Gerhard Herzberg


Gerhard Herzberg

Herzberg,Gerhard 1952 London.jpg
Gerhard Herzberg, London 1952
Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg

December 25, 1904
DiedMarch 3, 1999(1999-03-03) (aged 94)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Alma materTechnische Universität Darmstadt
Scientific career
Fieldsphysical chemist
InstitutionsCarleton University, National Research Council of Canada, University of Saskatchewan
Doctoral studentsTakeshi Oka

Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, PC CC FRSC FRS[1] (German: [ˈɡeːɐ̯.haʁt ˈhɛʁt͡sˌbɛʁk] (audio speaker iconlisten); December 25, 1904 – March 3, 1999) was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".[2] Herzberg's main work concerned atomic and molecular spectroscopy. He is well known for using these techniques that determine the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules, including free radicals which are difficult to investigate in any other way, and for the chemical analysis of astronomical objects. Herzberg served as Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from 1973 to 1980.

Early life and family

Herzberg was born in Hamburg, Germany on December 25, 1904 to Albin H. Herzberg and Ella Biber.[3] He had an older brother, Walter, who was born in January 1904.[4] Herzberg started Vorschule (pre-school) late, after contracting measles.[5] Gerhard and his family were atheists and kept this fact hidden.[4] His father died in 1914, at 43 years of age, after having suffered from dropsy and complications due to an earlier heart condition. Herzberg graduated Vorschule shortly after his father's death.[6] His wife died in 1971.

Education and career

Initially, Herzberg considered a career in astronomy, but his application to the Hamburg Observatory was returned advising him not to pursue a career in the field without private financial support.[7] After completing high school at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums, Herzberg continued his education at Darmstadt University of Technology with the help of a private scholarship.[7][8][9] Herzberg completed his Dr.-Ing. degree under Hans Rau in 1928.[7]

Honours and awards

Herzberg's most significant award was the 1971 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which he was awarded "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".[2] During the presentation speech, it was noted that at the time of the award, Herzberg was "generally considered to be the world's foremost molecular spectroscopist."[13]

Herzberg was honoured with memberships or fellowships by a very large number of scientific societies, received many awards and honorary degrees in different countries. The NSERC Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering, Canada's highest research award, was named in his honour in 2000. The Canadian Association of Physicists also has an annual award named in his honour. The Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics is named for him. He was made a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. Asteroid 3316 Herzberg is named after him. In 1964 he was awarded the Frederic Ives Medal by the OSA. At Carleton University, there is a building named after him that belongs to the Physics and Mathematics/Statistics Departments, Herzberg Laboratories. Herzberg was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1951.[1]

The main building of John Abbott College in Montreal is named after him. Carleton University named the Herzberg Laboratories building after him. A public park in the College Park neighbourhood of Saskatoon also bears his name.

Books and publications

Herzberg authored some classic works in the field of spectroscopy, including Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure and the encyclopaedic four volume work: Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, which is often called the spectroscopist's bible.[4] The three volumes of Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure were re-issued by Krieger in 1989, including extensive new footnotes by Herzberg. Volume IV of the series, "Constants of diatomic molecules" is purely a reference work, a compendium of known spectroscopic constants (and therefore a bibliography of molecular spectroscopy) of diatomic molecules up until 1978.

  • Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure. (Dover Books, New York, 2010, ISBN 0-486-60115-3)
  • The spectra and structures of simple free radicals: An introduction to molecular spectroscopy. (Dover Books, New York, 1971, ISBN 0-486-65821-X).
  • Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure: I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules. (Krieger, 1989, ISBN 0-89464-268-5)
  • Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure: II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules. (Krieger, 1989, ISBN 0-89464-269-3)
  • Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure: III. Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Polyatomic Molecules. (Krieger, 1989, ISBN 0-89464-270-7)
  • Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure IV. Constants of Diatomic Molecules, K. P. Huber and G. Herzberg, (Van nostrand Reinhold company, New York, 1979, ISBN 0-442-23394-9).


There are Gerhard Herzberg fonds at Library and Archives Canada and at National Research Council Canada.[14][15]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Stoicheff, B. P. (2003). "Gerhard Herzberg PC CC. 25 December 1904 - 3 March 1999". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 49: 179–195. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2003.0011.
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971". Nobel Media. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  3. ^ "Gerhard Herzberg: The Person". GCS Research Society. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
  4. ^ a b c Stoicheff 2002
  5. ^ Stoicheff 2002, p. 7
  6. ^ Stoicheff 2002, p. 8
  7. ^ a b c "GERHARD HERZBERG". GCS Research Society. Retrieved 2015-02-07.
  8. ^ Naransinham, N.A. and Ahmad, S.A. (1999). "Gerhard Herzberg – An obituary". Indian Institute of Science. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
  9. ^ "Gerhard Herzberg". Schola nostra. Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Record at the Royal Society's archive
  11. ^ Laureates 1971 at
  12. ^ "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  13. ^ "Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971 Award Ceremony Speech". Nobel Media. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  14. ^ "Gerhard Herzberg fonds, Library and Archives Canada".
  15. ^ "Gerhard Herzberg fonds, National Research Council Canada".

Further reading

  • Devorkin, David H. (2000). "Obituary: Gerhard Herzberg, 1904-1999". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 32 (4): 1669–1670. Bibcode:2000BAAS...32.1669D.
  • Herschbach, Dudley (22 April 1999). "Obituary: Gerhard Herzberg (1904-99)". Nature. 398 (6729): 670. Bibcode:1999Natur.398..670H. doi:10.1038/19436. S2CID 4302781.
  • Stoicheff, Boris (2002). Gerhard Herzberg : an illustrious life in science. Ottawa: NRC Press. ISBN 9780660187570.

External links

  • Gerhard Herzberg on Edit this at Wikidata including the Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1971 Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Structure
  • profile
  • Canadian Science and Technology Museum Hall of Fame
  • Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • Order of Canada citation
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by President of the Royal Society of Canada
Succeeded by