Arctic Circle

Summary

The Arctic Circle is one of the two polar circles, and the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth at about 66° 34' N.[1] Its southern equivalent is the Antarctic Circle.

The Arctic Circle, roughly 67° north of the Equator, defines the boundary of the arctic seas and lands

The Arctic Circle marks the southernmost latitude at which, on the Northern Hemisphere's winter solstice (which is the shortest day of the year), the Sun will not rise all day, and on the Northern Hemisphere's summer solstice (which is the longest day of the year), the Sun will not set. These phenomena are referred to as polar night and midnight sun respectively, and the further north one progresses, the more pronounced these effects become. For example, in the Russian port city of Murmansk, three degrees above the Arctic Circle, the Sun does not rise above the horizon for 40 successive days in midwinter.[2][3][4]

The position of the Arctic Circle is not fixed and currently runs 66°33′50.0″ north of the Equator.[5] Its latitude depends on the Earth's axial tilt, which fluctuates within a margin of more than 2° over a 41,000-year period, owing to tidal forces resulting from the orbit of the Moon.[6] Consequently, the Arctic Circle is currently drifting northwards at a speed of about 14.5 m (48 ft) per year.

Etymology

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The word arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός (arktikos: "near the Bear, northern")[7] and that from the word ἄρκτος (arktos: "bear").[8]

Midnight sun and polar night

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Relationship of Earth's axial tilt (ε) to the tropical and polar circles

The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the center of the Sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for twenty-four hours; as a result, at least once each year at any location within the Arctic Circle the center of the Sun is visible at local midnight, and at least once the center is not visible at local noon.[9]

Directly on the Arctic Circle these events occur, in principle, exactly once per year: at the June and December solstices, respectively. However, because of atmospheric refraction and mirages, and also because the sun appears as a disk and not a point, part of the midnight sun is visible, on the night of the northern summer solstice, at a latitude of about 50 minutes of arc (′) (90 km (56 mi)) south of the Arctic Circle. Similarly, on the day of the northern winter solstice, part of the sun may be seen up to about 50′ north of the Arctic Circle. That is true at sea level; those limits increase with elevation above sea level, although in mountainous regions there is often no direct view of the true horizon.

 
At night, bright aurora borealis are a fairly common sight in the Arctic Circle. The picture of the northern lights in Rovaniemi.

Human habitation

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Cylindrical projection showing the Arctic Circle in red

The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia, Norway, and Sweden: Murmansk (population 295,374) and Norilsk (178,018) in Russia; Tromsø (75,638) in Norway, Vorkuta (58,133) in Russia, Bodø (52,357), and Harstad (24,703) in Norway; and Kiruna, Sweden (22,841). Rovaniemi (62,667) in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle, lying 6 km (4 mi) south of the line. Salekhard (51,186) in Russia is the only city in the world located directly on the Arctic Circle.[10]

In contrast, the largest North American community north of the Arctic Circle, Sisimiut (Greenland), has approximately 5,600 inhabitants. In the United States, Utqiaġvik, Alaska (formerly known as Barrow), is the largest settlement north of the Arctic Circle with about 5,000 inhabitants. The largest such community in Canada is Inuvik in the Northwest Territories, with 3,137 inhabitants.

Geography

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The Arctic Circle is roughly 16,000 km (9,900 mi) in circumference.[11] The area north of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 (7,700,000 sq mi) and covers roughly 4% of Earth's surface.[12]

The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America, and Greenland. The land within the Arctic Circle is divided among eight countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the United States (Alaska), Canada (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut), Denmark (Greenland), and Iceland (where it passes through the small offshore island of Grímsey).

Climate

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The climate north of the Arctic Circle is generally cold, but the coastal areas of Norway have a generally mild climate as a result of the Gulf Stream, which makes the ports of northern Norway and northwest Russia ice-free all year long. In the interior, summers can be quite warm, while winters are extremely cold. For example, summer temperatures in Norilsk, Russia will sometimes reach as high as 30 °C (86 °F), while the winter temperatures frequently fall below −50 °C (−58 °F).

Sites along the Arctic Circle

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Starting at the prime meridian and heading eastwards, the Arctic Circle passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory, or ocean Notes
66°34′N 0°0′E / 66.567°N 0.000°E / 66.567; 0.000 (Prime Meridian)  Atlantic Ocean Norwegian Sea
66°34′N 12°3′E / 66.567°N 12.050°E / 66.567; 12.050 (Nordland County, Norway)   Norway Islands and skerries of Træna, Nordland County
66°34′N 12°18′E / 66.567°N 12.300°E / 66.567; 12.300 (Norwegian Sea) Atlantic Ocean Trænfjorden, Norwegian Sea
66°34′N 12°29′E / 66.567°N 12.483°E / 66.567; 12.483 (Nordland County, Norway)   Norway Islands and skerries of Nesøya, Nordland County
66°34′N 12°41′E / 66.567°N 12.683°E / 66.567; 12.683 (Norwegian Sea) Atlantic Ocean Nesøyfjorden, Norwegian Sea
66°34′N 12°49′E / 66.567°N 12.817°E / 66.567; 12.817 (Nordland County, Norway)   Norway Islands and skerries of Storseløya, Nordland County
66°34′N 12°52′E / 66.567°N 12.867°E / 66.567; 12.867 (Norwegian Sea) Atlantic Ocean Kvarøyfjorden, Norwegian Sea
66°34′N 12°57′E / 66.567°N 12.950°E / 66.567; 12.950 (Nordland County, Norway)   Norway Islands and skerries of Rangsundøya, Nordland County, including Vikingen Island
66°34′N 13°3′E / 66.567°N 13.050°E / 66.567; 13.050 (Norwegian Sea) Atlantic Ocean Værangsfjorden, Norwegian Sea
66°34′N 13°12′E / 66.567°N 13.200°E / 66.567; 13.200 (Nordland County, Norway)   Norway Nordland County
66°34′N 15°33′E / 66.567°N 15.550°E / 66.567; 15.550 (Norrbotten County, Sweden)   Sweden Norrbotten County (Provinces of Lapland and Norrbotten)
66°34′N 23°51′E / 66.567°N 23.850°E / 66.567; 23.850 (Lapland Province, Finland)   Finland Lapland Region, crosses Rovaniemi Airport
66°34′N 29°28′E / 66.567°N 29.467°E / 66.567; 29.467 (Karelia, Russia)   Russia Republic of Karelia
66°34′N 31°36′E / 66.567°N 31.600°E / 66.567; 31.600 (Murmansk, Russia) Murmansk Oblast
66°34′N 32°37′E / 66.567°N 32.617°E / 66.567; 32.617 (Karelia, Russia) Republic of Karelia
66°34′N 33°10′E / 66.567°N 33.167°E / 66.567; 33.167 (Murmansk, Russia) Grand Island, Murmansk Oblast
66°34′N 33°25′E / 66.567°N 33.417°E / 66.567; 33.417 (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea) Arctic Ocean Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea, Barents Sea
66°34′N 34°28′E / 66.567°N 34.467°E / 66.567; 34.467 (Murmansk Oblast, Russia)   Russia Kola Peninsula, Murmansk Oblast — for about 7 km (4.3 mi)
66°34′N 34°38′E / 66.567°N 34.633°E / 66.567; 34.633 (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea) Arctic Ocean Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea, Barents Sea
66°34′N 35°0′E / 66.567°N 35.000°E / 66.567; 35.000 (Murmansk Oblast, Kola Peninsula, Russia)   Russia Kola Peninsula, Murmansk Oblast
66°34′N 40°42′E / 66.567°N 40.700°E / 66.567; 40.700 (White Sea) Arctic Ocean White Sea, Barents Sea
66°34′N 44°23′E / 66.567°N 44.383°E / 66.567; 44.383 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia)   Russia Nenets Autonomous Okrug
66°34′N 50°51′E / 66.567°N 50.850°E / 66.567; 50.850 (Komi Republic, Russia) Komi Republic
66°34′N 63°48′E / 66.567°N 63.800°E / 66.567; 63.800 (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia) Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
66°34′N 71°5′E / 66.567°N 71.083°E / 66.567; 71.083 (Gulf of Ob) Arctic Ocean Gulf of Ob, Kara Sea
66°34′N 72°27′E / 66.567°N 72.450°E / 66.567; 72.450 (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia)   Russia Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
66°34′N 83°3′E / 66.567°N 83.050°E / 66.567; 83.050 (Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia) Krasnoyarsk Krai
66°34′N 106°18′E / 66.567°N 106.300°E / 66.567; 106.300 (Sakha Republic, Russia) Yukaghir Highlands, Sakha Republic
66°34′N 158°38′E / 66.567°N 158.633°E / 66.567; 158.633 (Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia) Anadyr Highlands and Chukotka Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
66°34′N 171°1′W / 66.567°N 171.017°W / 66.567; -171.017 (Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean) Arctic Ocean Chukchi Sea
66°34′N 164°38′W / 66.567°N 164.633°W / 66.567; -164.633 (Seward Peninsula, Alaska, United States)   United States Seward Peninsula, Alaska
66°34′N 163°44′W / 66.567°N 163.733°W / 66.567; -163.733 (Kotzebue Sound, Arctic Ocean) Arctic Ocean Kotzebue Sound, Chukchi Sea
66°34′N 161°56′W / 66.567°N 161.933°W / 66.567; -161.933 (Alaska, United States)   United States Alaska—passing through Selawik Lake
66°34′N 141°0′W / 66.567°N 141.000°W / 66.567; -141.000 (Yukon, Canada)   Canada Yukon
66°34′N 133°36′W / 66.567°N 133.600°W / 66.567; -133.600 (Northwest Territories, Canada) Northwest Territories, passing through Great Bear Lake
66°34′N 115°56′W / 66.567°N 115.933°W / 66.567; -115.933 (Nunavut, Canada) Nunavut
66°34′N 82°59′W / 66.567°N 82.983°W / 66.567; -82.983 (Foxe Basin, Hudson Bay) Arctic Ocean Foxe Basin
66°34′N 73°25′W / 66.567°N 73.417°W / 66.567; -73.417 (Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada)   Canada Nunavut (Baffin Island), passing through Nettilling Lake and Auyuittuq National Park (sign location)
66°34′N 61°24′W / 66.567°N 61.400°W / 66.567; -61.400 (Davis Strait, Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean Davis Strait
66°34′N 53°16′W / 66.567°N 53.267°W / 66.567; -53.267 (Greenland)   Greenland passing through Kangerlussuaq Fjord and Schweizerland
66°34′N 34°9′W / 66.567°N 34.150°W / 66.567; -34.150 (Denmark Strait, Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean Denmark Strait
66°34′N 26°18′W / 66.567°N 26.300°W / 66.567; -26.300 (Greenland Sea) Greenland Sea
66°34′N 18°1′W / 66.567°N 18.017°W / 66.567; -18.017 (Grímsey, Iceland)   Iceland Island of Grímsey
66°34′N 17°59′W / 66.567°N 17.983°W / 66.567; -17.983 (Greenland Sea, Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean Greenland Sea
66°34′N 12°32′W / 66.567°N 12.533°W / 66.567; -12.533 (Norwegian Sea) Norwegian Sea
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Polcirkeln portal in Gällivare, Sweden
 
Arctic Circle line in Rovaniemi, Finland c. 1865
 
Arctic Circle monument in Salekhard, Russia
 
A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle in Alaska
 
Aurora Borealis above Arctic Circle sign along the Dempster Highway in Yukon at 66°33′55″N 136°18′26″W / 66.56528°N 136.30722°W / 66.56528; -136.30722 (Arctic Circle sign)

See also

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References

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  1. ^ "Arctic FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions about the Arctic".
  2. ^ "40 days without the sun. How? Polar Night begins in Murmansk". Auroravillage.info. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  3. ^ Burn, Chris. The Polar Night (PDF). The Aurora Research Institute. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  4. ^ N.B.: This refers to the true geometric center which actually appears higher in the sky because of refraction by the atmosphere.
  5. ^ "Obliquity of the Ecliptic (Eps Mean)". Neoprogrammics.com. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  6. ^ Berger, A. L. (1976). "Obliquity and Precession for the Last 5000000 Years". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 51 (1): 127–135. Bibcode:1976A&A....51..127B.
  7. ^ Liddell, Henry; Scott, Robert. "Arktikos". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
  8. ^ Liddell, Henry; Scott, Robert. "Arktos". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
  9. ^ Burn, Chris. The Polar Night (PDF). The Aurora Research Institute. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  10. ^ Всеволод Липатов (26 April 2011). "Город на Полярном круге". ToGeo.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  11. ^ Nuttall, Mark (2004). Encyclopedia of the Arctic Volumes 1, 2 and 3. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 978-1579584368.
  12. ^ Marsh, William M.; Kaufman, Martin M. (2012). Physical Geography: Great Systems and Global Environments. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-76428-5.
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  • Terra Incognita: Exploration of the Canadian Arctic—Historical essay about early expeditions to the Canadian Arctic, illustrated with maps, photographs and drawings
  • Temporal Epoch Calculations ©2006 by James Q. Jacobs Download: Epoch v2009.xls (modify D4)
  • Useful constants" See: Obliquity of the ecliptic