List of Chinese military equipment in World War II

Summary

The following is a list of Chinese military equipment of World War II (1937-1945)[1] which includes aircraft, artillery, small arms, vehicles and vessels. This list covers the equipment of the National Revolutionary Army, various warlords and including the Collaborationist Chinese Army and Manchukuo Imperial Army, as well as Communist guerillas, encompassing the period of the Second United Front.

Swords and bayonets

Small arms

Pistols

Weapon Caliber Notes Origin
Mauser C96 7.63x25mm
.45 ACP
Called the Box Cannon (盒子炮). The most common and popular pistol since the beginning of the Republic. Imported from Germany and Spain (Astra 900 and MM31), but mostly produced locally in various arsenals, the larger being in Hanyang, Shanghai, Gongxian, Taku and Shanxi. Often used with a detachable shoulder stock.[6][7] The pistol used the 7.63x25mm caliber, but a version in .45 ACP was also produced in Shanxi, called the "Type 17"[8]  China
 Germany
 Spain
FN 1900 .32 ACP Very popular pistol called the Lu Zi (撸子) or 8 Bangs (八音子) in the North and Bent Ruler (曲尺) in the South. Originally made in Belgium, but with many copies and variations produced in China, most significantly in the arsenals in Jinling and Shanghai. Made with both 6 or 8-inch barrels, the latter having a slot for a detachable shoulder stock.[9]  China
 Belgium
Ruby .32 ACP Originally made in Spain, but produced in China by the Hanyang Arsenal, as well as smaller shops.[10]  China
 Spain
Colt M1903 .32 ACP Imported commercially from the United States. Called the Horse Brand Logo (馬牌撸子) after the old Colt rampant horse logo.[11]  United States
FN 1910
FN 1910/22
.32 ACP Imported from Belgium and nicknamed the Floral Mouth Pistol (花口撸子) due to its serrated muzzle ring.[12]  Belgium
Mauser 1914 .32 ACP Imported from the Germany. Called the Kick Mouth Open (张嘴蹬) due to the hold-open design when the gun was empty "waiting" like an "open mouth".[13]  Germany
Astra 400 9mm Largo Rare pistol imported from Spain and used the uncommon (especially in China) 9mm Largo caliber.[14]  Spain
Hi-Power 9×19mm Produced by the John Inglis Company in Canada for China through the Mutual Aid Board in 1943.[15] Originally intended to make 180,000, only 4,000 were delivered to Karachi, India before the end of the war, with supply problems over "the Hump" making it hard for them to reach the Chinese Y Force.[16][17] Production was cancelled in 1944, but restarted in late 1945, with 40,000 being used in the Civil War after World War II.[18]  Canada
Colt M1911A1 .45 ACP Supplied to SACO guerrilla units and operatives early in the war, and to the X Force in Burma later on.[19] Nicknamed the Big Eye Pistol (大眼撸子) due to the large caliber.[20]  United States
Colt M1917 .45 ACP Supplied to SACO guerrilla units and operatives.[21][22]  United States
S&W Regulation Police .32 S&W Long Smith & Wesson revolvers in this caliber, copies of the S&W Regulation Police, was produced in the 44th Arsenal located in Guizhou during slack time, starting 1942, often with a detachable shoulder stock.[23]  China
 United States
Nambu Type 14
North China Type 19
8mm Nambu The Type 14 was captured from the Imperial Japanese Army and nicknamed the Turtle Shell Pistol (王八盒子) or Chicken Thigh Pistol (鸡腿撸子).[24] It was also supplied to Manchukuo and the Collaborationist Chinese Army, who also produced a very small amount of the Type 19, a copy of the Type 14.[25]  Japan
China-Nanjing

Submachine guns and automatic pistols

Weapon Caliber Notes Origin
Bergmann 7.63x25mm
7.65×21mm
The Bergmann gun was the most common SMG in China at the time and called the Flower Mouth Machine-gun (花机关).[26][3] SIG in Switzerland produced the originally German weapon under license as the "SIG Bergmann 1920" and exported it to China after World War I. Chinese arsenals in Jinling and Shanghai started producing them in 7.65mm in 1926. Other arsenals, such as Taku and Hanyang, started making them in 7.63mm. Shenyang, Shanxi and Beiyang arsenals also produced the weapon.[27] Some weapons were made with the magazine facing down, instead of to the side.[24]  China
  Switzerland
Thompson .45 ACP
7.63x25mm
The M1921 was commercially imported from the United States and thereafter locally produced in China since the 1920s. Several tens of thousands were made in the arsenals of Shanxi, Taiyuan and Sichuan.[28] ~4,700 guns were also made in 7.63mm in the 21st Arms Weapons Depot.[29] Later in the war, M1928A1 wartime models were supplied to the X Force in Burma, with some also going to the Y Force, by the United States.[30] The M1 was also supplied to SACO units.[31]  China
 United States
Automatic Mauser C96 7.63x25mm The fully automatic version of the common Mauser C96 was originally invented and imported from Spain (Astra 902, Super Azul and MM31).[32] They were also widely imported from Germany (M712 Schnellfeuer).[33][34][4] Chinese made copies also existed.[35] A Chinese technique of firing the gun was to hold the pistol sideways, as the high recoil due to the very high rate of fire would push the gun in a sweeping motion to the side instead of upwards.[36]  Spain
 Germany
 China
United Defense M42 9×19mm Supplied to SACO guerrilla units and operatives.[37][38]  United States

Rifles

Weapon Caliber Notes Origin
Hanyang 88 7.92×57mm The most common Chinese rifle in the war and was based on the German Gewehr 88 originally used by the New Armies of the Qing dynasty (Several Gewehr 88's also found their way to China after World War I and even its predecessor, the Gewehr 71/84, was still in very limited use.).[39] Around 1,000,000 were produced in several Chinese arsenals before production ceased in 1944.[40] There also existed a more uncommon carbine version.[39]  China
 Germany
Chiang Kai-Shek rifle
Standardmodell
Karabiner 98k
7.92×57mm In the Chinese National Armament Standards Conference of 1932 it was decided that the Mauser Standardmodell was to be the standard issue rifle of China. It started being imported from Germany in 1934 and production in Chinese arsenals also began in 1935, first under the name "Type 24 Rifle", but was soon renamed to the "Chiang Kai-Shek rifle" after the Generalissimo.[41][42] It would remain the standard service rifle throughout the war, but would never outproduce the Hanyang 88, with the total number of Chinese produced Chiang Kai-Shek rifles made between 1935 and 1945 being ~360,000.[43] In 1935, Germany adopted a modified Standardmodell as their service rifle under the designation Karabiner 98k, continued Chinese imports between 1938 and 1939 would consist of some 100,000 examples of this rifle.[44][45]  China
 Germany
FN Model 1924
FN Model 1930
7.92×57mm After World War I, German arms exports were banned under the Treaty of Versailles, and weapons companies of other countries stepped in to fill the gap.[46] A very large amount of Belgian M1924 rifles and M1930 carbines from FN were sold to China.[47][48][49] Chinese arsenals also produced copies, such as the "Type 21 Carbine" from Guangdong or the "Type 77 Rifle" (named after the date of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident) from Zhejiang.[50][51]  Belgium
 China
ZB vz. 98/22 7.92×57mm After World War I, German arms exports were banned under the Treaty of Versailles, and weapons companies of other countries stepped in to fill the gap.[52] Czechoslovak Brno produced and exported a modified version of the German Gewehr 98. Records show around 200,000 were shipped to China between 1927 and 1939.[52][53]  Czechoslovakia
ZB vz. 24 7.92×57mm Right after the ZB vz. 98/22, Brno started producing the shorter ZB vz. 24. Around 100,000 were imported by the Central Government of China between 1937 and 1938,[54] and several tens of thousands more by provincial governors.[55][56]  Czechoslovakia
Mosin–Nagant 1891
Mosin–Nagant 1891/30
7.62×54mmR Called the Three-Line Repeater (三线步枪), due to the old Russian measurement of the caliber, or Water Repeater (水连珠), believed to be due to Chinese first encountering the rifle from Russian Naval Infantry.[57] Many Mosin-Nagant 1891 rifles were supplied during the Sino-Soviet cooperation in the 1920s and to the troops of the pro-Soviet Sheng Shicai.[58] The Soviet Aid Program early in the war also supplied China with 50,000 Mosin-Nagant 1891/30 rifles, which were used by second line and garrison troops due to the caliber difference.[58]  Soviet Union
Carcano 1891 6.5×52mm The Carcano rifle was first imported from Italy in 1920, with an order of 40,000. In 1922, a further 14,000 rifles were purchased. In 1924, a further 40,000 rifles were obtained.[59] Japanese records show these rifles being captured in Fujian.[59] In 1941, Japan sold 15,000 of these captured weapons to the collaborationist Nanjing Army.[60] Italy
M1917 Enfield .30-06 Common Chinese Lend-Lease rifle. Most of the X Force in Burma were carrying this rifle.[61][62] At first the rifles were cut-down to a shorter length, to better suit the shorter Chinese soldiers, but later issued rifles were of normal length.[61]  United States
M1903A3 Springfield .30-06 The M1903A3 Springfield was also commonly issued to soldiers of the X Force.[62] It was also used by Chinese commandos in 1945, provided by the OSS.[63]  United States
M1 Carbine .30 Carbine Milton E. Miles of SACO considered the light-weight M1 Carbine to be more suitable to the Chinese soldiers than the bigger Mauser rifles, therefore, most SACO units from 1943 on were issued with this semi-automatic weapon.[64] It was also used by the X Force in Burma.[62]  United States
Lee-Enfield No.4 Mk I* .303 British The North American produced version of the Lee-Enfield was issued to the X Force while they were training in India.[65] The rifles were part of the Lend-Lease program and marked as US property. Once American rifles started being issued, the Lee-Enfields were kept as training weapons and for guard duty.[65] 40,000 were supplied from 1942 onward.[66]  Canada
 United States
Mauser 1907
Mauser Type 1
Mauser Type 4
6.8×57mm
7.92×57mm
The Type 1 was a Chinese produced version of a pattern of imported German rifle (Mauser 1907) from the end of the Qing dynasty. Originally chambered in 6.8x57mm, but changed to 7.92x57mm with the new designation Type 4 (usually just called the "Type 1 7.9mm"), in 1915.[67][68] The Type 4 were the older Chinese standard rifles and common during the Warlord era. In World War II, they were outdated, but still in use by more poorly equipped units.[69]  China
 Germany
Liao Type 13 7.92×57mm
6.5×50mmSR
A hybrid between Arisaka and Mauser 4 produced in the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo and before.[70] Around 140,000 are estimated to have been produced in total.[71] Most of the weapons are using the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge, but some have turned up chambered in 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka.[72]  China
 Manchukuo
Arisaka Type 30
Arisaka Type 38
6.5×50mmSR While the Japanese Arisaka rifle was supplied to collaborationist units,[60] particularly the Manchukuo Imperial Army[73] and used as captured weapons by Allied ones, China had also imported and produced (in Shanxi) Type 30 and 38 Rifles since before the war.[74] Up to 1917, ~200,000 Type 38 and 150,000 Type 30 rifles had also been imported.[74] The Type 38 was called 38 Big Cover (三八大盖), by the Chinese.[74] Copies of the Type 30 and 38, in 7.92×57mm and 6.5×50mmSR respectively, both named "Type 19", were also made in the collaborationist China.[75][76]  Japan
 China
China-Nanjing
Type 81 Short Rifle 7.92×57mm A short rifle which included a mixture of features from rifles such as the Hanyang 88, vz. 24 and Japanese Arisaka carbine, including a foldable bayonet. They were produced by the Chinese communists, first in the Jin Ji Yu Operating Base Arsenal in September 1940 before prints and templates were distributed to other arsenals. Around 8,700 were made in total and the model was the largest number produced in the communist arsenals during the war.[77]  China
Gewehr 98 7.92×57mm Some surplus weapons from various countries in possession of the Gewehr 98 after World War I sold these off internationally, with some ending up in the arms of Chinese warlords.[78][79]  Germany
Karabinek wz. 1929 7.92×57mm The Polish Karabinek wz. 1929 were exported to China. It is estimated this was only a small amount.[80][78]  Poland
Mannlicher M1886
Mannlicher M1888
8×52mmR Many were imported very long before World War II, but were still used by some rear-line units.[81]  Austria-Hungary
ZH-29 7.92×57mm 210 examples of this weapon were purchased in 1930 and 1931 for Northeast China. They were probably captured in the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.[82]  Czechoslovakia
Murata Type 13 11×60mmR Local defense militias in Manchukuo were issued obsolete weapons such as these.[83]  Japan

Grenades and grenade launchers

Weapon Notes Origin
Chinese Stielhandgranate China designed and produced grenades based on the German type, which was the main type during the war. Both several arsenals and civilian workshops produced hundreds of thousands each month.[84] Variations existed, but followed the same basic principle: a wooden handle with a round or cylindrical head and a slow burning fuse.[84] The charge was a mixture of TNT and nitride potassium and were generally weaker than their German counterpart.[84][85] In 1939, a more powerful design with a smaller handle and much more compressed explosive load became the new standard type in all arsenals.[84] Soldiers often bundled grenades together to blast open fortifications. Another tactic was to tie a grenade to a long bamboo stick, for example to stick up over a wall or into a window.[84]  China
 Germany
Various Grenades Several other types of simple timed or impact grenades were also made in various machine shops. Examples are copies of the Mills bomb and an impact grenade produced in Jinling Arsenal which had a long "tail" made of hemp to make it easier to throw, nicknamed the "Ponytail Grenade".[86] Local production of grenades and mines by Communist soldiers were important to their guerrilla tactics.[87]  China
Type 23 Grenade The Type 23 Grenade was a simple cast metal grenade adopted in 1934 which had the function to be easily used as a trap.[88] Many of these grenades were also captured by the Japanese and used in the Pacific War, where US reports believed them to be a new Japanese type.[88][89]  China
Type 27 Grenade Discharger The Type 27 was a common 50mm grenade launcher, a simplified version based on the Japanese Type 89 (which proved too complicated to produce and for soldiers to use).[90] The launcher was designed and tested in 1938, with production beginning in January 1939. Some modifications were introduced in 1940 and 1941, such as making the calibration and base plate thicker and changing the shape of the range adjustment wheel.[91] It had a range of 50–250 meters with a kill zone of 20 meters in diameter. The grenade had a delay fuse of 7.5–8 seconds after being launched.[90] The projectile (Type 27 Grenade) were copies of the Japanese Type 91 grenade, which were used with the Type 89. Therefore, captured enemy ammunition could be used as well. 40,900 were produced, with 1,500,000 grenades.[92] The weapon could be carried in a large leather holster.[90]  China
 Japan
Type 28 Rifle Grenade The Type 28 was a rifle grenade launcher shaped like a long cylinder which would be attached to front of a Mauser type or Hanyang 88 rifle. It could then fire a Type 28 Rifle grenade (both explosive and smoke types) with the use of a special blank cartridge.[93] The Type 28 rifle grenade system was designed in February 1939 and adopted the same year, going intro production by June.[94] It had a range of 50–250 meters and had a kill zone 10 meters in diameter.[95] The Type 28 grenade was similar to the regular "Stielhandgranate" types, and could be thrown by hand. It had a fuse of 6.5 seconds and was more powerful than regular grenades. Monthly production was 80,000 grenades and 2,000 launchers.[96]  China

Flamethrowers

Weapon Notes Origin
M1A1 Flamethrower The X Force and Y Force in Burma and later southern China were supplied with these flamethrowers in 1944 and 1945.[97][98]  United States

Machine guns

Weapon Caliber Notes Origin
ZB vz. 26 7.92×57mm Between 1927 and 1939 Brno exported around 30,000 ZB-26 machine guns to China.[99][100] Chinese production started in 1927, originally in Taku, but with many other arsenals soon following suit. It was the standard light machine gun since 1934 and the most common through the whole war, with many arsenals each producing several hundred weapons per month.[101][45] The gun never received its own designation in China, but was always simply referred to as the "Czech Light Machine-gun".[102]  China
 Czechoslovakia
FN Model 1930
FN Model D
7.92×57mm Belgian versions of the Browning Automatic Rifle made by FN were imported to China.[103][104] Over 9,000 had been imported by the time the war broke out, with an additional 8,000 being purchased after that.[103]  Belgium
Madsen gun 7.92×57mm The Danish Madsen gun was used with a bipod or tripod and was both imported and locally produced in small scale since 1909.[105][106][107] The Madsen gun was considered to replace the ZB vz. 26 after Brno had turned down the licensing rights for production in China. But after a full set of tools, jigs and drawings were lost in a Japanese air raid in 1940, the Ordnance Office turned back to ZB vz. 26 production.[108] 438 were imported before the war and 3,300 during it.[109]  Denmark
 China
Neuhausen KE-7 7.92×57mm China purchased over 3,000 KE-7's from Switzerland between 1928 and 1939, including 44,500 magazines.[110] An arsenal in Chonqing, Sichuan produced an additional 6,000 copies between 1934 and 1936.[110][45]  China
  Switzerland
Degtyaryov DP 7.62×54mmR 5,600 Soviet Degtyaryov DP machine guns were supplied to China in the Soviet Aid Program starting in 1938.[111][45]  Soviet Union
Maxim–Tokarev 7.62×54mmR The predecessor of the Degtyaryov was the Maxim-Tokarev 1925 machine gun. Of the total 2,450 produced, 1,400 were supplied to China between 1938 and 1939, with the rest going to the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War.[112]  Soviet Union
Hotchkiss 1922 7.92×57mm China started buying this French weapon in 1931 and by the time the war started in 1937 2,620 guns had been imported. A further 1,400 guns were ordered, with at least 925 confirmed deliveries by 1939.[113]  France
Lewis gun .303 British At least 3,000 Lewis guns and 15,000,000 rounds of ammunition were purchased around 1930.[114]  United Kingdom
Lahti-Saloranta M/26 7.92×57mm Originally chambered in the Finnish 7.62×53mmR, the export version of this weapon to its only buyer: China, was chambered in 7.92×57mm Mauser. A contract was originally signed for 30,000 guns, but only 800 were delivered in 1938.[115][116]  Finland
Bren gun .303 British
7.92×57mm
Over 18,000 Canadian John Inglis Company Bren Mk. I guns in .303 British were supplied to China through the Lend-Lease program. However, supply problems over "the Hump" led to only 1,117 having been issued to units in China by early 1945.[117] So the primary user became the X Force in Burma, with the Y Force receiving more later on.[117] In October 1943, the John Inglis Company started producing Bren guns in 7.92×57mm Mauser for the Chinese. By the end of World War II, 18,900 had been shipped and 13,800 had been delivered to China by July 1945.[117] Several thousands more would be delivered and used in the Chinese Civil War in the following years.[118]  Canada
Nambu Type 11 6.5×50mmSR Captured Japanese Type 11 machine guns were used, and they were supplied to the Manchukuo Imperial Army as well as other collaborators.[83] A small number of Chinese copies, the "Type 17" in the same caliber, were produced before the war.[119][120]  Japan
 China
Type 24 Maxim 7.92×57mm Based on the commercial version of the German MG 08, the MG 09, the Type 24 was a modified and upgraded standardized version of previous small-scale productions of German Maxim guns.[121] It became the most common heavy machine gun in the war, produced in multiple arsenals.[121][62] In addition to the regular belt, there existed special drum magazines (as well as tripods and sights) for anti-aircraft use.[121] The Type 24 was one of the latest adopted Maxim type guns in the world and could incorporate a lot of experience and features from previous models from around the world. It was a very well made and feature rich weapon.[121]  China
Type Triple-Ten
M1917 Browning
7.92×57mm
.30-06
Type Triple-Ten was a Chinese copy of the M1917 Browning in 7.92×57mm Mauser. Production started on 10 October 1921 (the 10th year of the republic), i.e. 10-10-10, and the weapon was thus named "Type Triple-Ten".[122] The gun was not very stable and had poor performance, attempts to obtain drawings from the United States or Belgium to improve it were without success. Production shifted to the Type 24 Maxim instead, but ~10,000 Triple-Tens were still made in total.[122] Later in the war, real M1917 Browning's would be supplied to the X Force, chambered in .30-06.[123]  China
 United States
Hotchkiss 1914 7.92×57mm Around 2,800 guns were imported from France in the 1930s, all in 7.92×57mm Mauser, further deliveries were stopped due to the German invasion of France in 1940.[124] It was a common model during the war.[124]  France
Maxim 1910 7.62×54mmR The Soviet Aid Program supplied China with 1,300 Maxim guns with wheeled "Sokolov" mounts.[125][126][127]  Soviet Union
ZB vz. 37 7.92×57mm 1,000 machine guns of this type was ordered from Czechoslovakia in 1937, 850 arrived between 1938 and 1939, before the German annexation.[128][129]  Czechoslovakia
M1919 Browning .30-06 M1919A4 Browning guns were used by the X Force and M1919A6 Browning's were later supplied by the OSS to American trained Chinese commandos in 1945.[130]  United States
Type 3 machine gun 6.5×50mmSR This machine gun was used by the Manchukuo Imperial Army and by Collaborationist Chinese Armies.[131]  Japan

Infantry held Anti-tank weapons

Weapon Caliber Notes Origin
Boys AT rifle Mk. I* .55 Boys Canadian Boys anti-tank rifles were used by the Y Force in 1944 and 1945.[132][133]  Canada
M1A1 Bazooka M6A1 HEAT Rocket The 60mm M1A1 "Bazooka" rocket launcher was first supplied to SACO units in 1943, they were then supplied to the X Force and Y Force in 1944-1945. A total of ~1,000 Bazookas were in Chinese hands by the end of the war.[134][135]  United States

Vehicle, aircraft and anti-air machine guns

Artillery

Infantry mortars

Country Caliber Weapon name Observation References
 France 37mm MAM Guerilla mortar [138]
 China 41mm-50mm Various locally built light mortars [139]
 Japan 50mm Type 10 grenade discharger captured from Japanese [140]
 Japan 50mm Type 89 grenade discharger captured from Japanese [141]
 France 60mm Brandt Mle 1935 [142]
 United States 60mm M2 mortar from 1942 onward, local copy with longer barrel produced as Type 31 [143]
 China 75mm Hanyang Arsenal mortar [144]
 China 75mm Taiyuan Arsenal mortar [145]
 China 75mm Type 15 mortar Produced at Hanyang Arsenal [146]
 China 79mm 82mm mortar [sic] Stokes-type mortar, produced at Shandong arsenal [144]
 China 80mm Type 11 mortar Produced at Shenyang arsenal [144]
 France 81mm Brandt Mle 27/31 French and Austrian versions [145][147]
 United States 81mm M1 mortar from 1942 [148]
 China 82mm Type 13 and Type 15 trench mortars Produced at Shenyang arsenal [144]
 China 82mm Taiyuan Arsenal mortar [145]
 China 82mm Jiangnan arsenal mortar [145]
 China 82mm Type 20 mortar copy of the 81mm Brandt mortar produced at Jinling arsenal [145]
 China 84mm Hanyang Arsenal mortar produced from 1925 [144]
 Japan 90mm Type 94 Infantry Mortar few captured from Japanese [citation needed]
 Japan 90mm Type 97 Infantry Mortar some captured from Japanese [citation needed]
 United States 107mm M2 4.2 inch mortar received from US from 1943 onward [149]
 China 150mm Type 29 mortar [150]
 United Kingdom 152.4mm Newton 6-inch Mortar used by some local warlords [citation needed]
 China 240mm infantry mortar likely single unique unit to fire captured Japanese ammunition [citation needed]

Field and mountain artillery

Country Weapon name Observation References
 Japan Type 11 37 mm infantry gun supplied to pro-Japanese forces or captured [151][152]
Italy Cannone da 47/32 M35 [153]
 China 53mm Gelusen legacy Hotchkiss gun [citation needed]
 China 57mm Gelusen Guo [citation needed]
 China 57mm Lu [citation needed]
 China 70mm Gai Liang copy of Japanese Type 92 Battalion Gun or 37/70mm Skoda gun? [citation needed]
 France Canon de 75 modèle 1897 limited service [154]
 Germany 7.5 cm Krupp L/29 actually a L/30 gun [155][156]
 Japan 75mm Type 38 field gun supplied to pro-Japanese forces [151]
 Japan Type 41 75 mm mountain gun supplied to pro-Japanese forces [151]
 Austria-Hungary 7.5 cm Model 1911 field gun [151]
Italy 75mm M1911 field gun [156]
 Austria-Hungary 7.5 cm Krupp Model 1913 mountain gun [151]
 Germany 7.5  cm Model 1914 mountain gun [151]
 China 75mm Type 13 Liao copy of the Japanese Type 38 75 mm field gun [citation needed]
 China 75mm Type 18 Liao [citation needed]
 China 75mm Type 12 Jin or Type 12 infantry gun copy of Krupp 7.5 cm Mountain Gun Model 1904, developed for warlord Yan Xishan [citation needed]
 China 75mm Type 13, Type 14 and Type 17 copies of the Japanese Type 41 75 mm mountain gun [157]
 China 75mm Type 46 Jin copy of Type 94 75 mm Mountain Gun [citation needed]
 Sweden Bofors 75 mm Mountain Gun bought in large quantities [158]
 United States 75mm Pack Howitzer M1 supplied during Burma campaign [159]
 Soviet Union 76 mm divisional gun M1902/30 [160]
 Germany 7.7 cm FK 16 limited service [154]
 China 77mm Type 14 Liao copy of 8 cm FK M 18 [citation needed]
 China Type 41 77.7mm Field Gun Produced in China [citation needed]
 United Kingdom QF 18-pounder gun Mk IV and Mk V limited service [154]
 China 88mm Type 18 Jin copy of Gruson 9 cm C/1873 Kanone) [citation needed]
 China 88mm Type 18 Liao copy of 9 cm L/31 Rheinmetall-Solothurn gun-howitzer [citation needed]
 Austria-Hungary 10.4 cm M.14 field gun [151]
 China Type 14 10 cm Howitzer (105mm) – developed for warlord Yan Xishan [citation needed]
 China Type 14 10 cm Cannon (105mm) Chinese design developed for warlord Yan Xishan, unrelated to Japanese Type 14 10 cm Cannon of accidentally the same name [citation needed]
 China 105mm Type 16 Jin drilled-out version? [citation needed]
 United States 105 mm M2A1 howitzer [161]
 United Kingdom 114 mm QF 4.5-inch howitzer captured in Singapore and supplied to pro-Japanese forces [162]
 China Type 14 12 cm Howitzer developed for warlord Yan Xishan, design related to Japanese Type 38 12 cm Howitzer [citation needed]
 Soviet Union 122 mm gun M1931 (A-19) [citation needed]
 Soviet Union 122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19) [citation needed]
 Germany 10.5 cm leFH 18 [citation needed]
 Germany 15 cm sFH 18 L/32 [163]


Fortress, naval and coastal guns

Country Weapon name Observation References
 Germany 15 cm SK C/28 8 coastal guns supplied in 1936-1937 [164]
 Germany 8.8 cm SK C/30 naval gun dual AA and coastal gun [165]

Anti-tank guns

Country Weapon name Observation References
 Denmark 20 mm Madsen F5 anti-tank gun [166]
 Germany
 Soviet Union
37 mm Grusonwerk [de] and Rosenberg 1890s guns modified as anti-tank gun, received from the Soviet Union [167]
 Germany Pak 36 including Pak 36 (L/45) and Rheinmetal Commercial (L/50) [167]
 Soviet Union 37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K) Russian copy of Pak 36, small amount provided by USSR [168][169]
 China Type 30 anti-tank gun Chinese copy of Pak 36 [169]
 Japan Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun captured from Japanese, common [citation needed]
 United States 37 mm Gun M3 supplied by US through Lend-Lease [170]
 Soviet Union 45 mm anti-tank gun M1932 (19-K) unknown quantity supplied by USSR [171]
 Soviet Union 45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K) unknown quantity supplied by USSR [citation needed]
Italy Cannone da 47/32 M35 few received from Italy [citation needed]
 Japan Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun few captured from Japanese [citation needed]

Anti-aircraft weapons

The Chinese did not produce AA guns on their own, but used every foreign gun they could put their hands on. Madsen 20 mm cannons were especially widespread.[citation needed]

Country Weapon name Observation References
 Denmark Madsen 20 mm anti-aircraft cannon [172]
Italy Breda Model 33 [173]
 Germany 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41
 Germany Solothurn ST-5 120 delivered in 1937 [174][175]
 France 25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun [176]
 Germany 3.7 cm Flak 18 60 delivered in 1937 [175]
 Japan 75mm Type 88 AA gun supplied to pro-Japanese forces [151]

Vehicles

Tankettes

Tanks

Armored cars

Navy ships and war vessels

Aircraft

See also

References

  1. ^ Sun, Vlasova, Harmsen, Lianggang, Evgenia, Peter. "Shanghai 1937 – Where World War II Began". SHANGHAI 1937 ~ WHERE WWII BEGAN. Retrieved 2021-04-18. When did World War II begin? Shanghai 1937: Where World War II Began answers that question in a way most audiences will find surprising. Americans might say December 7, 1941… The day the Japanese Imperial Navy attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. For Europeans, it was September 1, 1939… When Nazi Germany invaded Poland. But in China, people will tell you a different date. August 13, 1937.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Jowett 2005, p. 39.
  3. ^ a b Jowett 2005, p. 42.
  4. ^ a b Jowett 2005, p. 43.
  5. ^ Jowett 2004, p. 47.
  6. ^ Shih 2018, p. 51-58.
  7. ^ Kinard, Jeff (2003). Pistols: an illustrated history of their impact. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 183. ISBN 1-85109-470-9. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  8. ^ Shih 2018, p. 59-62.
  9. ^ Shih 2018, p. 62-64.
  10. ^ Shih 2018, p. 64-65.
  11. ^ Shih 2018, p. 73-74.
  12. ^ Shih 2018, p. 67-68.
  13. ^ Shih 2018, p. 72.
  14. ^ Shih 2018, p. 71-72.
  15. ^ Shih 2018, p. 68-71.
  16. ^ Shih 2018, p. 70.
  17. ^ Arnold, David W. (2010-09-24). "Classic Handguns of the 20th Century: The Browning HI-Power". Handguns Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
  18. ^ Ian McCollum (2018-01-25). "Inglis High Power: How a Chinese Whim Became A British Service Pistol". Retrieved 2019-07-29.
  19. ^ Shih 2018, p. 75-76.
  20. ^ Shih 2018, p. 76.
  21. ^ Shih 2018, p. 74-75.
  22. ^ Smith 1969, p. 295.
  23. ^ Shih 2018, p. 65-66.
  24. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 80-81.
  25. ^ Jowett 2004, p. 75.
  26. ^ Shih 2018, p. 205.
  27. ^ Shih 2018, p. 202-206.
  28. ^ Shih 2018, p. 206-207.
  29. ^ Shih 2018, p. 208.
  30. ^ Jowett 2013, p. 279.
  31. ^ Shih 2018, p. 209.
  32. ^ Shih 2018, p. 211-212.
  33. ^ Shih 2018, p. 212.
  34. ^ Jowett 2005, p. 22.
  35. ^ Shih 2018, p. 213.
  36. ^ Shih 2018, p. 214.
  37. ^ Shih 2018, p. 215.
  38. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 242.
  39. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 97.
  40. ^ Shih 2018, p. 94-100.
  41. ^ Shih 2018, p. 104-106.
  42. ^ Ball 2011, p. 90.
  43. ^ Shih 2018, p. 109.
  44. ^ Shih 2018, p. 115-116.
  45. ^ a b c d Jowett 2005, p. 15.
  46. ^ Shih 2018, p. 102.
  47. ^ Shih 2018, p. 102-103.
  48. ^ Ball 2011, p. 88.
  49. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 333.
  50. ^ Shih 2018, p. 103.
  51. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 262.
  52. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 117.
  53. ^ Ball 2011, p. 86.
  54. ^ Shih 2018, p. 117-118.
  55. ^ Ness & Shih 2016.
  56. ^ Ball 2011, p. 123.
  57. ^ Shih 2018, p. 121-122.
  58. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 123.
  59. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 119.
  60. ^ a b Jowett 2004, p. 65-67.
  61. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 125.
  62. ^ a b c d Jowett 2005, p. 19.
  63. ^ Shih 2018, p. 128.
  64. ^ Shih 2018, p. 134.
  65. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 129.
  66. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, pp. 256–257.
  67. ^ Shih 2018, p. 92-94.
  68. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 249.
  69. ^ Shih 2018, p. 92-93.
  70. ^ Shih 2018, p. 90-91.
  71. ^ Shih 2018, p. 91.
  72. ^ Othais (2014-10-03). "Rifle: "Manchurian Mauser" Liao Type 13". Retrieved 2019-07-29.
  73. ^ Jowett 2004, p. 15-17.
  74. ^ a b c Shih 2018, p. 88-89.
  75. ^ =Allan, Francis C.; Macy, Harold W. (2007). The Type 38 Arisaka. U.S.A.: AK Enterprises. pp. 401–405. ISBN 978-0-9614814-4-5.
  76. ^ Allan, Francis C.; White, Doss H.; Zielinski, Stanley (2006). The Early Arisakas. U.S.A.: AK Enterprises. pp. 52–63. ISBN 0-9614814-5-5.
  77. ^ Shih 2018, p. 139.
  78. ^ a b Lai 2018, p. 72.
  79. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 264.
  80. ^ Shih 2018, p. 120.
  81. ^ Philip S. Jowett (2010). Chinese Warlord Armies, 1911–30. Osprey Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-84908-402-4.
  82. ^ Shih 2018, p. 116.
  83. ^ a b Jowett 2004, p. 15.
  84. ^ a b c d e Shih 2018, p. 232-235.
  85. ^ McWilliams, Bill (2015). On Hallowed Ground: The Last Battle for Pork Chop Hill. Open Road Media. p. 390. ISBN 9781504021517.
  86. ^ Shih 2018, p. 2233.
  87. ^ Shih 2018, p. 235.
  88. ^ a b Charles Stowell (2006-04-05). "Type 23, Fragmentation Hand Grenade, Pull-Type". Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  89. ^ Lex Peverelli. "Type 23". Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  90. ^ a b c Shih 2018, p. 222-225.
  91. ^ Shih 2018, p. 223.
  92. ^ Shih 2018, p. 224.
  93. ^ Shih 2018, p. 226-229.
  94. ^ Shih 2018, p. 226.
  95. ^ Shih 2018, p. 228.
  96. ^ Shih 2018, p. 228-229.
  97. ^ Romanus, Charles; Sunderland, Riley (1956). China-Burma-India Theatre: Stillwell's Command Problems (PDF). pp. 247, 338, 397. Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  98. ^ US National Archives and Records Administration. "Chinese M1A1 Flamethrower October 4, 1944, in Tengchong, Yunnan". Retrieved 2019-07-30.
  99. ^ Fencl, Jiří (1991). "Nejprodávanější československá zbraň" (in Czech). Militaria, Elka Press. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  100. ^ Shih 2018, p. 147.
  101. ^ Shih 2018, p. 146-149.
  102. ^ Shih 2018, p. 150.
  103. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 165-166.
  104. ^ Lai 2018, p. 21.
  105. ^ Shih 2018, p. 157-160.
  106. ^ Smith 1969, p. 342.
  107. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 292.
  108. ^ Shih 2018, p. 159.
  109. ^ Shih 2018, p. 159-160.
  110. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 153.
  111. ^ Shih 2018, p. 168-169.
  112. ^ Shih 2018, p. 169.
  113. ^ Shih 2018, p. 167.
  114. ^ Shih 2018, p. 170.
  115. ^ Shih 2018, p. 164.
  116. ^ Jowett 2005, p. 44.
  117. ^ a b c Shih 2018, p. 161-163.
  118. ^ Grant, Neil (2013). The Bren Gun. Weapon 22. Osprey Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1782000822.
  119. ^ Shih 2018, p. 155.
  120. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 279.
  121. ^ a b c d Shih 2018, p. 181-189.
  122. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 174-178.
  123. ^ Shih 2018, p. 180.
  124. ^ a b Shih 2018, p. 196-197.
  125. ^ Shih 2018, p. 122.
  126. ^ Shih 2018, p. 197-198.
  127. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 309.
  128. ^ Shih 2018, p. 192-193.
  129. ^ Jowett 2013, p. 306.
  130. ^ Jowett 2005, p. 45.
  131. ^ Jowett 2004, p. 84.
  132. ^ Shih 2018, p. 217-220.
  133. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 311.
  134. ^ Shih 2018, p. 220-222.
  135. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2012). The Bazooka. Osprey Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1849088015.
  136. ^ a b Ness & Shih 2016, p. 143.
  137. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 401.
  138. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 340.
  139. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 338.
  140. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 274.
  141. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 273.
  142. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 334.
  143. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 335.
  144. ^ a b c d e Ness & Shih 2016, p. 342.
  145. ^ a b c d e Ness & Shih 2016, p. 343.
  146. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 348.
  147. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 344.
  148. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 346.
  149. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, pp. 123–125.
  150. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 353.
  151. ^ a b c d e f g h Jowett 2004, p. 17.
  152. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 326.
  153. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 328.
  154. ^ a b c Ness & Shih 2016, p. 372.
  155. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 371.
  156. ^ a b Ness & Shih 2016, p. 378.
  157. ^ Clelland, Charlie. "7.5cm Gebirgskanone M1908, Type 41 75mm Mountain Gun". landships.info.[better source needed]
  158. ^ Lai 2017, p. 28.
  159. ^ Jowett 2005, p. 17.
  160. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, pp. 132–133.
  161. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 382.
  162. ^ Jowett 2004, p. 76.
  163. ^ Lai 2018, p. 17.
  164. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, pp. 416–417.
  165. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, pp. 410–411.
  166. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 321.
  167. ^ a b Ness & Shih 2016, p. 322.
  168. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 320.
  169. ^ a b Ness & Shih 2016, p. 323.
  170. ^ Zaloga, Steven J. (2005). US Anti-tank Artillery 1941-45. New Vanguard 107. Osprey Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 1-84176-690-9.
  171. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 324.
  172. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 404.
  173. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. 403.
  174. ^ Lai 2017, p. 71.
  175. ^ a b Ness & Shih 2016, p. 144.
  176. ^ Ness & Shih 2016, p. xiii.
  177. ^ Guo, Leo (2020-05-21). "1st AFAMF XP-1 — China's Wartime Swept Wing Fighter". Sino Records. Retrieved 2021-01-23.

Bibliography

  • Smith, Joseph E. (1969). Small Arms of the World (11 ed.). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company.
  • Jowett, Philip S. (1997). Chinese Civil War Armies 1911-49. Men at Arms 306. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1855326655.
  • Jowett, Philip S. (2004). Rays of the Rising Sun: Armed Forces of Japan's Asian Allies 1931-45: Volume 1: China and Manchukuo. Helion & Company Limited. ISBN 9781906033781.
  • Jowett, Philip S. (2005). The Chinese Army 1937–49: World War II and Civil War. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841769042.
  • Ball, Robert W. D. (2011). Mauser Military Rifles of the World. Iola: Gun Digest Books. ISBN 9781440228926.
  • Jowett, Philip (20 Nov 2013). China’s Wars: Rousing the Dragon 1894-1949. General Military. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781782004073.
  • Ness, Leland; Shih, Bin (July 2016). Kangzhan: Guide to Chinese Ground Forces 1937–45. Helion & Company. ISBN 9781910294420.
  • Lai, Benjamin (29 Jun 2017). Shanghai and Nanjing 1937: Massacre on the Yangtze. Campaign 309. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472817495.
  • Lai, Benjamin (18 Oct 2018). Chinese Soldier vs Japanese Soldier: China 1937–38. Combat 37. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472828200.
  • Shih, Bin (2018). China's Small Arms of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).