Cycnorhamphus

Summary

Cycnorhamphus
Temporal range: Late Jurassic, 152 Ma
Cycnorhamphus suevicus.jpg
Juvenile specimen
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Clade: Ctenochasmatoidea
Family: Gallodactylidae
Genus: Cycnorhamphus
Seeley, 1870
Species:
C. suevicus
Binomial name
Cycnorhamphus suevicus
(Quenstedt, 1855)
Synonyms
  • Pterodactylus suevicus
    Quenstedt, 1855
  • Pterodactylus württembergicus
    Meyer, 1855
  • Pterodactylus eurychirus
    Wagner, 1858
  • Gallodactylus canjuersensis
    Fabre, 1974

Cycnorhamphus (meaning "swan beak") is a genus of gallodactylid ctenochasmatoid pterosaur from the Late Jurassic of France and Germany.[1] It is probably synonymous with the genus Gallodactylus.

History

In 1855 a fossil in a plate of shale from the Tithonian, found near Nusplingen in Württemberg, holotype GPIT "Orig. Quenstedt 1855, Taf. 1", was named Pterodactylus suevicus by Friedrich August Quenstedt.[2] In 1870 Harry Govier Seeley assigned it to a new genus: Cycnorhamphus. In 1907 however, Felix Plieninger rejected this split, an opinion then shared by most paleontologists. In 1974 Jacques Fabre, when concluding that a new species found and named by him, Gallodactylus canjuersensis, was the same genus as P. suevicus, did not revive Cycnorhamphus, but judged that the latter name was unavailable because of mistakes in the diagnosis by Seeley. P. suevicus thus became Gallodactylus suevicus. However, in 1996 Christopher Bennett pointed out that such mistakes do not invalidate a name and that therefore Cycnorhamphus has priority, making Gallodactylus canjuersensis C. canjuersensis.[2] In 2010 and 2012, Bennett published further re-studies of the fossils, concluding that the differences between the two species could be explained by age, sex or individual variation, and formally synonymized C. canjuersensis and C. suevicus.[3]

Description

Skull of the "Painten Pelican", Burgmeister Muller Museum

Cycnorhamphus had historically been assumed to have had long jaws with teeth at the very tip, akin to those of Pterodactylus antiquus. However, recent work on a specimen nicknamed "The Painten Pelican"[4] has revealed that the animal possesses a very unusual jaw anatomy, with peg-like teeth at the jaw tips - blunter and stouter in older individuals -, jaw curvatures behind said teeth that form angled arcs away from the biting surface, forming thus an opening, and two poorly understood soft tissue structures occupying this opening from the upper jaw, showing mineralisation. The purpose of these adaptations is unknown,[5] but they are more obvious and well developed in adult animals. It has been speculated that the jaws functioned similar to those of openbill storks, allowing the animal to hold hard invertebrates like mollusks and either crush or bisect them.[6]

Classification

As illustrated below, the results of a slightly different topology are based on a phylogenetic analysis made by Longrich, Martill, and Andres in 2018. They placed the Cycnorhamphus within the clade Euctenochasmatia, and more precisely within the family Gallodactylidae.[7]

Archaeopterodactyloidea
Germanodactylidae

Germanodactylus cristatus

Germanodactylus rhamphastinusAltmuehlopterus DB.jpg

Euctenochasmatia

Pterodactylus antiquusPterodactylus BMMS7 life.png

Ctenochasmatoidea
Gallodactylidae

Cycnorhamphus suevicus

Normannognathus wellnhoferi

CtenochasmatidaePterodaustro BW.jpg

See also

References

  1. ^ Unwin, David M. (2006). The Pterosaurs: From Deep Time. New York: Pi Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-13-146308-X.
  2. ^ a b Bennett, S. Christopher (1996). "On the taxonomic status of Cycnorhamphus and Gallodactylus (Pterosauria: Pterodactyloidea)". Journal of Paleontology. 70 (2): 335–338.
  3. ^ Bennett, S. C. (2013). "The morphology and taxonomy of the pterosaur Cycnorhamphus". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen. 267: 23–41. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2012/0295.
  4. ^ Bennett (2013)
  5. ^ Frey and Tischlinger (2010)
  6. ^ Witton, Mark P. (2013), Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy
  7. ^ Longrich, N.R.; Martill, D.M.; Andres, B. (2018). "Late Maastrichtian pterosaurs from North Africa and mass extinction of Pterosauria at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary". PLoS Biology. 16 (3): e2001663. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2001663. PMC 5849296. PMID 29534059.