trafficking.
In general, education levels are low in the informal sector. A 2012 study found that 64% of informal workers had not completed education beyond primary school. Many informal workers are also migrants, only some of which have legal status in the country. Education and citizenship are two main barriers to entry for those looking to work in formal industries, and enjoy the labor protections and social security benefits that come along with formal employment. Because the informal labor sector is not recognized under the Labor Protection Act (LPA), informal workers are much more vulnerable labor to exploitation and unsafe working conditions than those employed in more formal and federally recognized industries. While some Thai labor laws provide minimal protections to domestic and agricultural workers, they are often weak and difficult to enforce. Furthermore, Thai social security policies fail to protect against the risks many informal workers face, including workplace accidents and compensation as well as unemployment and retirement insurance. Many informal workers are not legally contracted for their employment, and many do not make a living wage. As a result, labor trafficking is common in the region, affecting children and adults, men and women, and migrants and Thai citizens alike.
|Population in Thailand|
Thailand had a population of 69,428,453 as of 2018[update]. Thailand's population is largely rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. About 45.7% of Thailand's population lived in urban areas as of 2010[update], concentrated mostly in and around the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
Thailand's government-sponsored family planning program resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1% in 1960 to around 0.4% today. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the average Thai household size was 3.2 people.
Thai nationals make up the majority of Thailand's population, 95.9% in 2010. The remaining 4.1% of the population are Burmese (2.0%), others 1.3%, and unspecified 0.9%.
According to the Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice,:3 62 ethnic communities are officially recognised in Thailand. Twenty million Central Thai (together with approximately 650,000 Khorat Thai) make up approximately 20,650,000 (34.1 percent) of the nation's population of 60,544,937 at the time of completion of the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data (1997).
The 2011 Thailand Country Report provides population numbers for mountain peoples ('hill tribes') and ethnic communities in the Northeast and is explicit about its main reliance on the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data. Thus, though over 3.288 million people in the Northeast alone could not be categorised, the population and percentages of other ethnic communities circa 1997 are known for all of Thailand and constitute minimum populations. In descending order, the largest (equal to or greater than 400,000) are a) 15,080,000 Lao (24.9 percent) consisting of the Thai Lao (14 million) and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei (400–500,000), Lao Lom (350,000), Lao Wiang/Klang (200,000), Lao Khrang (90,000), Lao Ngaew (30,000), and Lao Ti (10,000; b) six million Khon Muang (9.9 percent, also called Northern Thais); c) 4.5 million Pak Tai (7.5 percent, also called Southern Thais); d) 1.4 million Khmer Leu (2.3 percent, also called Northern Khmer); e) 900,000 Malay (1.5%); f) 500,000 Ngaw (0.8 percent); g) 470,000 Phu Thai (0.8 percent); h) 400,000 Kuy/Kuay (also known as Suay) (0.7 percent), and i) 350,000 Karen (0.6 percent).:7–13 Thai Chinese, those of significant Chinese heritage, are 14% of the population, while Thais with partial Chinese ancestry comprise up to 40% of the population. Thai Malays represent 3% of the population, with the remainder consisting of Mons, Khmers and various "hill tribes". The country's official language is Thai and the primary religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is practised by around 95% of the population.
Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.5 million as of 2009[update], up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in 2000. Some 41,000 Britons and 20,000 Australians live in Thailand.
Largest municipalities in Thailand
Pak Kret City
Hat Yai City
|2||Nonthaburi City||Nonthaburi||255,793||12||Nakhon Si Thammarat City||Nakhon Si Thammarat||104,948|
|3||Pak Kret City||Nonthaburi||189,258||13||Nakhon Sawan City||Nakhon Sawan||84,122|
|4||Hat Yai City||Songkhla||159,627||14||Laem Chabang City||Chonburi||82,960|
|5||Chaophraya Surasak City||Chonburi||132,172||15||Rangsit City||Pathum Thani||81,084|
|6||Nakhon Ratchasima City||Nakhon Ratchasima||131,286||16||Phuket City||Phuket||78,923|
|7||Udon Thani City||Udon Thani||131,192||17||Nakhon Pathom City||Nakhon Pathom||77,651|
|8||Chiang Mai City||Chiang Mai||131,091||18||Ubon Ratchathani City||Ubon Ratchathani||77,306|
|9||Surat Thani City||Surat Thani||130,114||19||Chiang Rai City||Chiang Rai||74,226|
|10||Khon Kaen City||Khon Kaen||120,045||20||Phitsanulok City||Phitsanulok||68,898|
The official language of Thailand is Thai, a Tai–Kadai language closely related to Lao, Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunnan south to the Chinese border. It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet.
Sixty-two languages were recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which employed an ethnolinguistic approach and is available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice.:3 Southern Thai is spoken in the southern provinces, and Northern Thai is spoken in the provinces that were formerly part of the independent kingdom of Lan Na. For the purposes of the national census, which does not recognise all 62 languages recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report, four dialects of Thai exist; these partly coincide with regional designations.
The largest of Thailand's minority languages is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang. In the far south, Kelantan-Pattani Malay is the primary language of Malay Muslims. Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented.
Numerous tribal languages are also spoken, including many Austroasiatic languages such as Mon, Khmer, Viet, Mlabri and Orang Asli; Austronesian languages such as Cham and Moken; Sino-Tibetan languages like Lawa, Akha, and Karen; and other Tai languages such as Tai Yo, Phu Thai, and Saek. Hmong is a member of the Hmong–Mien languages, which is now regarded as a language family of its own.
English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities.
Thailand's prevalent religion is Theravada Buddhism, which is an integral part of Thai identity and culture. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world. According to the 2000 census, 94.6% and 93.58% in 2010 of the country's population self-identified as Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4.29% of the population in 2015.
Islam is concentrated mostly in the country's southernmost provinces: Pattani, Yala, Satun, Narathiwat, and part of Songkhla Chumphon, which are predominantly Malay, most of whom are Sunni Muslims. Christians represented 1.17% (2015) of the population in 2015, with the remaining population consisting of Hindus and Sikhs, who live mostly in the country's cities. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century.
According to the 2015 census, 67,328,562 Thailand residents belonged to the following religious groups:
According to the 2015 census, 67,328,562 Thailand residents by Region belonged to the following religious groups:
|Religion||Bangkok||%||Central Region||%||Northern Region||%||Northeastern Region||%||Southern Region||%|
Health and medical care is overseen by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), along with several other non-ministerial government agencies, with total national expenditures on health amounting to 4.3 percent of GDP in 2009. Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, as well as traffic accidents, are also important public health issues.
The current Minister for Public Health is Prof. Emeritus Piyasakol Sakolsatayadorn, M.D. and the Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Public Health is Jedsada Chokdamrongsuk, M.D. Somsak Chunharas, MD, MPH, was once Deputy Minister for Public Health and is currently a Senior Leadership Fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston.
In December 2018 the interim parliament voted to legalize the use of cannabis for medical reasons. Recreational use remained unlawful. The National Legislative Assembly had 166 votes in favor of the amendment to the Narcotics Bill, while there were no nay votes and 13 abstentions. The vote makes Thailand the first Southeast Asian country to allow the use of medical marijuana.
Thai culture has been shaped by many influences, including Indian, Lao, Burmese, Cambodian, and Chinese.
Its traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand's national religion, Theravada Buddhism, is central to modern Thai identity. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism, animism, as well as ancestor worship. The official calendar in Thailand is based on the Eastern version of the Buddhist Era (BE), which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian (Western) calendar. Thus the year 2015 is 2558 BE in Thailand.
Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalised, populate Thailand. Some of these groups spill over into Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia and have mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences. Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power. Thai Chinese businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.
The traditional Thai greeting, the wai, is generally offered first by the younger of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch face to fingertips, usually coinciding with the spoken words "sawatdi khrap" for male speakers, and "sawatdi kha" for females. The elder may then respond in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the wai first. For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first. When children leave to go to school, they are taught to wai their parents to indicate their respect. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India and Nepal.
As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy. Seniority is paramount in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies. Older siblings have duties to younger ones.
Taboos in Thailand include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the lowest part of the body.
Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour, bitter, and salty. Common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, coriander, galangal, palm sugar, and fish sauce (nam pla). The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice (also known as "hom Mali" rice) which forms a part of almost every meal. Thailand was long[when?] the world's largest exporter of rice, and Thais domestically consume over 100 kg of milled rice per person per year. Over 5,000 varieties of rice from Thailand are preserved in the rice gene bank of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. The king of Thailand is the official patron of IRRI.
Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media. There are some English and numerous Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation. Most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor. Many large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages.
Thailand is the largest newspaper market in Southeast Asia with an estimated circulation of over 13 million copies daily in 2003. Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, the media flourish. For example, according to Thailand's Public Relations Department Media Directory 2003–2004, the nineteen provinces of Isan, Thailand's northeastern region, hosted 116 newspapers along with radio, TV, and cable. Since then, another province, Bueng Kan, was incorporated, totalling twenty provinces. In addition, a military coup on 22 May 2014 led to severe state restrictions on all media and forms of expression.
Units of measurement
Thailand generally uses the metric system, but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures. Years are numbered as B.E. (Buddhist Era) in educational settings, civil service, government, contracts, and newspaper datelines. However, in banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting is the standard practice.
Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย, RTGS: Muai Thai, [muaj tʰaj], lit. "Thai boxing") is a native form of kickboxing and Thailand's signature sport. It incorporates kicks, punches, knees and elbow strikes in a ring with gloves similar to those used in Western boxing and this has led to Thailand gaining medals at the Olympic Games in boxing.
Association football has overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporary Thai society. Thailand national football team has played the AFC Asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in 1972. The country has hosted the Asian Cup twice, in 1972 and in 2007. The 2007 edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. It is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kit. Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying.
Volleyball is rapidly growing as one of the most popular sports. The women's team has often participated in the World Championship, World Cup, and World Grand Prix Asian Championship. They have won the Asian Championship twice and Asian Cup once. By the success of the women's team, the men team has been growing as well.
Takraw (Thai: ตะกร้อ) is a sport native to Thailand, in which the players hit a rattan ball and are only allowed to use their feet, knees, chest, and head to touch the ball. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is similar to volleyball. The players must volley a ball over a net and force it to hit the ground on the opponent's side. It is also a popular sport in other countries in Southeast Asia. A rather similar game but played only with the feet is buka ball.
Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with interest in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker player James Wattana in the 1990s. Other notable players produced by the country include Ratchayothin Yotharuck, Noppon Saengkham and Dechawat Poomjaeng.
Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. Thailand became the first country in the world to host an international 80 welterweight rugby tournament in 2005. The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union (TRU) competition includes several universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University, Mahasarakham University, Kasetsart University, Prince of Songkla University, Thammasat University, Rangsit University, the Thai Police, the Thai Army, the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force. Local sports clubs which also compete in the TRU include the British Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club (Bangkok) and the Royal Bangkok Sports Club.
Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia as it is a popular destination for golf. The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year. The growing popularity of golf, especially among the middle classes and immigrants, is evident as there are more than 200 world-class golf courses nationwide, and some of them are chosen to host PGA and LPGA tournaments, such as Amata Spring Country Club, Alpine Golf and Sports Club, Thai Country Club, and Black Mountain Golf Club.
Basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level. The Chang Thailand Slammers won the 2011 ASEAN Basketball League Championship. The Thailand national basketball team had its most successful year at the 1966 Asian Games where it won the silver medal.
Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure. The success in sports like weightlifting and taekwondo at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal option for Thailand.
Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 25,000. It is on Thammasat University's Rangsit campus. It was built for the 1998 Asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same company that constructed the Democracy Monument in Bangkok.
Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting arena in Thailand. It currently has a capacity of 65,000. It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok. The stadium was built in 1998 for the 1998 Asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team.
The well-known Lumpini Boxing Stadium will host its final Muay Thai boxing matches on 7 February 2014 after the venue first opened in December 1956. Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the purpose of muay Thai bouts following a competition that was staged on 15 March 1956. From 11 February 2014, the stadium will relocate to Ram Intra Road, due to the new venue's capacity to accommodate audiences of up to 3,500. Foreigners typically pay between 1,000–2,000 baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the seating.
- Thai: ประเทศไทย) (/ˈtaɪlænd, ˈtaɪlənd/ TY-land, TY-lənd)
- Thai: สยาม
- One of the stated goals of the protest was to remove "Thaksin regime." See "Thai protest leader explains demand for 'people's council'". China.org.cn. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- The latest coup prior to the 2014 coup was the 2007 coup.
- The 2016 Thai constitutional referendum was held on 7 August 2016. Its ratification was held on 6 April 2017.
- Thailand Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The World Factbook.
- Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit (2016). "The Thai Lao Question: The Reappearance of Thailand's Ethnic Lao Community and Related Policy Questions". Asian Ethnicity. 19: 81–105. doi:10.1080/14631369.2016.1258300.
- International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention: Thailand (PDF) (in English and Thai). United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 28 July 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- David Levinson (1998), Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Oryx Pres, p. 287, ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1
- Paul, Lewis M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2013), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, SIL International, ISBN 978-1-55671-216-6, archived from the original on 27 December 2007
- Barbara A. West (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794, ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7
- "Population by religion, region and area, 2015" (PDF). NSO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- (in Thai) National Statistics Office, "100th anniversary of population censuses in Thailand: Population and housing census 2010: 11th census of Thailand" Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. popcensus.nso.go.th.
- "Thailand". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "Thai Economic Performance in Q4 and 2017 and Outlook for 2018". National Economic and Social Development Board. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Global 2016 Human Development Report Overview – English (PDF). New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2017. pp. 22–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- "American foreign policy. 1950-1955; basic documents". avalon.law.yale.edu.
- "22 U.S. Code § 2321k - Designation of major non-NATO allies". LII / Legal Information Institute.
- Jonathan H. Ping Middle Power Statecraft Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine (p 104)
- Thailand and the World Bank Archived 9 June 2011 at Wikiwix, World Bank on Thailand country overview.
- The Guardian, Country profile: Thailand, 25 April 2009.
- "Merriam-Webster Online". Merriam-webster.com. 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Charles Eliot (1921). The Project Gutenberg EBook of Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 3 (of 3) [EBook #16847]. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. pp. Ch. xxxvii 1, citing in turn Footnote 189: The name is found on Champan inscriptions of 1050 CE and according to Gerini appears in Ptolemy's Samarade = Sâmaraṭṭha. See Gerini, Ptolemy, p. 170. But Samarade is near Bangkok and there can hardly have been Thais there in Ptolemy's time, and Footnote 190: So too in Central Asia Kustana appears to be a learned distortion of the name Khotan, made to give it a meaning in Sanskrit.
- Baker, Christopher; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2014). A History of Thailand. Singapore: C.O.S Printers Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-1-107-42021-2.
- Thailand (Siam) History, CSMngt-Thai. Archived 24 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Trans. Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
- จิตร ภูมิศักดิ์ 1976: "ความเป็นมาของคำสยาม ไทย ลาวและขอม และลักษณะทางสังคม ของชื่อชนชาติ" (Jid Phumisak 1976: "Coming Into Existence for the Siamese Words for Thai, Laotian and Khmer and Societal Characteristics for Nation-names")[full citation needed]
- Ferlus, Michel (2009). Formation of Ethnonyms in Southeast Asia Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. 42nd International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, November 2009, Chiang Mai, 2009, p.3.
- Pain, Frédéric (2008). An Introduction to Thai Ethnonymy: Examples from Shan and Northern Thai Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 128, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 2008), p.646.
- Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-19076-4.
- Barbara Leitch LePoer (1989). Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
- Higham, Charles; Higham, Thomas; Ciarla, Roberto; Douka, Katerina; Kijngam, Amphan; Rispoli, Fiorella (10 December 2011). "The Origins of the Bronze Age of Southeast Asia". Journal of World Prehistory. 24 (4): 227–274. doi:10.1007/s10963-011-9054-6. Retrieved 10 February 2018 – via Researchgate.net.
- Thailand. History Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica
- Wyatt, David K. (1984). Thailand: A Short History. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03054-9.
- E. Jane Keyes, James A. Hafner; et al. (2018). "Thailand: History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Charles F. Keyes (1997). Cultural Diversity and National Identity in Thailand. Government policies and ethnic relations in Asia and the Pacific. MIT Press. p. 203.
- Higham, Charles (1989). The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27525-3. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- เกษตรศิริ, ชาญวิทย์ (2005). อยุธยา: ประวัติศาสตร์และการเมือง. โรงพิมพ์มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์. ISBN 978-974-91572-7-5.
- Wyatt, David K. (2013). Thailand: A Short History [ประวัติศาสตร์ไทยฉบับสังเขป] (in Thai). Translated by ละอองศรี, กาญจนี. มูลนิธิโครงการตำราสังคมศาสตร์และมนุษยศาสตร์, มูลนิธิโตโยต้าประเทศไทย. ISBN 978-616-7202-38-9.[failed verification]
- Nolan, Cathal J. (2002). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations: S-Z by Cathal J. Nolan. ISBN 9780313323836. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Hwa, Cheng Siok (1971). "The Crawford Papers — A Collection of Official Records relating to the Mission of Dr. John Crawfurd sent to Siam by the Government of India in the year 1821". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 3 (2): 324–325. doi:10.1017/S0022463400019421.
- "Ode to Friendship, Celebrating Singapore - Thailand Relations: Introduction". National Archives of Singapore. 2004. Retrieved 24 April 2007.
- "King, country and the coup". The Indian Express. Mumbai. 22 September 2006. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Declaration between Great Britain and France with regard of the Kingdom of Siam and other matters Archived 31 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine London. January 15, 1896. Treaty Series. No. 5
- Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Transaction Publishers, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8
- "The 1973 revolution and its aftermath". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Partial democracy and the search for a new political order". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- Warr, Peter (2007). Thailand Beyond the Crisis. Routledge Curzon. ISBN 9781134541515.
- "Thailand Economic Monitor, November 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- Na Ranong, Viroj, Na Ranong, Anchana, Universal Health Care Coverage: Impacts of the 30-Baht Health Care Scheme on the Rural Poor in Thailand, TDRI Quarterly Review, September 2006
- "Protests as Thailand senators debate amnesty bill". The Guardian. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Beech, Hannah (8 February 2019). "Thailand's King Rejects His Sister's Candidacy for Prime Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Thai King Signs Military-Backed Constitution, National Public Radio, April 6, 2017
- "Thailand election results delayed as allegations of cheating grow". ABC News. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "A list of previous coups in Thailand". Associated Press. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Raw Data: List of Recent Coups in Thailand's History". Fox News Channel. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- สถิติที่ไม่น่าภูมิใจเมื่อไทยติดอันดับที่ 4 ประเทศที่มีการรัฐประหารบ่อยที่สุดในโลก. Siam Intelligence (in Thai).
- Gray, Denis D. (22 August 2015). "Deadly bombing in military-ruled Thailand adds to mounting woes in one-time 'Land of Smiles'". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "Thailand's juristocracy". 17 May 2014. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- Teehankee, Julio; Tiulegenov, Medet; Wang, Yi-ting; Ciobanu, Vlad; Lindberg, Staffan I. "Party System in South and Southeast Asia: A Thematic Report Based on Data 1900-2012". V-Dem Thematic Report Series, No. 2, October 2013.
- Croissant, Aurel; Völkel, Philip (21 December 2010). "Party system types and party system institutionalization: Comparing new democracies in East and Southeast Asia". Party Politics. 18 (2). doi:10.1177/1354068810380096.
- "Thailand's constitution: New era, new uncertainties". BBC News. 7 April 2017.
- Champion, Paul (25 September 2007). "Professor in lese majeste row". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
- 2014 coup marks the highest number of lèse-majesté prisoners in Thai history. Prachatai.
- "Thailand jails man for 35 years for insulting the monarchy on Facebook". The Independent. 10 June 2017.
- "Thailand". freedomhouse.org. 5 January 2018.
- "Somyot lese majeste judgement on Wednesday". The Bangkok Post. 22 January 2013.
- "Thailand: Release human rights defender imprisoned for insulting the monarchy". Amnesty International. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- "The Climate of Thailand" (PDF). Thai Meteorological Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- Dr. Susan L. Woodward (1997–2014). "Tropical Savannas". Biomes of the World. S. L. Woodward. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Overland, Indra et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS).
- "Report: Flooded Future: Global vulnerability to sea level rise worse than previously understood". climatecentral.org. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- "2016 Report". EPI Report. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- EPI (2016): Thailand Archived 27 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Thailand's Elephants". Thai Elephant Conservation Center. Archived from the original on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Poaching for meat poses new extinction risk to Thai elephants". The Guardian. Associated Press. 26 January 2012. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- Jennifer Hile (6 October 2002). "Activists Denounce Thailand's Elephant "Crushing" Ritual". National Geographic Today. Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
- Teena Amrit Gill (18 February 1997). "Endangered Animals on Restaurant Menus". Albion Monitor/News. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
- "Thai Forests: Dept. National Parks, Wildlife & Plants". Thai Society for the Conservation of Wild Animals. Archived from the original on 26 November 2014.
- "Statistics of Administrative Divisions, Provincial Affairs Bureau".
- "FTA Watch Group website". Ftawatch.org. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- John D. Ciorciari (10 March 2004). "Thaksin's Chance for Leading Role in the Region". The Straits Times. Singapore. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013.
- 'Thaksin to face charges over Burma telecom deal. ICT News, 2 August 2007
- "Thailand sends troops to bolster US occupation of Iraq". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- The Telegraph, Troops from Thailand and Cambodia fight on border Archived 23 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 3 April 2009
- Bloomberg, Thai, Cambodian Border Fighting Stops, Thailand Says Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 3 April 2009
- "Thailand Military Strength". Global Firepower. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Chapter 2 of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand
- John Pike (27 April 2005). "Ministry of Defense". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- SIPRI Military Expenditure Database – Thailand Archived 3 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. SIPRI, 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Chapter 4 of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand
- "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017.
- BTI 2014 | Thailand country Report Archived 27 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Thai university applicants scored an average 28.34% in English in recent university entrance exams. In a recent IMD World Competitiveness Report, Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia. Singapore was third, Malaysia 28th, and Korea 46th: The Sorry State of Thai Education – Part 4: Dismal English-language education Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters & The Korea Herald, 23 March 2012.
- Draper, John (2012), "Revisiting English in Thailand", Asian EFL Journal, 14 (4): 9–38, ISSN 1738-1460, archived from the original on 12 March 2014
- OECD (2013), Structural Policy Country Notes: Thailand (PDF), OECD, archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2014
- Khaopa, Wannapa (12 December 2012). "Thai students drop in world maths and science study". The Nation. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014.
- Draper, John (12 December 2011). "Solving Isaan's education problem". The Isaan Record. Archived from the original on 26 February 2013.
- Draper, John (21 February 2014). "PISA Thailand regional breakdown shows inequalities between Bangkok and Upper North with the rest of Thailand". The Isaan Record. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014.
- "MOPH reports low IQ among Thai youth : National News Bureau of Thailand". Thainews.prd.go.th. 8 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Thailand Provides 27,231 Schools With Internet". 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Bangkok's free internet: 23,000 hotspots | Bangkok Post: learning. Bangkok Post (2 May 2012). Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Thailand’s Massive Internet Censorship" Archived 24 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Asian Correspondent.com, Hybrid News Limited, 22 July 2010
- "Thailand Country Report | Freedom on the Net 2017". freedomhouse.org. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "Freedom on the Net 2018: Thailand". Freedom House. November 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- รายได้ประชาชาติของประเทศไทย พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๙ แบบปริมาณลูกโซ่ (in Thai). Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ภาวะเศรษฐกิจไทยไตรมาสที่สี่ ทั้งปี 2560 และแนวโน้มปี 2561 (in Thai). Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ภาวะสังคมไทยไตรมาสสี่และภาพรวม ปี 2560 (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ข้อมูลหนี้สาธารณะคงค้าง (in Thai). Public Debt Management Office. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- เสรีวรวิทย์กุล, ชนาภรณ์; รุ่งเจริญกิจกุล, ภูริชัย (July 2011). ฐานะทางการเงินของภาคครัวเรือนและผลของความมั่งคั่งต่อการบริโภค (PDF) (in Thai). Bank of Thailand. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "GDP (PURCHASING POWER PARITY)". CIA.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "NESDB: Thailand facing unemployment problem". Pattaya Mail. 25 November 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- Aidan Jones (31 January 2014). "Thai northeast vows poll payback to Shinawatra clan". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Phisanu Phromchanya (24 February 2012). "Thailand Economy To Rebound Strongly In 2012". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Cambodian exodus from Thailand jumps to nearly 180,000". Agence France-Presse. 17 June 2014. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- Global Wealth Report 2016. Zurich: Credit Suisse AG. November 2016. Archived from the original on 15 May 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Table 3: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index". Human Development Report Office, United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- บทสรุปผู้บริหาร การสำรวจภาวะเศรษฐกิจและสังคมของครัวเรือน พ.ศ. 2560 (PDF) (in Thai). National Statistical Office. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- รายงานการวิเคราะห์สถานการณ์ความยากจนและความเหลื่อมล้าในประเทศไทย ปี 2559 (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Profile of the Protestors: A Survey of Pro and Anti-Government Demonstrators in Bangkok on November 30, 2013" (PDF). Asia Foundation. December 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- พงศ์พิพัฒน์ บัญชานนท์ (18 June 2017). ยิ่งนานยิ่งถ่าง ช่องว่างทางรายได้ ปัญหาใหญ่ที่รอ คสช. แก้. BBC Thailand (in Thai). Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- สสส. เผยสถานการณ์คนไร้บ้าน ทั่วประเทศกว่า 3 หมื่นคน. posttoday.com (in Thai). 16 June 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- Santivimolnat, Santan (18 August 2012). "2-million milestone edges nearer". Bangkok Post.
- Languepin, Olivier (3 January 2013). "Thailand poised to Surpass Car Production target". Thailand Business News. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Production Statistics". OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers). Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Takahashi, Toru (27 November 2014). "Thailand's love affair with the pickup truck". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- Finlay, Steve (6 July 2012). "Pickup Trucks Reign in Thailand". Ward's. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- Thongkamkoon, Chaiwat. "Thailand's Railway Development Strategy 2015-2022" (PDF). Railway Technology Development Institute of Thailand. Retrieved 28 November 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Janssen, Peter (23 January 2017). "Thailand's expanding state 'threatens future growth'". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- "The meter is ticking" (Opinion). Bangkok Post. 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Mahittirook, Amornrat (7 November 2016). "Public vans likely to offer 10% fare cut". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "Government moves to head off tourist fears". Bangkok Post. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- Travel and Tourism, Economic Impact 2014: Thailand (PDF) (2014 ed.). London: World Travel & Tourism Council. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "History". TATnews.org. Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). 2015. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Tourist Police in Thailand Archived 3 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Amazing-Thailand.com. Retrieved on 16 September 2010.
- IUCN – Home Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Cms.iucn.org (24 April 2008). Retrieved on 16 September 2010.
- Ocha, Witchayanee. "Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand". Culture, Health & Sexuality14.5 (2012): 563–575. Web.
- Thailand mulls legal prostitution. Archived 8 July 2011 at Wikiwix The Age, 26 November 2003
- Pasuk Phongpaichit Thailand's illegal economy and public policy Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Seminar paper delivered at the Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Nov 1999
- Martin, Lorna. "Paradise Revealed". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 2 December 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Finch, Steve. "Thailand top destination for medical tourists". CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal. Canadian Medical Association, 07 Jan. 2014. Web. 1 Mar. 2017.
- "Medical Tourism in Thailand". MyMediTravel. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth, Gennaro Selvaggi, Sirachai Jindarak, Apichai Angspatt, Pornthep Pungrasmi, Poonpismai Suwajo, and Preecha Tiewtranon. "The Development of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand: A Social Perspective". The Scientific World Journal. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.
- Henri Leturque and Steve Wiggins 2010. Thailand's progress in agriculture: Transition and sustained productivity growth Archived 27 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute
- International Grains Council. "Grain Market Report (GMR444)" Archived 2 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, London, 14 May 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "CIA World Factbook – Greater Mekong Subregion". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Rice Around The World. Thailand". Irri.org. Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Country Trends". Global Footprint Network. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Lin, David; Hanscom, Laurel; Murthy, Adeline; Galli, Alessandro; Evans, Mikel; Neill, Evan; Mancini, Maria Serena; Martindill, Jon; Medouar, Fatime-Zahra; Huang, Shiyu; Wackernagel, Mathis (2018). "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018". Resources. 7 (3): 58. doi:10.3390/resources7030058.
- "International Index of Energy Security Risk" (PDF). Institute for 21st Century Energy. Institute for 21st Century Energy. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Kongtip, Pornpimol et al. “Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.” New solutions : a journal of environmental and occupational health policy : NS 25.2 (2015): 189–211. PMC. Web. 12 Mar. 2018.
- Bales, Kevin. Disposable People : New Slavery in the Global Economy. ProQuest Ebook Central. University of California Press.
- Guille, Howard (2014). "Reforming Asian Labor Systems: Economic Tensions and Worker Dissent". Asian Studies Review. 39.
- Warunsiri, Sasiwimon (2011). "The Role of Informal Sector in Thailand" (PDF). Research Institute for Policy Evaluation and Design.
- World Bank Group. (n.d.). Population, total [Thailand]. Washington, DC: Author. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- Theraphan Luangthongkum (2007). "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand". Language, Nation and Development in Southeast Asia: 191.
- Thailand: Burmese migrant children missing out on education. IRIN Asia. 15 June 2009. Archived 27 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- McGeown, Kate (14 December 2006). "Hard lessons in expat paradise". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- "Speech to the Australian-Thai Chamber of Commerce". Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
- "US Department of State, Thailand". State.gov. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Population by religion, region and area, 2010" (PDF). NSO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Courtesy Call on Deputy Minister of Public Health Dr Somsak Chunharas. Embassy of Sweden website. 2 May 2015. Accessed 09/07/2017". Archived from the original on 7 September 2017.
- "Harvard Catalyst profile for Somsak Chunharas, MD, MPH". Archived from the original on 7 September 2017.
- Olam, Kocha; Goldschmidt, Debra (25 December 2018). "Thailand approves medical marijuana". CNN. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- Murray L Weidenbaum (1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- "The History of Thai Fruit and Vegetable Carving". Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Cooperation of IRRI and Thailand" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2005. (38.7 KB)
- "Weights and measures in Thailand". Cockatoo.com. 17 December 1923. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Hodgson, Guy (18 April 1993). "Snooker: A storm coming in from the East: Thailand doesn't boast many world-beating sportsmen. But over the next fortnight James Wattana might just become one". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Goyder, James (11 January 2014). "South East Asians proving high earners on the tables". thenational.ae. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "International Rugby Board – THAILAND". International Rugby Board. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- The Nation Archived 25 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 19 July 2005
- "Golf in Thailand by". Golfasia.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Chawadee Nualkhair (10 July 2009). "Thailand woos foreign golfers with sun, sand traps". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Why to book with golf2thailand.com : Thailand Golf Courses Thailand Golf Packages". Golf2thailand.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Chang Thailand Slammers – AirAsia ASEAN Basketball League". aseanbasketballleague.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Thailand Basketball". best-basketball-tips.com. 18 May 2012. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "End of an era for Muay Thai at Lumpini". Bangkok Post. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Elizabeth Yuko (29 August 2019). "Pictures of the Thai King's Consort Broke the Internet — But What's a Consort?". Rolling Stone.
- Hannah Beech (7 November 2019). "'Extremely Evil Misconduct': Thailand's Palace Intrigue Spills Into View". The New York Times.
- Thaigov.go.th – Government of Thailand
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Mfa.go.th – Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Thailand Internet information – National Electronics and Computer Technology Center
- Ministry of Culture
- General information
- "Thailand". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Thailand entry in Library of Congress Country Studies. 1987
- Thailand from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Thailand at Curlie
- Thailand from the BBC News
- Thailand Encyclopædia Britannica entry
- Wikimedia Atlas of Thailand
- Longdo Map – Thailand maps in English and Thai
- Key Development Forecasts for Thailand from International Futures
- 2010 Thailand population census by Economic and Social statistics Bureau
- Tourism Authority of Thailand – official tourism website
- Thailand Country Fact Sheet from the Common Language Project
- Southeast Asia Visions. "Browse the Southeast Asia Visions Collection". Cornell University Library. Retrieved 2 October 2011.