Boron arsenide

Summary

Boron arsenide
Boron-arsenide-unit-cell-1963-CM-3D-balls.png
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Identifiers
  • 12005-69-5 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
ChemSpider
  • 8461243
  • 10285774
  • InChI=1S/AsB/c1-2
    Key: DBKNIEBLJMAJHX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • [B][As]
Properties
BAs
Molar mass 85.733 g/mol[1]
Appearance Brown cubic crystals[1]
Density 5.22 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 1,100 °C (2,010 °F; 1,370 K) decomposes[1]
Insoluble
Band gap 1.82 eV
Thermal conductivity 1300 W/(m·K) (300 K)
Structure[2]
Cubic (sphalerite), cF8, No. 216
F43m
a = 0.4777 nm
4
Related compounds
Other anions
Boron nitride
Boron phosphide
Boron antimonide
Other cations
Aluminium arsenide
Gallium arsenide
Indium arsenide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Boron subarsenide
B12As2 3D side view.jpg
Identifiers
  • 12005-70-8 checkY
Properties
B12As2
Molar mass 279.58 g/mol
Density 3.56 g/cm3[3]
Insoluble
Band gap 3.47 eV
Structure[4]
Rhombohedral, hR42, No. 166
R3m
a = 0.6149 nm, b = 0.6149 nm, c = 1.1914 nm
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°
6
Related compounds
Other anions
Boron suboxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Boron arsenide is a chemical compound involving boron and arsenic, usually with a chemical formula BAs. Other boron arsenide compounds are known, such as the subarsenide B12As2. Chemical synthesis of cubic BAs is very challenging and its single crystal forms usually have defects.

Properties

BAs is a cubic (sphalerite) semiconductor in the III-V family with a lattice constant of 0.4777 nm and an indirect band gap has been measured to be 1.82 eV. Cubic BAs is reported to decompose to the subarsenide B12As2 at temperatures above 920 °C.[5]Boron arsenide has a melting point of 2076°C. The thermal conductivity is very high: around 1300 W/(m·K) at 300 K.

The basic physical properties of cubic BAs have been experimentally characterized: Band gap (1.82 eV), optical refractive index (3.29 at 657 nm), elastic modulus (326 GPa), shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, thermal expansion coefficient (3.85×10-6 /K), and heat capacity. It can be alloyed with gallium arsenide to produce ternary and quaternary semiconductors.[6]

Boron subarsenide

Boron arsenide also occurs as subarsenides, including the icosahedral boride B12As2.It belongs to R3m space group with a rhombohedral structure based on clusters of boron atoms and two-atom As-As chains. It is a wide-bandgap semiconductor (3.47 eV) with the extraordinary ability to “self-heal” radiation damage.[7] This form can be grown on substrates such as silicon carbide.[8]

Applications

Boron arsenide is most attractive for use in electronics thermal management. Experimental integration with gallium nitride transistors to form GaN-BAs heterostructures has been demonstrated and shows better performance than the best GaN HEMT devices on silicon carbide or diamond substrates. Manufacturing BAs composites has been developed as highly conducting and flexible thermal interfaces. Other use for solar cell fabrication,[6][9] was proposed although it is not currently used for this purpose.

First-principles calculations have predicted that the thermal conductivity of cubic BAs is remarkably high, over 2,200 W/(m·K) at room temperature, which is comparable to that of diamond and graphite.[10] Subsequent measurements yielded a value of only 190 W/(m·K) due to the high density of defects.[11][12] More recent first-principles calculations incorporating four-phonon scattering predict a thermal conductivity of 1400 W/(m·K).[13] Later, defect-free boron arsenide crystals have been experimentally realized and measured with an ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 1300 W/(m·K), consistent with theory predictions. Crystals with small density of defects have shown thermal conductivity of 900–1000 W/(m·K).[14][15]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 4.53. ISBN 1-4398-5511-0.
  2. ^ Perri, J. A; La Placa, S; Post, B (1958). "New group III-group V compounds: BP and BAs". Acta Crystallographica. 11 (4): 310. doi:10.1107/S0365110X58000827.
  3. ^ Villars, Pierre (ed.) "B12As2 (B6As) Crystal Structure" in Inorganic Solid Phases, Springer, Heidelberg (ed.) SpringerMaterials
  4. ^ Morosin, B; Aselage, T. L; Feigelson, R. S (2011). "Crystal Structure Refinements of Rhombohedral Symmetry Materials Containing Boron-Rich Icosahedra". MRS Proceedings. 97. doi:10.1557/PROC-97-145.
  5. ^ Chu, T. L; Hyslop, A. E (1974). "Preparation and Properties of Boron Arsenide Films". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 121 (3): 412. Bibcode:1974JElS..121..412C. doi:10.1149/1.2401826.
  6. ^ a b Geisz, J. F; Friedman, D. J; Olson, J. M; Kurtz, Sarah R; Reedy, R. C; Swartzlander, A. B; Keyes, B. M; Norman, A. G (2000). "BGaInAs alloys lattice matched to GaAs". Applied Physics Letters. 76 (11): 1443. Bibcode:2000ApPhL..76.1443G. doi:10.1063/1.126058.
  7. ^ Carrard, M; Emin, D; Zuppiroli, L (1995). "Defect clustering and self-healing of electron-irradiated boron-rich solids". Physical Review B. 51 (17): 11270–11274. Bibcode:1995PhRvB..5111270C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.51.11270. PMID 9977852.
  8. ^ Chen, H.; Wang, G.; Dudley, M.; Xu, Z.; Edgar, J. H.; Batten, T.; Kuball, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y. (2008). "Single-Crystalline B12As2 on m-plane (1100) 15R-SiC". Applied Physics Letters. 92 (23): 231917. Bibcode:2008ApPhL..92w1917C. doi:10.1063/1.2945635. hdl:2097/2186.
  9. ^ Boone, J. L. and Vandoren, T. P. (1980) Boron arsenide thin film solar cell development, Final Report, Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Miami, OK. abstract.
  10. ^ An unlikely competitor for diamond as the best thermal conductor, Phys.org news (July 8, 2013)
  11. ^ Lv, Bing; Lan, Yucheng; Wang, Xiqu; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Yongjie; Jacobson, Allan J; Broido, David; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng; Chu, Ching-Wu (2015). "Experimental study of the proposed super-thermal-conductor: BAs" (PDF). Applied Physics Letters. 106 (7): 074105. Bibcode:2015ApPhL.106g4105L. doi:10.1063/1.4913441. hdl:1721.1/117852.
  12. ^ Zheng, Qiang; Polanco, Carlos A.; Du, Mao-Hua; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Chi, Miaofang; Yan, Jiaqiang; Sales, Brian C. (6 September 2018). "Antisite Pairs Suppress the Thermal Conductivity of BAs". Physical Review Letters. 121 (10): 105901. arXiv:1804.02381. Bibcode:2018PhRvL.121j5901Z. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.105901. PMID 30240242. S2CID 206316624.
  13. ^ Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin (2017). "Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids". Physical Review B. 96 (16): 161201. Bibcode:2017PhRvB..96p1201F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.96.161201.
  14. ^ Li, Sheng; Zheng, Qiye; Lv, Yinchuan; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xiqu; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Cahill, David G.; Lv, Bing (2018). "High thermal conductivity in cubic boron arsenide crystals". Science. 361 (6402): 579–581. Bibcode:2018Sci...361..579L. doi:10.1126/science.aat8982. PMID 29976796.
  15. ^ Tian, Fei; Song, Bai; Chen, Xi; Ravichandran, Navaneetha K; Lv, Yinchuan; Chen, Ke; Sullivan, Sean; Kim, Jaehyun; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Te-Huan; Goni, Miguel; Ding, Zhiwei; Sun, Jingying; Gamage, Geethal Amila Gamage Udalamatta; Sun, Haoran; Ziyaee, Hamidreza; Huyan, Shuyuan; Deng, Liangzi; Zhou, Jianshi; Schmidt, Aaron J; Chen, Shuo; Chu, Ching-Wu; Huang, Pinshane Y; Broido, David; Shi, Li; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng (2018). "Unusual high thermal conductivity in boron arsenide bulk crystals". Science. 361 (6402): 582–585. Bibcode:2018Sci...361..582T. doi:10.1126/science.aat7932. PMID 29976797.

External links

  • 2020 paper by Malica and Dal Corso - Temperature dependent elastic constants and thermodynamic properties of BAs: An ab initio investigation
  • Matweb data
  • King, R. B. (1999). Boron Chemistry at the Millennium. New York: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-72006-5.
  • Ownby, P. D. (1975). "Ordered Boron Arsenide". Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 58 (7–8): 359–360. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1975.tb11514.x.