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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

## Summary

A country's gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int\$ 18,381.[a] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

## Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made based on nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between economies because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

GDP (PPP) and GDP (PPP) per capita are usually measured by international dollar, which is a hypothetical currency that has the same purchasing power in every economy as the U.S. dollar in the United States.

## Table

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded to the nearest whole number.

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available year's estimates, and can be reranked by any of the sources.

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (current international dollar) by country or  territory, non-sovereign state or non-IMF member
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8][9][10]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
Luxembourg * Europe 143,743 2024 142,214 2022 115,700 2021
Liechtenstein * Europe 139,100 2009
Macau * Asia 134,141 2024 61,231 2022 64,800 2021
Ireland * Europe 133,895 2024 126,905 2022 102,500 2021
Singapore * Asia 133,737 2024 127,565 2022 106,000 2021
Monaco * Europe 115,700 2015
Qatar * Asia 112,283 2024 114,648 2022 92,200 2021
United Arab Emirates * Asia 96,846 2024 87,729 2022 69,700 2021
Bermuda * Americas 95,869 2022 80,300 2021
Switzerland * Europe 91,932 2024 90,746 2022 71,000 2021
San Marino * Europe 86,989 2024 59,451 2020 56,400 2020
United States * Americas 85,373 2024 76,330 2022 63,700 2021
Isle of Man * Europe 84,600 2014
Cayman Islands * Americas 84,280 2022 67,500 2021
Norway * Europe 82,832 2024 114,899 2022 65,700 2021
Guyana * Americas 80,137 2024 40,642 2022 21,900 2021
Denmark * Europe 77,641 2024 74,005 2022 58,000 2021
Brunei * Asia 77,534 2024 69,275 2022 60,100 2021
Taiwan * Asia 76,858 2024 47,800 2019
Hong Kong * Asia 75,128 2024 69,049 2022 60,000 2021
Netherlands * Europe 74,158 2024 69,577 2022 56,600 2021
Iceland * Europe 73,784 2024 69,081 2022 53,600 2020
Falkland Islands * Americas 70,800 2015
Saudi Arabia * Asia 70,333 2024 59,065 2022 44,300 2021
Austria * Europe 69,460 2024 67,936 2022 54,100 2021
Sweden * Europe 69,177 2024 64,578 2022 53,600 2021
Andorra * Europe 69,146 2024 49,900 2015
Belgium * Europe 68,079 2024 65,027 2022 51,700 2021
Malta * Europe 67,682 2024 55,928 2022 44,700 2021
Germany * Europe 67,245 2024 63,150 2022 53,100 2021
Australia * Oceania 66,627 2024 62,625 2022 49,800 2021
Bahrain * Asia 62,671 2024 61,228 2022 49,400 2021
Gibraltar * Europe 61,700 2014
Finland * Europe 60,851 2024 59,027 2022 48,800 2021
Canada * Americas 60,495 2024 58,400 2022 47,900 2021
France * Europe 60,339 2024 55,493 2022 45,000 2021
South Korea * Asia 59,330 2024 50,070 2022 44,200 2021
United Kingdom * Europe 58,880 2024 54,603 2022 45,000 2021
European Union *[n 1] Europe 58,838 2024 57,286 2022 44,100 2021
Cyprus * Asia 58,733 [n 2]2024 49,931 [n 2]2022 41,700 [n 2]2021
Italy * Europe 56,905 2024 51,865 2022 41,900 2021
Jersey * Europe 56,600 2016
Israel * Asia 55,533 2024 49,509 2022 42,100 2021
Aruba * Americas 54,716 2024 42,698 2021 38,900 2021
Japan * Asia 54,184 2024 45,573 2022 40,800 2021
New Zealand * Oceania 53,797 2024 51,967 2022 42,900 2021
Slovenia * Europe 53,287 2024 50,032 2022 40,000 2021
Guernsey * Europe 52,500 2014
Kuwait * Asia 52,274 2024 58,056 2022 43,900 2020
Spain * Europe 52,012 2024 45,825 2022 37,900 2021
Lithuania * Europe 50,600 2024 48,397 2022 39,300 2021
Czech Republic * Europe 50,475 2024 49,946 2022 40,700 2020
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * Americas 49,541 2022 35,300 2018
Poland * Europe 49,060 2024 43,269 2022 34,900 2021
Portugal * Europe 47,070 2024 41,452 2022 33,700 2021
Bahamas * Americas 46,524 2024 40,379 2022 30,200 2021
Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Americas 46,200 2006
Croatia * Europe 45,702 2024 40,380 2022 31,600 2021
Hungary * Europe 45,692 2024 41,907 2022 33,600 2021
Estonia * Europe 45,122 2024 46,697 2022 38,700 2021
Panama * Americas 44,797 2024 39,280 2022 29,000 2021
Slovakia * Europe 44,081 2024 37,459 2022 31,900 2021
Turkey * Asia 43,921 2024 37,274 2022 31,500 2021
Puerto Rico * Americas 43,219 2024 40,498 2022 32,600 2021
Romania * Europe 43,179 2024 41,888 2022 30,800 2021
Seychelles * Africa 43,151 2024 35,228 2022 28,800 2021
Greenland * Americas 41,800 2015
Latvia * Europe 41,730 2024 39,956 2022 32,100 2021
Greece * Europe 41,188 2024 36,835 2022 29,500 2021
Faroe Islands * Europe 40,000 2014
Oman * Asia 39,859 2024 41,724 2022 34,300 2021
Malaysia * Asia 39,030 2024 33,434 2022 26,300 2021
Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 38,870 2024 34,052 2022 26,500 2021
Russia * Europe 38,292 2024 34,638 2022 27,500 2022
Maldives * Asia 37,433 2024 24,772 2022 18,800 2021
U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 37,000 2016
Bulgaria * Europe 35,963 2024 33,582 2022 24,400 2020
New Caledonia * Oceania 35,700 2021
Guam * Oceania 35,600 2016
Kazakhstan * Asia 34,534 2024 30,810 2022 26,100 2021
British Virgin Islands * Americas 34,200 2017
Montserrat * Americas 34,000 2011
Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 32,685 2024 27,778 2022 23,000 2021
Mauritius * Africa 32,094 2024 26,906 2022 21,000 2021
Chile * Americas 31,005 2024 30,209 2022 25,400 2021
Uruguay * Americas 30,170 2024 28,842 2022 22,800 2021
Montenegro * Europe 29,696 2024 26,984 2022 20,600 2021
Costa Rica * Americas 28,558 2024 24,923 2022 21,200 2021
Serbia * Europe 27,985 2024 23,911 2022 19,800 2021
Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 27,309 2024 25,337 2022 19,100 2021
Curaçao * Americas 27,302 2022 20,800 2021
Dominican Republic * Americas 27,120 2024 22,834 2022 18,600 2021
Libya * Africa 26,456 2024 23,375 2022 22,000 2021
Argentina * Americas 26,390 2024 26,505 2022 21,500 2021
Mexico * Americas 25,963 2024 21,512 2022 19,100 2021
Belarus * Europe 25,685 2024 22,591 2022 19,800 2021
Georgia * Asia 25,248 [n 3]2024 20,113 [n 3]2022 15,500 [n 3]2021
China * Asia 25,015 [n 4]2024 21,483 [n 5]2022 17,600 [n 4]2021
Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 24,500 2016
Turks and Caicos Islands * Americas 24,472 2022 18,500 2021
World 23,444 [i]2024 20,946 2022 17,000 2021
Thailand * Asia 23,401 2024 20,672 2022 17,100 2021
North Macedonia * Europe 22,249 2024 20,162 2022 16,500 2021
Grenada * Americas 21,799 2024 16,987 2022 13,700 2021
Armenia * Asia 21,746 2024 18,942 2022 14,200 2021
Iran * Asia 21,220 2024 18,075 2022 12,400 2020
Brazil * Americas 20,809 2024 17,822 2022 14,100 2020
Albania * Europe 20,632 2024 18,552 2022 14,500 2021
Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 20,623 2024 20,377 2022 15,700 2021
Barbados * Americas 20,592 2024 17,837 2022 13,800 2021
Botswana * Africa 20,097 2024 18,323 2022 14,800 2021
Colombia * Americas 19,770 2024 20,287 2022 14,600 2021
Turkmenistan * Asia 19,729 2024 15,625 2019 15,000 2019
Saint Lucia * Americas 19,718 2024 17,756 2022 13,000 2021
Gabon * Africa 19,452 2024 16,471 2022 13,800 2021
Azerbaijan * Asia 19,328 2024 17,764 2022 14,400 2021
Saint Martin (French part) * Americas 19,300 2005
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 19,196 2024 17,207 2022 13,700 2021
Suriname * Americas 18,928 2024 17,620 2022 14,800 2021
French Polynesia * Oceania 18,600 2021
Equatorial Guinea * Africa 18,378 2024 17,396 2022 14,600 2021
Moldova * Europe 17,902 [n 6]2024 15,238 [n 6]2022 14,000 [n 6]2021
Egypt * Africa 17,614 2024 15,091 2022 11,600 2021
Fiji * Oceania 17,403 2024 14,125 2022 10,400 2021
Palau * Oceania 17,381 2024 15,145 2021 13,800 2021
Indonesia * Asia 16,861 2024 14,653 2022 11,900 2021
Kosovo * Europe 16,775 2024 14,971 2022 11,900 2021
Peru * Americas 16,631 2024 15,048 2022 12,500 2021
Mongolia * Asia 16,504 2024 14,230 2022 11,700 2021
Algeria * Africa 16,483 2024 13,210 2022 11,000 2021
South Africa * Africa 16,424 2024 15,905 2022 13,300 2021
Paraguay * Americas 16,291 2024 15,977 2022 13,700 2021
Bhutan * Asia 15,978 2024 11,983 2021 10,900 2021
Cook Islands * Oceania 15,600 2022
Vietnam * Asia 15,470 2024 13,457 2022 10,600 2021
Ukraine * Europe 15,464 [n 7]2024 12,671 [n 7]2022 12,900 [n 7]2021
Dominica * Americas 15,280 2024 13,573 2022 10,900 2021
Ecuador * Americas 14,485 2024 12,822 2022 10,700 2021
Sri Lanka * Asia 14,255 2022 14,405 2022 13,400 2021
Tunisia * Africa 13,645 2024 12,490 2022 10,400 2021
Jamaica * Americas 13,543 2024 11,822 2022 9,600 2021
Eswatini * Africa 12,637 2024 10,782 2022 8,900 2021
El Salvador * Americas 12,561 2024 11,096 2022 9,100 2021
Jordan * Asia 12,402 2024 11,003 2022 9,200 2021
Cuba * Americas 12,300 2016
Anguilla * Americas 12,200 2008
Philippines * Asia 12,192 2024 10,133 2022 8,100 2021
Namibia * Africa 12,008 2024 11,206 2022 9,100 2021
Iraq * Asia 11,937 2024 10,862 2022 9,000 2021
Lebanon * Asia 11,784 2022 14,257 2021 13,000 2021
Belize * Americas 11,320 2024 11,451 2022 8,800 2021
American Samoa * Oceania 11,200 2016
Niue * Oceania 11,100 2021
Guatemala * Americas 11,006 2024 10,818 2022 8,900 2021
Morocco * Africa 10,947 2024 9,519 2022 8,100 [n 8]2021
Uzbekistan * Asia 10,936 2024 9,533 2022 7,700 2021
Nauru * Oceania 10,823 2024 13,118 2022 11,900 2021
Bolivia * Americas 10,693 2024 9,684 2022 8,100 2021
Cape Verde * Africa 10,304 [n 9]2024 9,083 [n 9]2022 6,100 [n 9]2021
Laos * Asia 10,242 2024 9,384 2022 7,800 2021
India * Asia 10,123 2024 8,379 2022 6,600 2021
Bangladesh * Asia 9,416 2024 7,395 2022 5,900 2021
Venezuela * Americas 8,486 2024 17,402 2011 7,704 2018
Cambodia * Asia 8,287 2024 5,349 2022 4,400 2021
Nicaragua * Americas 8,137 2024 6,875 2022 5,600 2021
Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha
Africa 7,800 2010
Djibouti * Africa 7,707 2024 5,893 2022 4,900 2021
Mauritania * Africa 7,680 2024 6,424 2022 5,300 2021
Honduras * Americas 7,503 2024 6,741 2022 5,600 2021
Tonga * Oceania 7,462 2024 6,749 2021 6,100 2021
Ghana * Africa 7,156 2024 6,498 2022 5,400 2021
Angola * Africa 7,153 2024 6,974 2022 5,900 2021
Kenya * Africa 6,976 2024 5,764 2022 4,700 2021
Pakistan * Asia 6,955 2024 6,437 2022 5,200 2021
Ivory Coast * Africa 6,860 2024 6,538 2022 5,300 2021
Kyrgyzstan * Asia 6,790 2024 6,133 2022 4,800 2021
Samoa * Oceania 6,721 2024 6,041 2022 5,500 2021
Nigeria * Africa 6,340 2024 5,860 2022 4,900 2021
Marshall Islands * Oceania 6,313 2024 7,228 2022 6,000 2021
Palestine * Asia 6,057 [n 10]2023 6,759 [n 10]2022 5,600 [n 11]2021
Tuvalu * Oceania 6,056 2024 5,421 2022 4,900 2021
Tokelau * Oceania 6,004 2017
Tajikistan * Asia 5,832 2024 4,885 2022 3,900 2021
Myanmar * Asia 5,203 2024 4,870 2022 4,400 [n 12]2021
Nepal * Asia 5,032 2024 4,725 2022 3,800 2021
Cameroon * Africa 4,842 2024 4,408 2022 3,700 2021
Congo * Africa 4,740 2024 3,791 2022 3,200 2021
Micronesia * Oceania 4,690 2024 3,855 2022 3,300 2021
Senegal * Africa 4,661 2024 4,209 2022 3,500 2021
Benin * Africa 4,558 2024 4,056 2022 3,300 2021
Zambia * Africa 4,361 2024 3,894 2022 3,200 2021
São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 4,238 2024 4,738 2022 4,100 2020
Ethiopia * Africa 4,019 2024 2,812 2022 2,300 2021
Wallis and Futuna * Oceania 3,800 2004
East Timor * Asia 3,767 2024 4,828 2022 5,000 2021
Tanzania * Africa 3,746 2024 3,097 2022 2,600 2021
Kiribati * Oceania 3,614 2024 2,365 2022 1,900 2021
Papua New Guinea * Oceania 3,534 2024 4,447 2022 3,700 2022
Comoros * Africa 3,532 2024 3,832 2022 3,200 2021
Sudan * Africa 3,443 2024 4,216 2022 3,700 2021
Rwanda * Africa 3,367 2024 2,792 2022 2,200 2021
Guinea * Africa 3,366 2024 3,187 2022 2,600 2021
Uganda * Africa 3,345 2024 2,694 2022 2,200 2021
Guinea-Bissau * Africa 3,239 2024 2,190 2022 1,800 2021
Lesotho * Africa 3,227 2024 2,695 2022 2,300 2021
Haiti * Americas 3,108 2024 3,305 2022 2,900 2021
Gambia Africa 2,993 2024 2,510 2022 2,100 2021
Zimbabwe * Africa 2,975 2024 2,531 2022 2,100 2021
Vanuatu * Oceania 2,939 2024 3,289 2022 2,800 2021
Togo * Africa 2,911 2024 2,608 2022 2,100 2021
Syria * Asia 2,900 2015
Burkina Faso * Africa 2,781 2024 2,546 2022 2,200 2021
Mali * Africa 2,714 2024 2,517 2022 2,100 2021
Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,713 2024 2,654 2022 2,400 2021
Chad * Africa 2,620 2024 1,668 2022 1,400 2021
Sierra Leone * Africa 2,189 2024 1,931 2022 1,600 2021
Afghanistan * Asia 2,116 2022 1,674 2021 1,500 2021
Somalia * Africa 2,062 2024 1,364 2022 1,100 2021
Yemen * Asia 1,996 2024 3,437 2013 2,500 2017
Madagascar * Africa 1,979 2024 1,774 2022 1,500 2021
Liberia * Africa 1,882 2024 1,725 2022 1,400 2021
Malawi * Africa 1,712 2024 1,732 2022 1,500 2021
North Korea * Asia 1,700 2015
Niger * Africa 1,675 2024 1,505 2022 1,200 2021
Mozambique * Africa 1,649 2024 1,468 2022 1,200 2021
Eritrea * Africa 1,629 2011 1,600 2017
DR Congo * Africa 1,552 2024 1,337 2022 1,100 2021
Central African Republic * Africa 1,123 2024 967 2022 800 2021
Burundi * Africa 916 2024 836 2022 700 2021
South Sudan * Africa 455 2024 1,182 2015 1,600 2017

### Footnotes

1. ^ There is no explicit "GDP (PPP) per capita" World estimate provided by the IMF. For this figure, the GDP (PPP) world value[6] has been divided by the global population according to the IMF.[11]
1. ^ The EU is included because it is much more than a free-trade association like ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. -- See: "The World Factbook". CIA. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, the inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. -- However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
2. ^ a b c Data is for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
3. ^ a b c Excludes data for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
4. ^ a b IMF and CIA figures exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
5. ^ World Bank figures exclude the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
6. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
7. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
8. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
9. ^ a b c Referred to as "Cabo Verde".
10. ^ a b Referred to as "West Bank and Gaza" in the IMF and World Bank reports.
11. ^ CIA registers 2 separate entries for Palestine: "West Bank" and "Gaza Strip". Figures for West Bank include the Gaza Strip -- see "The World Factbook - West Bank". CIA.gov. 15 November 2022.
12. ^ Referred to as "Burma".

## Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 per cent of GDP.[12] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[13][14][15]

## Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in oil and gas tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[16] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[17] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[18]

A stunning \$12 trillion—almost 40 per cent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 per cent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[18]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[19]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[20]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[21][22]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6   Norway Oil & Gas
7   Kuwait Oil & Gas
8   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9    Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10   San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11   United States 59,495
12   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13   Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14   Iceland 52,150
15   Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1   Qatar Oil & Gas
2   Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3   Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4   Brunei Oil & Gas
5   United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6   Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7    Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8   Norway Oil & Gas
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9   United States 57,467
10   Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11   Iceland 51,399
12   Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13   Austria 50,078
14   Denmark 49,496
15   Sweden 49,175

## Notes

1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimates for the world average by the IMF. For calculating 2019 data, the total GDP estimate by IMF[1] has been divided by the total population estimate by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

## References

1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14 September 2009.
4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
6. ^ a b "WEO Database, April 2024. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: World, E.U." IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
8. ^ "Country Comparisons - Real GDP per capita". CIA.gov. The World Factbook. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
9. ^ "The World Factbook - European Union". CIA.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
10. ^ "The World Factbook - World". CIA.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
11. ^ "IMF DataMapper / Datasets / World Economic Outlook (April 2024) / Population". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
12. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
13. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
14. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
15. ^ "Handbook on the compilation of statistics on illegal economic activities in national accounts and balance of payments". Eurostat. 6 March 2018.
16. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
17. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R. Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries that have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
18. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, Finance & Development, June 2018, Vol. 55, No. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
19. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
20. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
21. ^ "PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
22. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.