In probability theory and statistics, covariance is a measure of the joint variability of two random variables.[1] If the greater values of one variable mainly correspond with the greater values of the other variable, and the same holds for the lesser values (that is, the variables tend to show similar behavior), the covariance is positive.[2] In the opposite case, when the greater values of one variable mainly correspond to the fewer values of the other, (that is, the variables tend to show opposite behavior), the covariance is negative. The sign of the covariance, therefore, shows the tendency in the linear relationship between the variables. The magnitude of the covariance is the geometric mean of the variances that are in-common for the two random variables. The correlation coefficient normalizes the covariance by dividing by the geometric mean of the total variances for the two random variables.

The sign of the covariance of two random variables X and Y

A distinction must be made between (1) the covariance of two random variables, which is a population parameter that can be seen as a property of the joint probability distribution, and (2) the sample covariance, which in addition to serving as a descriptor of the sample, also serves as an estimated value of the population parameter.


For two jointly distributed real-valued random variables   and   with finite second moments, the covariance is defined as the expected value (or mean) of the product of their deviations from their individual expected values:[3][4]: p. 119 


where   is the expected value of  , also known as the mean of  . The covariance is also sometimes denoted   or  , in analogy to variance. By using the linearity property of expectations, this can be simplified to the expected value of their product minus the product of their expected values:


but this equation is susceptible to catastrophic cancellation (see the section on numerical computation below).

The units of measurement of the covariance   are those of   times those of  . By contrast, correlation coefficients, which depend on the covariance, are a dimensionless measure of linear dependence. (In fact, correlation coefficients can simply be understood as a normalized version of covariance.)

Definition for complex random variablesEdit

The covariance between two complex random variables   is defined as[4]: p. 119 


Notice the complex conjugation of the second factor in the definition.

A related pseudo-covariance can also be defined.

Discrete random variablesEdit

If the (real) random variable pair   can take on the values   for  , with equal probabilities  , then the covariance can be equivalently written in terms of the means   and   as


It can also be equivalently expressed, without directly referring to the means, as[5]


More generally, if there are   possible realizations of  , namely   but with possibly unequal probabilities   for  , then the covariance is



Consider 3 independent random variables   and two constants  .


In the special case,   and  , the covariance between   and  , is just the variance of   and the name covariance is entirely appropriate.

Geometric interpretation of the covariance example. Each cuboid is the axis-aligned bounding box of its point (x, y, f (x, y)), and the X and Y means (magenta point). The covariance is the sum of the volumes of the cuboids in the 1st and 3rd quadrants (red) minus those in the 2nd and 4th (blue).

Suppose that   and   have the following joint probability mass function,[6] in which the six central cells give the discrete joint probabilities   of the six hypothetical realizations  :

5 6 7
y 8 0 0.4 0.1 0.5
9 0.3 0 0.2 0.5
  0.3 0.4 0.3 1

  can take on three values (5, 6 and 7) while   can take on two (8 and 9). Their means are   and  . Then,



Covariance with itselfEdit

The variance is a special case of the covariance in which the two variables are identical (that is, in which one variable always takes the same value as the other):[4]: 121 


Covariance of linear combinationsEdit

If  ,  ,  , and   are real-valued random variables and   are real-valued constants, then the following facts are a consequence of the definition of covariance:


For a sequence   of random variables in real-valued, and constants  , we have


Hoeffding's covariance identityEdit

A useful identity to compute the covariance between two random variables   is the Hoeffding's covariance identity:[7]


where   is the joint cumulative distribution function of the random vector   and   are the marginals.

Uncorrelatedness and independenceEdit

Random variables whose covariance is zero are called uncorrelated.[4]: p. 121  Similarly, the components of random vectors whose covariance matrix is zero in every entry outside the main diagonal are also called uncorrelated.

If   and   are independent random variables, then their covariance is zero.[4]: p. 123 [8] This follows because under independence,


The converse, however, is not generally true. For example, let   be uniformly distributed in   and let  . Clearly,   and   are not independent, but


In this case, the relationship between   and   is non-linear, while correlation and covariance are measures of linear dependence between two random variables. This example shows that if two random variables are uncorrelated, that does not in general imply that they are independent. However, if two variables are jointly normally distributed (but not if they are merely individually normally distributed), uncorrelatedness does imply independence.

Relationship to inner productsEdit

Many of the properties of covariance can be extracted elegantly by observing that it satisfies similar properties to those of an inner product:

  1. bilinear: for constants   and   and random variables    
  2. symmetric:  
  3. positive semi-definite:   for all random variables  , and   implies that   is constant almost surely.

In fact these properties imply that the covariance defines an inner product over the quotient vector space obtained by taking the subspace of random variables with finite second moment and identifying any two that differ by a constant. (This identification turns the positive semi-definiteness above into positive definiteness.) That quotient vector space is isomorphic to the subspace of random variables with finite second moment and mean zero; on that subspace, the covariance is exactly the L2 inner product of real-valued functions on the sample space.

As a result, for random variables with finite variance, the inequality


holds via the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality.

Proof: If  , then it holds trivially. Otherwise, let random variable


Then we have


Calculating the sample covarianceEdit

The sample covariances among   variables based on   observations of each, drawn from an otherwise unobserved population, are given by the   matrix   with the entries


which is an estimate of the covariance between variable   and variable  .

The sample mean and the sample covariance matrix are unbiased estimates of the mean and the covariance matrix of the random vector  , a vector whose jth element   is one of the random variables. The reason the sample covariance matrix has   in the denominator rather than   is essentially that the population mean   is not known and is replaced by the sample mean  . If the population mean   is known, the analogous unbiased estimate is given by



Auto-covariance matrix of real random vectorsEdit

For a vector   of   jointly distributed random variables with finite second moments, its auto-covariance matrix (also known as the variance–covariance matrix or simply the covariance matrix)   (also denoted by   or  ) is defined as[9]: p.335 


Let   be a random vector with covariance matrix Σ, and let A be a matrix that can act on   on the left. The covariance matrix of the matrix-vector product A X is:


This is a direct result of the linearity of expectation and is useful when applying a linear transformation, such as a whitening transformation, to a vector.

Cross-covariance matrix of real random vectorsEdit

For real random vectors   and  , the   cross-covariance matrix is equal to[9]: p.336 







where   is the transpose of the vector (or matrix)  .

The  -th element of this matrix is equal to the covariance   between the i-th scalar component of   and the j-th scalar component of  . In particular,   is the transpose of  .

Cross-covariance sesquilinear form of random vectors in a real or complex Hilbert spaceEdit

More generally let   and  , be Hilbert spaces over   or   with   anti linear in the first variable, and let   be   resp.   valued random variables. Then the covariance of   and   is the sesquilinear form on   (anti linear in the first variable) given by


Numerical computationEdit

When  , the equation   is prone to catastrophic cancellation if   and   are not computed exactly and thus should be avoided in computer programs when the data has not been centered before.[10] Numerically stable algorithms should be preferred in this case.[11]


The covariance is sometimes called a measure of "linear dependence" between the two random variables. That does not mean the same thing as in the context of linear algebra (see linear dependence). When the covariance is normalized, one obtains the Pearson correlation coefficient, which gives the goodness of the fit for the best possible linear function describing the relation between the variables. In this sense covariance is a linear gauge of dependence.


In genetics and molecular biologyEdit

Covariance is an important measure in biology. Certain sequences of DNA are conserved more than others among species, and thus to study secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, or of RNA structures, sequences are compared in closely related species. If sequence changes are found or no changes at all are found in noncoding RNA (such as microRNA), sequences are found to be necessary for common structural motifs, such as an RNA loop. In genetics, covariance serves a basis for computation of Genetic Relationship Matrix (GRM) (aka kinship matrix), enabling inference on population structure from sample with no known close relatives as well as inference on estimation of heritability of complex traits.

In the theory of evolution and natural selection, the Price equation describes how a genetic trait changes in frequency over time. The equation uses a covariance between a trait and fitness, to give a mathematical description of evolution and natural selection. It provides a way to understand the effects that gene transmission and natural selection have on the proportion of genes within each new generation of a population.[12][13] The Price equation was derived by George R. Price, to re-derive W.D. Hamilton's work on kin selection. Examples of the Price equation have been constructed for various evolutionary cases.

In financial economicsEdit

Covariances play a key role in financial economics, especially in modern portfolio theory and in the capital asset pricing model. Covariances among various assets' returns are used to determine, under certain assumptions, the relative amounts of different assets that investors should (in a normative analysis) or are predicted to (in a positive analysis) choose to hold in a context of diversification.

In meteorological and oceanographic data assimilationEdit

The covariance matrix is important in estimating the initial conditions required for running weather forecast models, a procedure known as data assimilation. The 'forecast error covariance matrix' is typically constructed between perturbations around a mean state (either a climatological or ensemble mean). The 'observation error covariance matrix' is constructed to represent the magnitude of combined observational errors (on the diagonal) and the correlated errors between measurements (off the diagonal). This is an example of its widespread application to Kalman filtering and more general state estimation for time-varying systems.

In micrometeorologyEdit

The eddy covariance technique is a key atmospherics measurement technique where the covariance between instantaneous deviation in vertical wind speed from the mean value and instantaneous deviation in gas concentration is the basis for calculating the vertical turbulent fluxes.

In signal processingEdit

The covariance matrix is used to capture the spectral variability of a signal.[14]

In statistics and image processingEdit

The covariance matrix is used in principal component analysis to reduce feature dimensionality in data preprocessing.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Rice, John (2007). Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. p. 138. ISBN 978-0534-39942-9.
  2. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Covariance". MathWorld.
  3. ^ Oxford Dictionary of Statistics, Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 104.
  4. ^ a b c d e Park,Kun Il (2018). Fundamentals of Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications to Communications. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-68074-3.
  5. ^ Yuli Zhang, Huaiyu Wu, Lei Cheng (June 2012). Some new deformation formulas about variance and covariance. Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control(ICMIC2012). pp. 987–992.{{cite conference}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ "Covariance of X and Y | STAT 414/415". The Pennsylvania State University. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  7. ^ Papoulis (1991). Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes. McGraw-Hill.
  8. ^ Siegrist, Kyle. "Covariance and Correlation". University of Alabama in Huntsville. Retrieved Oct 3, 2022.
  9. ^ a b Gubner, John A. (2006). Probability and Random Processes for Electrical and Computer Engineers. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86470-1.
  10. ^ Donald E. Knuth (1998). The Art of Computer Programming, volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms, 3rd edn., p. 232. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
  11. ^ Schubert, Erich; Gertz, Michael (2018). "Numerically stable parallel computation of (co-)variance". Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management – SSDBM '18. Bozen-Bolzano, Italy: ACM Press: 1–12. doi:10.1145/3221269.3223036. ISBN 9781450365055. S2CID 49665540.
  12. ^ Price, George (1970). "Selection and covariance". Nature. 227 (5257): 520–521. Bibcode:1970Natur.227..520P. doi:10.1038/227520a0. PMID 5428476. S2CID 4264723.
  13. ^ Harman, Oren (2020). "When science mirrors life: on the origins of the Price equation". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 375 (1797): 1–7. doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0352. PMC 7133509. PMID 32146891. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  14. ^ Sahidullah, Md.; Kinnunen, Tomi (March 2016). "Local spectral variability features for speaker verification". Digital Signal Processing. 50: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.dsp.2015.10.011.