China National Nuclear Corporation


China National Nuclear Corporation
Native name
IndustryNuclear technology
PredecessorMinistry of Nuclear Industry
HeadquartersBeijing, China
Key people
Sun Qin (President)[2]
ProductsNuclear weapons, nuclear power generation
OwnerState-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission
Number of employees
SubsidiariesChina Nuclear International Uranium Corporation
China National Nuclear Corporation
Simplified Chinese中国核工业集团公司
Traditional Chinese中國核工業集團公司

The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC; Chinese: 中国核工业集团公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hé Gōngyè Jítuán Gōngsī) is a state-owned enterprise founded in 1955 in Beijing.[1][4][5] CNNC's president and vice-president are appointed by the Premier of the People's Republic of China. CNNC oversees all aspects of China's civilian and military nuclear programs.[6] According to its own mission statement, it "is a main part of the national nuclear technology industry and a leading element of national strategic nuclear forces and nuclear energy development."[7] CNNC is a nationwide industrial conglomerate integrating science, technology, industry, and international trade.[8]

Its headquarters are in Xicheng District, Beijing.[9]


The Ministry of Nuclear Industry built China's first atom bomb, hydrogen bomb and nuclear submarine.[citation needed] It functioned as a government bureau for the national nuclear industry and reported directly to the State Council. It oversaw China's nuclear-related corporations, manufacturers, institutions, research institutes, and plants, including those related to nuclear weapons. It was responsible for the design and operation of nuclear power plants; nuclear fuel production and supply, including the processing of natural uranium, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel assembly fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing, and nuclear waste disposal.[citation needed]

In 1988 the Ministry of Nuclear Industry was re-organised and became the CNNC. The corporatization was partly carried out to gain funds from outside of the government via exports.[10]

In the mid 1990s, CNNC had 300,000 employees and managed 200 organisations.[10]

Kang Rixin, a senior general manager is currently being investigated (as of August 10, 2009) for $260 million that was earmarked for the construction of three nuclear plants and allegedly used the funds for the stock market sustaining heavy losses. He is also accused of accepting bribes from a foreign company that intended to build nuclear power stations in China.[11][12]

As of 2014 CNNC has 100,000 employees and 110 subsidiaries. It has 4 nuclear power plants with 9 reactors in operation with a generation capacity of 6.5 GWe, with a further 12 reactors under construction.[1]

In June 2015, CNNC announced it would aim to raise 13.19 billion Chinese yuan in an initial public offering, that if successful, would be the largest in China in almost four years previously.[13] In September 2015, CNNC signed a memorandum of understanding with Bill Gates-backed TerraPower for the construction of a traveling wave reactor.[14]

In September, CNNC announced a project with the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory to create the Joint Research and Innovation Centre. The centre will investigate aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. The UK and China will jointly fund the project over five years at the cost of £50 million.[15]

As of 2017, CNNC was developing a 400 MWth heat-only reactor for district heating.[16]

In 2018, CNNC acquired nuclear power plant builder China Nuclear Engineering & Construction Corp (CNECC).[17][18]

U.S. sanctions

In August 2020, the United States Department of Defense published the names of companies linked to the People's Liberation Army operating directly or indirectly in the United States. CNNC and CNECC were included on the list.[19][20] In November 2020, Donald Trump issued an executive order prohibiting any American company or individual from owning shares in companies that the United States Department of Defense has listed as having links to the People's Liberation Army, which included the two companies above.[21][22][23]

Reactor designs

Pressurized water reactors

The CNP-300 pressurized water reactor was the first reactor design developed domestically in China. The first unit began operation at Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in 1991. A larger version of the reactor, the CNP-600, was installed at Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant, with two units operational from 2015 and 2016, respectively. A three loop, 1000-MW version of the CNP reactor, the CNP-1000, was under development since the 1990s, and two units were installed at Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Plant, but the effort has since shifted towards the development of the more advanced generation-III ACP-1000.[24]

Since 2011 CNNC has been progressively merging its ACP-1000 nuclear power station design[25] with the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) ACPR-1000 design, while allowing some differences, under direction of the Chinese nuclear regulator. Both are three-loop designs originally based on the same French design, but now have different nuclear cores.[26] The first two ACP1000 units will be built at Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant.[25] In early 2014, it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1150 MWe, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. Initially the merged design was to be called the ACC-1000,[27][28][29] but ultimately it was named Hualong One. In August 2014 the Chinese nuclear regulator review panel classified the design as a Generation III reactor design, with independently owned intellectual property rights.[30][31] The first units to be constructed will be Fuqing 5 and 6, Fangjiashan 3 and 4, and a build has been proposed in Argentina.[32][33][34]

Advanced CANDU reactor

In September 2016 it was announced that SNC-Lavalin has signed an agreement in principle with CNNC and the Shanghai Electric Group to design, market and build the advanced CANDU reactor. Its ability to use reprocessed uranium will reduce China's stock of spent nuclear fuel.[35]


CNNC has developed a pool-type light-water reactor for district heating, called the DHR-400 (District Heating Reactor 400 MWt). It operates at low temperature and air pressure, so is easy to operate and decommission.[36] Building cost is 1.5 billion yuan ($230 million), taking three years to build. It is well suited for the existing centralised heating systems of northern Chinese cities, currently often coal fueled.[37]

In February 2019, China's State Power Investment Corporation (SPIC) signed a cooperation agreement with the Baishan municipal government in Jilin province for the Baishan Nuclear Energy Heating Demonstration Project, which would use a DHR-400.[38]


In July 2019, CNNC announced it would start building a demonstration ACP100 small modular reactor on the north-west side of the existing Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant by the end of the year.[39] Design of the ACP100 started in 2010. It is a fully integrated reactor module with an internal coolant system, with a 2-year refueling interval, producing 385 MWt and about 125 MWe.[40] In July 2021 the announcement was made that the construction of the first ACP100 has been started. [41] The reactor type is also called Linglong One.

See also


  1. ^ a b c CNNC (27 January 2014). "CNNC: The Main Force of Nuclear Power Development in China". UK Trade & Industry (Market Briefing). pp. 64–98. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  2. ^ "Managements". Official website of CNNC. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  3. ^ "About us". China National Nuclear Corporation. Archived from the original on 2015-05-07. Retrieved 2014-11-02.
  4. ^ "Nuclear Industry in China" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-07-09. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  5. ^ "Conference brochure" (PDF). 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-25. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  6. ^ Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (2020-06-24). "Defense Department produces list of Chinese military-linked companies, 20 years after mandate". Axios. Archived from the original on 2020-06-25. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  7. ^ "Company Profile". China National Nuclear Corporation. 2016-02-01. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  8. ^ "China National Nuclear Corporation". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. June 11, 2020. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  9. ^ "Contact Us". China National Nuclear Corporation. Retrieved 2021-03-02. Address: No 1 Nansanxiang, Sanlihe, Xicheng district, Beijing, P.R. China - Chinese address: "北京市西城区三里河南三巷一号"
  10. ^ a b "China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC)". Nuclear Threat Initiative. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Beijing airport ex-head executed". August 7, 2009. Archived from the original on November 12, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2009 – via
  12. ^ China’s Rapid Reactor Expansion Raises Concerns Archived 2017-02-11 at the Wayback Machine KEITH BRADSHER, Published: December 15, 2009
  13. ^ Reuters Archived 2015-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, China National Nuclear aims to raise $2.13 billion in largest IPO since 2011, Reuters, 31 May 2015
  14. ^ "TerraPower, CNNC team up on travelling wave reactor". World Nuclear News. 25 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
  15. ^ "UK-China Joint Research and Innovation Centre". National Nuclear Laboratory. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  16. ^ "China looks to nuclear option to ease winter heating woes". Reuters. 2017-12-10. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
  17. ^ "More consolidation for China's nuclear industry". Nuclear Engineering International. 1 February 2018. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  18. ^ "CNNC merges China Nuclear Engineering & Construction Co". CNNC. 2018-01-31. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  19. ^ "DOD Releases List of Additional Companies, in Accordance with Section 1237 of FY19 NDAA". U.S. Department of Defense. August 28, 2020. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  20. ^ "Qualifying Entities Prepared in Response to Section 1237 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (PUBLIC LAW 105–261)" (PDF). U.S. Department of Defense. August 28, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  21. ^ Chen, Shawna (November 12, 2020). "Trump bans Americans from investing in 31 companies with links to Chinese military". Axios. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  22. ^ Pamuk, Humeyra; Alper, Alexandra; Ali, Idrees (2020-11-12). "Trump bans U.S. investments in firms linked to Chinese military". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  23. ^ Swanson, Ana (2020-11-12). "Trump Bars Investment in Chinese Firms With Military Ties". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  24. ^ "Chinese reactor design evolution - Nuclear Engineering International". Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  25. ^ a b Wang Yanjun; et al. (22 May 2013). "I&C application status in NPPs in China" (PDF). China Nuclear Power Engineering Co. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  26. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  27. ^ "CGN Chairman He Yu Makes Proposal for Promoting Export of China-designed Nuclear Power Technology ACC1000". CGN. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  28. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  29. ^ Caroline Peachey (22 May 2014). "Chinese reactor design evolution". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  30. ^ "China's new nuclear baby". World Nuclear News. 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  31. ^ "Independent Gen-III Hualong-1 reactor technology passes national review". CGN. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  32. ^ "Hualong One deployment at Fuqing 5". World Nuclear News. 4 November 2014. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  33. ^ "Hualong One selected for Argentina". World Nuclear News. 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  34. ^ Charlie Zhu and David Stanway (6 March 2015). "'Made in China' nuclear reactors a tough sell in global market". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  35. ^ Marotte, Bertrand (2016-09-22). "SNC-Lavalin strikes deal to build nuclear reactors in China". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 2017-04-19. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  36. ^ "CNNC completes design of district heating reactor". World Nuclear News. 7 September 2018. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  37. ^ Stanway, David (10 December 2017). "China looks to nuclear option to ease winter heating woes". Reuters. Archived from the original on 9 June 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  38. ^ "China signs agreement for nuclear heating demonstration project". Nuclear Engineering International. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  39. ^ "CNNC launches demonstration SMR project". World Nuclear News. 22 July 2019. Archived from the original on 9 August 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  40. ^ "Specific Design Consideration of ACP100 for Application in the Middle East and North Africa Region" (PDF). CNNC. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  41. ^ "China launches first commercial onshore small reactor project". 14 July 2021. Archived from the original on 2021-07-14. Retrieved 14 July 2021.

Further reading

  • The Impact of Government Restructuring on Chinese Nuclear Arms Control and Nonproliferation Policymaking, Wen L. Hsu, The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1999, p. 155.

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata