| Guadalupian Epoch|
272.95–259.1 million years ago
|Subdivision of the Permian system|
according to the ICS, as of 2017.
The Guadalupian is the second and middle series/epoch of the Permian. The Guadalupian was preceded by the Cisuralian and followed by the Lopingian. It is named after the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico and date between 272.3 ± 0.5 – 259.8 ± 0.4 Mya. The series saw the rise of the therapsids, a minor extinction event called Olson’s Extinction and a significant mass extinction called the end-Capitanian extinction event.
The Guadalupian was previously known as the Middle Permian.
Name and background
The Guadalupian is the second and middle series or epoch of the Permian. Previously called Middle Permian, the name of this epoch is part of a revision of Permian stratigraphy for standard global correlation. The name "Guadalupian" was first proposed in the early 1900s, and approved by the International Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy in 1996. References to the Middle Permian still exist. The Guadalupian was preceded by the Cisuralian and followed by the Lopingian. It is named after the Guadalupe Mountains in New Mexico. The International Chronostratigraphic Chart (v2018/07) provides a numerical age of 272.3 ± 0.5 – 259.8 ± 0.4 Mya.
Therapsids became the dominant land animals in Guadalupian, displacing the pelycosaurs. Therapsids evolved from a group of pelycosaurs called sphenacodonts. Therapsida consists of four major clades: the dinocephalians, the herbivorous anomodonts, the carnivorous biarmosuchians, and the mostly carnivorous theriodonts. After a brief burst of evolutionary diversity, the dinocephalians died out in the later Guadalupian.
This extinction was originally called Olson's Gap because it was thought to be a problem in preservation of fossils. Since the 1990s it has been renamed Olson’s Extinction. This extinction event occurred near the beginning of the epoch and led to an extended period of low diversity when two-thirds of terrestrial vertebrate life was lost worldwide. Global diversity rose dramatically by the end probably the result of disaster taxa filling empty guilds, only to fall again when the end-Guadalupian event caused a diversity drop in the Wuchiapingian.
There is no agreed cause for the Olson's Extinction. Climate change may be a possible cause. Extreme environments were observed from the Permian of Kansas which resulted from a combination of hot climate and acidic waters particularly coincident with Olson’s Extinction. Whether this climate change was a result of Earth's natural processes or exacerbated by another event is unknown.
The first two-thirds of the epoch were the continuation of a temperate and tropical climate. This started to dry out and the coal forming of the previous epoch stopped. The change in climate also provided a new environment for new tetrapod‘s reptiles fish plants and invertebrates.
In the last third the temperature started to drop and many coral reefs died out. If that was not enough, increased volcano activity brought a reduction in oxygen, a greenhouse and mass extinction.
Beginning or Roadian
The Roadian stage was between 272.3 ± 0.5 – 268.8 ± 0.5 Mya.
Olson’s Extinction was a worldwide loss of terrestrial vertebrate life that occurred during the Roadian and Wordian.
Fauna did not recover fully from Olson's Extinction before the impact of the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Estimates of recovery time vary, where some authors indicated recovery was prolonged, lasting 30 million years into the Triassic.
Several important events took place during Olson's Extinction, most notably the origin of therapsids, a group that includes the evolutionary ancestors of mammals. Further research on the recently identified primitive therapsid of the Xidagou Formation (Dashankou locality) in China of Roadian age may provide more information on this topic.
Middle or Wordian
The Wordian stage was between 268.8 ± 0.5 – 265.1 ± 0.4 Mya.
The base of the Wordian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic record where fossils of conodont species Jinogondolella aserrata first appear. The global reference profile for this stratigraphic boundary is located at Getaway Ledge in the Guadalupe Mountains of Texas.
The top of the Wordian (the base of the Capitanian stage) is defined as the place in the stratigraphic record where the conodont species Jinogondolella postserrata first appears.
Conclusion or Capitanian
The Capitanian stage was between 265.1 ± 0.4 – 259.8 ± 0.4 Mya.
The Guadalupian ended with a deteriorating environment, Greenhouse conditions, and several series of mass-extinctions; both the great dinocephalians, other taxa on land and various invertebrates in the sea. They would be succeeded by new types of mammal-like reptiles.
A significant mass extinction event (the End-Capitanian extinction event) occurred at the end of this epoch, which was associated with anoxia and acidification in the oceans and possibly caused by the volcanic eruptions that produced the Emeishan Traps. This extinction event may be related to the much larger Permian–Triassic extinction event that followed about 10 million years later.
This climatic cooling may have caused the end-Capitanian extinction event among species that lived in warm water, like larger fusulinids (Verbeekninidae), large bivalves (Alatoconchidae) and rugose corals, and Waagenophyllidae.
Subdivisions that are sometimes used are,
- Kazanian or Maokovian (European) [270.6 ± 0.7 – 260.4 ± 0.7 Mya]
- Braxtonian stage (New Zealand) [270.6 ± 0.7 – 260.4 ± 0.7 Mya]
- "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
- Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Smith, Alan G. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. ISBN 9780521786737.
- International Commission on Stratigraphy. "Chart". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Smith, Alan G. (2004). A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge University Press. p. 254. ISBN 9780521786737. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Ganelin, V.G.; Goman'kov, A.V.; Grunt, T.A.; Durante, M.V. (January 1997). "On the revised stratigraphic scale for the Permian System adopted at the Second Guadalupian Symposium, alpine, Texas, USA, April 1996". Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation. 5 (2): 126–130.
- "The Guadalupian Epoch".
- Allaby, Michael (2015). A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199653065.001.0001. ISBN 9780199653065.
- International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSPs". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "Synapsid Classification & Apomorphies". tolweb.org.
- Huttenlocker, Adam. K.; Rega, Elizabeth (2012). "Chapter 4. The Paleobiology and Bone Microstructure of Pelycosauriangrade Synapsids". In Chinsamy-Turan, Anusuya (ed.). Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation, Histology, Biology. Indiana University Press. pp. 90–119.
- Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J. (2008). "Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 759–65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID 18198148.
- Bond, David; Hilton, Jason (2010). "The Middle Permian (Capitanian) mass extinction on land and in the oceans". Earth-Science Reviews. 102 (1): 100–116. Bibcode:2010ESRv..102..100B. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.07.004.
- Zambito J.J. IV.; Benison K.C (2013). "Extreme high temperatures and paleoclimate trends recorded in Permian ephemeral lake halite". Geology. 41 (5): 587–590. Bibcode:2013Geo....41..587Z. doi:10.1130/G34078.1.
- Liu, J.; Rubidge, B; Li, J. (2009). "New basal synapsid supports Laurasian origin for therapsids" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (3): 393–400. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0071.
- Bond, D. P. G.; Wignall, P. B.; Joachimski, M. M.; Sun, Y.; Savov, I.; Grasby, S. E.; Beauchamp, B.; Blomeier, D. P. G. (2015-04-14). "An abrupt extinction in the Middle Permian (Capitanian) of the Boreal Realm (Spitsbergen) and its link to anoxia and acidification" (PDF). Geological Society of America Bulletin. 127 (9–10): 1411–1421. Bibcode:2015GSAB..127.1411B. doi:10.1130/B31216.1. ISSN 0016-7606.
- Isozaki, Yukio; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ota, Ayano (2007). "A unique carbon isotope record across the Guadalupian–Lopingian (Middle–Upper Permian) boundary in mid-oceanic paleo-atoll carbonates: The high-productivity "Kamura event" and its collapse in Panthalassa". Global and Planetary Change. 55 (1–3): 21–38. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.06.006.
- Isozaki, Yukio; Aljinović, Dunja (2009). "End-Guadalupian extinction of the Permian gigantic bivalve Alatoconchidae: End of gigantism in tropical seas by cooling". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 284 (1–2): 11–21. Bibcode:2009PPP...284...11I. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.08.022. ISSN 0031-0182.
- "GeoWhen Database - Kazanian". www.stratigraphy.org.