List of Roman emperors

Summary

statue of Augustus
A statue of Augustus (r. 27 BC – AD 14), the first Roman emperor

The Roman emperors were the rulers of the Roman Empire after the granting of the title augustus to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC,[1][2] after major roles played by the populist dictator and military leader Gaius Julius Caesar.[3] Augustus maintained a facade of Republican rule, rejecting monarchical titles but calling himself princeps senatus (first man of the Senate) and princeps civitatis (first citizen of the state). The title of Augustus was conferred on his successors to the imperial position, and the position gradually grew more monarchical and authoritarian.[4]

The style of government instituted by Augustus is called the Principate and continued until the late third or early fourth century.[5] The modern word 'emperor' derives from the title imperator, which was granted by an army to a successful general; during the initial phase of the empire, the title was generally used only by the princeps.[6] For example, Augustus' official name was Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus.[7] The territory under command of the emperor had developed under the period of the Roman Republic as it invaded and occupied much of Europe and portions of North Africa and the Middle East. Under the republic, the Senate and People of Rome authorized provincial governors, who answered only to them, to rule regions of the empire.[8] The chief magistrates of the republic were two consuls elected each year; consuls continued to be elected in the imperial period, but their authority was subservient to that of the emperor, who also controlled and determined their election.[9] Oftentimes, the emperors themselves, or close family, were selected as consul.[10]

In the late third century, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian formalized and embellished the recent manner of imperial rule. The period thereafter was characterized by the explicit increase of authority in the person of the emperor, and the use of the style dominus noster (our lord). The rise of powerful barbarian tribes along the borders of the empire, the challenge they posed to the defense of far-flung borders as well as an unstable imperial succession led Diocletian to divide the administration of the Empire geographically with a co-augustus in 286. In 330, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, established a second capital in Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. Historians consider the Dominate period of the empire to have begun with either Diocletian or Constantine, depending on the author.[11] For most of the period from 286 to 480, there was more than one recognized senior emperor, with the division usually based on geographic regions. This division was consistently in place after the death of Theodosius I in 395, which historians have dated as the division between the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. However, formally the Empire remained a single polity, with separate co-emperors in the separate courts.[12]

The fall of the Western Roman Empire is dated either from the de facto date of 476, when Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic Herulians led by Odoacer, or the de jure date of 480, on the death of Julius Nepos, when Eastern emperor Zeno ended recognition of a separate Western court.[13][14] Historians typically refer to the empire in the centuries that followed as the "Byzantine Empire", oriented towards Hellenic culture and governed by the Byzantine emperors.[a] Given that "Byzantine" is a later historiographical designation and the inhabitants and emperors of the empire continually maintained Roman identity, this designation is not used universally and continues to be a subject of specialist debate.[b] Under Justinian I, in the sixth century, a large portion of the western empire was retaken, including Italy, Africa, and part of Spain.[18] Most of this territory was soon lost, including Spain in 625[19] and Africa in 698.[20] A large portion of Italy was conquered by the Lombards already under Justinian I's successor, Justin II.[21] Rome and its surroundings remained under imperial control until 756, when they became the Papal States,[22] though the last Italian holdouts were not lost until 1071 with the fall of Bari.[23] The seventh century also saw much of the empire's eastern and southern territories lost permanently to Arab Muslim conquests. Though ruling a much-reduced empire, since then centered around Anatolia and the Balkans, the line of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI Palaiologos at the fall of Constantinople in 1453, when the remaining territories were conquered by the Ottoman Turks led by Sultan Mehmed II.[24][c] In the aftermath of the conquest, Mehmed II proclaimed himself kayser-i Rûm ("Caesar of Rome"),[d] thus claiming to be the new emperor,[26] a claim maintained by succeeding sultans.[27] Competing claims of succession to the Roman Empire have also been forwarded by various other states and empires, and by numerous later pretenders.[28]

Legitimacy

coin
Coin of Pescennius Niger, a Roman usurper who claimed imperial power AD 193–194

While the imperial government of the Roman Empire was rarely called into question during its five centuries in the west and fifteen centuries in the east, individual emperors often faced unending challenges in the form of usurpation and perpetual civil wars.[29] From the rise of Augustus, the first Roman emperor, in 27 BC to the sack of Rome in AD 455, there were over a hundred usurpations or attempted usurpations (an average of one usurpation or attempt about every four years). From the murder of Commodus in 192 until the fifth century, there was scarcely a single decade without succession conflicts and civil war. Very few emperors died of natural causes, with regicide in practical terms having become the expected end of a Roman emperor by late antiquity.[30] The distinction between a usurper and a legitimate emperor is a blurry one, given that a large numer of emperors commonly considered legitimate began their rule as usurpers, revolting against the previous legitimate emperor.[31]

True legitimizing structures and theories were weak, or wholly absent, in the Roman Empire,[30] and there were no true objective legal criteria for imperial acclamation beyond proclamation or acceptance by the Roman army, the event that most often came to signify imperial accession.[32] Dynastic succession was not legally formalized, but also not uncommon, with powerful rulers sometimes succeeding in passing power on to their children or other relatives. While dynastic ties could bring someone to the throne, they were not a guarantee that their rule would not be challenged.[33] With the exception of Titus (r. 79–81; son of Vespasian), no son of an emperor who ruled after the death of their father died a natural death until Constantine I in 337. Control of Rome itself and approval of the Roman Senate held some importance as legitimising factors, but was mostly symbolical. Emperors who began their careers as usurpers had often been deemed public enemies by the senate before they managed to take the city. Emperors did not need to be acclaimed or crowned in Rome itself, as demonstrated in the Year of the Four Emperors (69), when claimants were crowned by armies in the Roman provinces, and the senate's role in legitimising emperors had almost faded into insignificance by the Crisis of the Third Century (235–284). By the end of the third century, Rome's importance was mainly ideological, with several emperors and usurpers even beginning to place their court in other cities in the empire, closer to the imperial frontier.[34]

Common methods used by emperors to assert claims of legitimacy, such as proclamation by the army, blood connections (sometimes fictitious) to past emperors, wearing imperial regalia, distributing one's own coins or statues and claims to pre-eminent virtue through propaganda, were pursued just as well by many usurpers as they were by legitimate emperors.[35] There were no constitutional or legal distinctions that differentiated legitimate emperors and usurpers. In ancient Roman texts, the differences between emperors and "tyrants" (the term typically used for usurpers) is often a moral one (with the tyrants ascribed wicked behaviour) rather than a legal one. Typically, the actual distinction was whether the claimant had been victorious or not. In the Historia Augusta, an ancient Roman collection of imperial biographies, the usurper Pescennius Niger (193–194) is expressly noted to only be a tyrant because he was defeated by Septimius Severus (r. 193–211).[36] This is also followed in modern historiography, where, in the absence of constitutional criteria separating them, the main factor that distinguishes usurpers from legitimate Roman emperors is their degree of success. What makes a figure who began as a usurper into a legitimate emperor is typically either that they managed to gain the recognition from a more senior, legitimate, emperor, or that they managed to defeat a more senior, legitimate emperor and seize power from them by force.[33]

List structure

Given that a concept of constitutional legitimacy was irrelevant in the Roman Empire, and emperors were only 'legitimate' in so far as they were able to be accepted in the wider empire,[37] this list of emperors operates on a collection of inclusion criteria:

  • Imperial claimants whose power across the empire became, or from the beginning was, absolute and who ruled undisputed are treated as legitimate emperors.[38] From 284 onwards, when imperial power was usually divided among two colleagues in the east and west,[39] control over the respective half is sufficient even if a claimant was not recognized in the other half, such as was the case for several of the last few emperors in the west.[40]
  • Imperial claimants who were proclaimed emperors by another, legitimate, senior emperor, or who were recognized by a legitimate senior emperor, are treated as legitimate emperors.[32][41]
  • Imperial claimants who achieved the recognition of the Roman Senate, especially in times of uncertainty and civil war, are, due to the senate's nominal role as an elective body, treated as legitimate emperors.[31][42] In later times, especially when emperors ruled from other cities, this criterion defaults to the possession and control of the capital itself. In the later eastern empire, possession of the capital of Constantinople was an essential element of imperial legitimacy.[43]

In the case of non-dynastic emperors after or in the middle of the rule of a dynasty, it is customary among historians to group them together with the rulers of said dynasty,[44] an approach that is followed in this list. Dynastic breaks with non-dynastic rulers are indicated with thickened horizontal lines.

Principate (27 BC – AD 284)

Julio-Claudian dynasty (27 BC – AD 68)

Julio-Claudian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Augustus
Caesar Augustus
16 January 27 BC – 19 August AD 14
(40 years, 7 months and 3 days)
or
  7 January 43 BC – 19 August AD 14[e]
(56 years, 7 months and 12 days)
Grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar. Gradually acquired further power through grants from, and constitutional settlements with, the Roman Senate. 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14
(aged 75)
Died of natural causes[46]
bust Tiberius
Tiberius Caesar Augustus
17 September 14 – 16 March 37
(22 years, 5 months and 27 days)
Stepson, former son-in-law and adopted son of Augustus 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37
(aged 77)
Died probably of natural causes, allegedly murdered at the instigation of Caligula[47]
bust Caligula
Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
18 March 37 – 24 January 41
(3 years, 10 months and 6 days)
Grandnephew and adopted heir of Tiberius, great-grandson of Augustus 31 August 12 – 24 January 41
(aged 28)
Murdered in a conspiracy involving the Praetorian Guard and senators[48]
bust Claudius
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
24 January 41 – 13 October 54
(13 years, 8 months and 19 days)
Uncle of Caligula, grandnephew of Augustus, proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard and accepted by the Senate 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54
(aged 63)
Probably poisoned by his wife Agrippina, in favor of her son Nero[49]
bust Nero
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
13 October 54 – 9 June 68
(13 years, 7 months and 27 days)
Grandnephew, stepson, son-in-law and adopted son of Claudius, great-great-grandson of Augustus 15 December 37 – 9 June 68
(aged 30)
Committed suicide after being deserted by the Praetorian Guard and sentenced to death by the Senate[50]

Year of the Four Emperors (68–69)

Year of the Four Emperors
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Galba
Servius Galba Caesar Augustus
8 June 68 – 15 January 69
(7 months and 7 days)
Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, revolted against Nero and seized power after his suicide, with support of the Senate and Praetorian Guard 24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69
(aged 72)
Murdered by soldiers of the Praetorian Guard in a coup led by Otho[51]
bust Otho
Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus
15 January – 16 April 69
(3 months and 1 day)
Seized power through a coup against Galba 28 April 32 – 16 April 69
(aged 36)
Committed suicide after losing the Battle of Bedriacum to Vitellius[52]
coin Vitellius
Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus
19 April – 20 December 69
(8 months and 1 day)
Governor of Germania Inferior, seized power with support of the Rhine legions in opposition to Galba and Otho, and recognized by the Senate 24 September 15 – 20/22 December 69
(aged 54)
Brutally murdered by Vespasian's troops[53]

Flavian dynasty (69–96)

Flavian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Vespasian
Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
1 July 69 – 23 June 79
(9 years, 11 months and 22 days)
Seized power with support of the eastern legions, in opposition to Vitellius 17 November 9 – 23/24 June 79
(aged 69)
Died of natural causes[54]
bust Titus
Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
24 June 79 – 13 September 81
(2 years, 2 months and 20 days)
Son of Vespasian 30 December 39 – 13 September 81
(aged 41)
Died of natural causes[55]
statue Domitian
Caesar Domitianus Augustus
14 September 81 – 18 September 96
(15 years and 4 days)
Brother of Titus and son of Vespasian 24 October 51 – 18 September 96
(aged 44)
Assassinated in a conspiracy of court officials, possibly involving Nerva[56]

Nerva–Antonine dynasty (96–192)

Nerva–Antonine dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Nerva
Nerva Caesar Augustus
18 September 96 – 27 January 98
(1 year, 4 months and 9 days)
Proclaimed emperor after the murder of Domitian 8 November 30 – 27 January 98
(aged 67)
First of the "Five Good Emperors". Died of natural causes.[57]
bust Trajan
Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus
28 January 98 – 7/11 August 117
(19 years, 6 months and 10/14 days)
Adopted son of Nerva 18 September 53 – 7/11 August 117
(aged 63)
First non-Italian emperor. His reign marked the geographical peak of the empire. Died of natural causes.[58]
statue Hadrian
Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus
11 August 117 – 10 July 138
(20 years, 10 months and 29 days)
Cousin of Trajan, allegedly adopted by him 24 January 76 – 10 July 138
(aged 62)
Ended Roman expansionism. Died of natural causes.[59]
statue Antoninus Pius
Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius
10 July 138 – 7 March 161
(22 years, 7 months and 25 days)
Adopted son of Hadrian 19 September 86 – 7 March 161
(aged 74)
Died of natural causes[60]
bust Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus[f]
7 March 161 – 17 March 180
(19 years and 10 days)
Son-in-law and adopted son of Antoninus. Reigned jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, the first time multiple emperors shared power. 26 April 121 – 17 March 180
(aged 58)
Last of the "Five Good Emperors". Died of natural causes.[62]
bust Lucius Verus
Lucius Aurelius Verus
7 March 161 – January/February 169
(7 years and 11 months)
Adopted son of Antoninus Pius, joint emperor with his father-in-law Marcus Aurelius 15 December 130 – early 169
(aged 38)
Died of natural causes[63]
bust Commodus
Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus / Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus
27 November 176 – 31 December 192
(16 years, 1 month and 4 days)
Son of Marcus Aurelius. First emperor to be elevated during predecessor's lifetime. 31 August 161 – 31 December 192
(aged 31)
Strangled to death in a conspiracy involving his praetorian prefect, Laetus, and mistress, Marcia[64]

Year of the Five Emperors (193)

Note: The other claimants during the Year of the Five Emperors were Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, generally regarded as usurpers.
Year of the Five Emperors
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Pertinax
Publius Helvius Pertinax
1 January – 28 March 193
(2 months and 27 days)
City prefect of Rome at Commodus's death, set up as emperor by the praetorian prefect, Laetus, with consent of the Senate 1 August 126 – 28 March 193
(aged 66)
Murdered by mutinous soldiers of the Praetorian Guard[65]
bust Didius Julianus
Marcus Didius Severus Julianus
28 March – 1 June 193
(2 months and 4 days)
Won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of emperor 30 January 133 – 1/2 June 193
(aged 60)
Killed on order of the Senate, at the behest of Septimius Severus[66]

Severan dynasty (193–235)

Severan dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Septimius Severus
Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax[g]
9 April 193 – 4 February 211
(17 years, 9 months and 26 days)
Governor of Upper Pannonia, acclaimed by the Pannonian legions following the murder of Pertinax 11 April 145 – 4 February 211
(aged 65)
First non-European emperor. Died of natural causes.[68]
bust Caracalla
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
28 January 198 – 8 April 217
(19 years, 2 months and 11 days)
Son of Septimius Severus, succeeded jointly with his brother, Geta 4 April 188 – 8 April 217
(aged 29)
Granted Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. Murdered by a soldier at the instigation of his successor, Macrinus.[69]
bust Geta
Publius Septimius Geta
c. October 209 – 19/26 December 211
(2 years and c. 3 months)
Son of Septimius Severus, succeeded jointly with his older brother, Caracalla 7 March 189 – 19/26 December 211
(aged 22)
Murdered on order of his brother, Caracalla[70]
bust Macrinus
Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus
11 April 217 – 8 June 218
(1 year, 1 month and 28 days)
Praetorian prefect of Caracalla, accepted as emperor by the army and Senate, after having arranged his predecessor's death in fear of his own life c. 165 – June 218
(aged approx. 53)
First non-senator to become emperor, and first emperor not to visit Rome after acceding. Executed during a revolt of the troops in favor of Elagabalus.[71]
coin Diadumenian
Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus
Late May – June 218
(less than a month)
Son of Macrinus, named emperor by his father after the eruption of a rebellion in favor of Elagabalus 14 September 208 – June 218
(aged 9)
First child emperor. Caught in flight and executed in favor of Elagabalus[72]
bust Elagabalus
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
16 May 218 – 12 March 222
(3 years, 9 months and 24 days)
Cousin and alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla, acclaimed as emperor by rebellious legions in opposition to Macrinus, at the instigation of his grandmother, Julia Maesa 203/204 – 11/12 March 222
(aged 18)
Murdered by the Praetorian Guard alongside his mother, also at his grandmother's encouragement[73]
statue Severus Alexander
Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
13 March 222 – 21 March 235
(13 years and 8 days)
Cousin and adopted heir of Elagabalus 1 October 208 – 21 March 235
(aged 26)
Lynched by mutinous troops, alongside his mother[74]

Crisis of the Third Century (235–284)

  (#) – Ambiguous legitimacy[h]
Crisis of the Third Century
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Maximinus I "Thrax"
Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus
c. March 235 – c. June/July 238[i]
(c. 3 years and 4/5 months)
Proclaimed emperor by Germanic legions after the murder of Severus Alexander. c. 172–180 – c. June/July 238
(aged approx. 58–66)
First commoner to become emperor. Murdered by his men during the siege of Aquileia[80]
bust Gordian I
Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus
c. April/May – c. May/June 238[i]
(three weeks)
Proclaimed emperor alongside his son, Gordian II, while serving as governor of Africa, in a revolt against Maximinus, and recognized by the Senate c. 158/159 – c. May/June 238
(aged approx. 79)
Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of his son, Gordian II[81]
coin Gordian II
Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus
c. April/May – c. May/June 238[i]
(three weeks)
Proclaimed emperor alongside father Gordian I, during revolt in Africa against Maximinus c. 192 – c. May/June 238
(aged approx. 45)
Killed outside Carthage in battle against an army loyal to Maximinus I[82]
bust Pupienus
Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus
c. May/June – August 238[i]
(c. 2/3 months)
Proclaimed emperor jointly with Balbinus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus c. 164 – August 238
(aged approx. 74)
Tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard[83]
bust Balbinus
Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus
c. May/June – August 238[i]
(c. 2/3 months)
Proclaimed emperor jointly with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus c. 178 – August 238
(aged approx. 60)
Tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard[84]
bust Gordian III
Marcus Antonius Gordianus
August 238[i]c. February 244
(c. 5 years and 6 months)
Grandson of Gordian I, appointed as heir by Pupienus and Balbinus, upon whose deaths he succeeded as emperor 20 January 225 – c. February 244
(aged 19)
Died during campaign against Persia, possibly in a murder plot instigated by his successor, Philip I[85]
bust Philip I "the Arab"
Marcus Julius Philippus
c. February 244 – September/October 249
(c. 5 years and 7/8 months)
Praetorian prefect under Gordian III, seized power after his death c. 204 – September/October 249
(aged approx. 45)
Killed at the Battle of Verona, against Decius[86]
bust Philip II "the Younger"
Marcus Julius Severus Philippus
July/August 247 – September/October 249
(c. 2 years and 2 months)
Son of Philip I, appointed joint emperor c. 237 – September/October 249
(aged approx. 12)
Murdered by the Praetorian Guard[87]
bust Decius
Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius
September/October 249 – June 251
(c. 1 year and 8/9 months)
Proclaimed emperor by the troops in Moesia, then defeated and killed Philip I in battle c. 190/200 – June 251
(aged approx. 50/60)
Killed at the Battle of Abrittus, against the Goths[88]
coin Herennius Etruscus
Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius
May/June – June 251
(less than a month)
Son of Decius, appointed joint emperor c. 220/230 – June 251
(aged approx. 20/30)
Killed at the Battle of Abrittus alongside his father[89]
bust Trebonianus Gallus
Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus
June 251 – c. August 253
(c. 3 years and 2 months)
Senator and general, proclaimed emperor after the deaths of Decius and Herennius Etruscus c. 206 – c. August 253
(aged 47)
Murdered by his own troops in favor of Aemilian[90]
coin Hostilian
Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus
June – July/November 251
(1 month or 5 months)
Son of Decius, named Caesar by his father and proclaimed joint emperor by Trebonianus Gallus Unknown – c. July/November 251
Died of plague or murdered by Trebonianus Gallus[91]
bust Volusianus
Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus
c. August 251 – c. August 253
(3 years)
Son of Trebonianus Gallus, appointed joint emperor c. 230 – c. August 253
(aged approx. 23)
Murdered by the soldiers, alongside his father[92]
coin Aemilianus
Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus
July/August – September/October 253
(c. 2 months)
Commander of the army in Moesia, proclaimed emperor by the soldiers after defeating barbarians, in opposition to Gallus Unknown – September/October 253
Murdered by his own troops in favor of Valerian[93]
coin Silbannacus[j] (#)
Mar. Silbannacus
September/October 253
(very briefly)
Obscure figure known only from coinage, appears to have briefly ruled in Rome between Aemilianus and Valerian Nothing known[95]
bust Valerian
Publius Licinius Valerianus
June/August 253 – c. June 260
(7 years)
Army commander in Raetia and Noricum, proclaimed emperor by the legions in opposition to Aemilian c. 200 – after 262 (?)
(aged over 62?)
Captured at Edessa by the Persian king Shapur I, died in captivity possibly forced to swallow molten gold[97]
bust Gallienus
Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
c. September 253 – c. September 268
(15 years)
Son of Valerian, appointed joint emperor. Sole emperor after Valerian's capture and subsequent death. 218 – c. September 268
(aged 50)
Murdered in a conspiracy of army officers, involving his successors Claudius II and Aurelian[98]
coin Saloninus[k] (#)
Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus
Autumn 260
(c. 1 month)
Son of Gallienus, proclaimed Caesar by his father and proclaimed emperor by the praetorian prefect Silvanus while besieged by Postumus Unknown – autumn 260
Murdered by troops loyal to Postumus[100]
coin Claudius II "Gothicus"
Marcus Aurelius Claudius
c. September 268 – c. April 270
(c. 1 year and 7 months)
Army commander in Illyria, proclaimed emperor after Gallienus's death 10 May 214 (?) – c. April 270
(aged approx. 55)
Died of plague[101]
coin Quintillus
Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
c. April – May 270
(17 days?)
Brother of Claudius II, proclaimed emperor after his death Unknown – May 270
Committed suicide or killed at the behest of Aurelian[102]
coin Aurelian
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
c. May 270 – c. October 275
(c. 5 years and 5 months)
Supreme commander of the Roman cavalry, proclaimed emperor by Danube legions after Claudius II's death, in opposition to Quintillus 9 September 214 – c. October 275
(aged 61)
Murdered by the troops[103]
bust Tacitus
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
c. December 275 – c. June 276
(c. 7 months)
Alleged princeps senatus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in Campania after Aurelian's death c. 200 (?) – c. June 276
(aged approx. 76?)
Possibly murdered[104]
coin Florianus
Marcus Annius Florianus
c. June – September 276
(c. 3 months)
Brother or, more likely, half-brother of Tacitus Unknown – September/October 253
Murdered by his own troops in favor of Probus[105]
bust Probus
Marcus Aurelius Probus
c. June 276 – c. September 282
(c. 6 years and 3 months)
General; proclaimed emperor by the eastern legions, in opposition to Florianus 19 August 232 – c. September 282
(aged 50)
Murdered by his own troops in favor of Carus[106]
coin Carus
Marcus Aurelius Carus
c. September 282 – c. July 283
(c. 10 months)
Praetorian prefect under Probus, seized power before or after Probus's murder c. 224 (?) – c. July 283
(aged approx. 60?)
Died during a campaign in Persia, either of illness or by being hit by lightning[107]
bust Carinus
Marcus Aurelius Carinus
Spring 283 – August/September 285
(2 years)
Son of Carus, appointed joint emperor c. 250 – August/September 285
(aged approx. 35)
Probably died in battle against Diocletian, likely betrayed by his own soldiers[108]
coin Numerian
Marcus Aurelius Numerianus
c. July/August 283 – November 284
(1 year and 3/4 months)
Son of Carus, appointed joint emperor by his brother Carinus or by Carus c. 253 – November 284
(aged approx. 31)
Died while marching to Europe, probably of disease, possibly assassinated[109]

Dominate (284–602)

Tetrarchy (284–324)

  (#) – Ambiguous legitimacy[h]
Tetrarchy
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Diocletian
Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
20 November 284 – 1 May 305
(20 years, 5 months and 11 days)
Commander of the imperial bodyguard, acclaimed by the army after death of Numerian, and proceeded to defeat Numerian's brother, Carinus, in battle c. 243/245 – 311/312
(aged approx. 68)
First emperor to voluntarily abdicate. Died in unclear circumstances.[110]
bust Maximian "Herculius"
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus
1 April 286 – 1 May 305
(19 years and 1 month)
Late 306 – 11 November 308
(2 years)
Elevated by Diocletian, ruled the western provinces c. 250 – c. July 310
(aged approx. 60)
Abdicated with Diocletian, later tried to regain the purple with, and then from, Maxentius, before being probably killed on orders of Constantine I[111]
bust Constantius I "Chlorus"
Flavius Valerius Constantius
1 May 305 – 25 July 306
(1 year, 2 months and 24 days)
Maximian's relation by marriage, elevated to Caesar in 293 by Diocletian, succeeded as Augustus upon Maximian's abdication roughly 250 – 25 July 306
Died of natural causes[112]
bust Galerius
Galerius Valerius Maximianus
1 May 305 – May 311
(6 years)
Elevated to Caesar in 293 by Diocletian, succeeded as Augustus upon Diocletian's abdication c. 258 – May 311
(aged approx. 53)
Died of natural causes[113]
coin Severus II
Flavius Valerius Severus
August 306 – March/April 307
(c. 8 months)
Elevated to Caesar in 305 by Maximian, promoted to Augustus by Galerius upon Constantius I's death Unknown – September 307
Surrendered to Maximian and Maxentius, later murdered or forced to commit suicide[114]
bust Maxentius (#)
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
28 October 306 – 28 October 312
(6 years)
Son of Maximian and son-in-law of Galerius, seized power in Italy with support of the Praetorian Guard and his father, after being passed over in the succession. Not recognized by the other emperors. c. 283 – 28 October 312
(aged approx. 29)
Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine I[115]
coin Licinius
Valerius Licinianus Licinius
11 November 308 – 19 September 324
(15 years, 10 months and 8 days)
Elevated by Galerius to replace Severus, in opposition to Maxentius. Defeated Maximinus Daza in a civil war to become sole emperor of the East in 313. c. 265 – early 325
(aged approx. 60)
Defeated, deposed and put to death by Constantine I[116]
coin Maximinus II "Daza"
Galerius Valerius Maximinus
310 – c. July 313
(3 years)
Nephew of Galerius, elevated to Caesar by Diocletian in 305, and acclaimed as Augustus by his troops in 310 roughly 270 – c. July 313
Defeated in civil war against Licinius, died shortly afterwards[117]
coin Valerius Valens[l] (#)
Aurelius Valerius Valens
October 316 – c. January 317
(c. 2–3 months)
Frontier commander in Dacia, elevated by Licinius in opposition to Constantine I Unknown – 317
Executed in the lead-up to a peace settlement between Licinius and Constantine[119]
coin Martinian[l] (#)
Mar. Martinianus
July – 19 September 324
(2 months)
A senior bureaucrat, elevated by Licinius in opposition to Constantine I Unknown – 325
Deposed by Constantine and banished to Cappadocia, later executed[120]

Constantinian dynasty (306–363)

  (#) – Ambiguous legitimacy[h]
Constantinian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Constantine I "the Great"
Flavius Valerius Constantinus
25 July 306 – 22 May 337
(30 years, 9 months and 27 days)
Son of Constantius I, acclaimed by his father's troops. Accepted as Caesar by Galerius in 306, promoted to Augustus in 307 by Maximian, refused demotion to Caesar in 309. 27 February 272/273 – 22 May 337
(aged 64/65)
First Christian emperor, and founder of Constantinople. Sole ruler of the Empire after defeating Maxentius in 312 and Licinius in 324. Died of natural causes.[121]
statue Constantine II
Flavius Claudius Constantinus
9 September 337 – April 340
(2 years and 7 months)
Son of Constantine I 7 August 316 – April 340
(aged 23)
Ruled the praetorian prefecture of Gaul. Killed in war against his brother, Constans I.[122]
bust Constans I
Flavius Julius Constans
9 September 337 – 18 January 350
(12 years, 4 months and 9 days)
Son of Constantine I c. 323 – January/February 350
(aged c. 27)
Ruled Italy, Illyricum and Africa initially, then the western empire after Constantine II's death. Overthrown and killed by Magnentius.[123]
coin Constantius II
Flavius Julius Constantius
9 September 337 – 3 November 361
(24 years, 1 month and 25 days)
Son of Constantine I 7 August 317 – 3 November 361
(aged 44)
Ruled the east initially, then the whole empire after the death of Magnentius. Died of a fever.[124]
coin Magnentius (#)
(Flavius) Magnus Magnentius
18 January 350 – 10 August 353
(3 years, 6 months and 23 days)
Proclaimed emperor by the troops, in opposition to Constans I c. 303 – 10 August 353
(aged approx. 50)
Committed suicide after losing the Battle of Mons Seleucus[125]
coin Nepotianus (#)
Julius Nepotianus
3 June – 30 June 350
(27 days)
Son of Eutropia, a daughter of Constantius I. Proclaimed emperor in Rome in opposition to Magnentius. Unknown – 30 June 350
Captured and executed by supporters of Magnentius[126]
coin Vetranio[m] (#) 1 March – 25 December 350
(9 months and 24 days)
General of Constans in Illyricum, acclaimed by the Illyrian legions at the expense of Magnentius Unknown – c. 356
Abdicated in Constantius II's favor, retired, and died 6 years later[128]
coin Julian "the Apostate"
Flavius Claudius Julianus
3 November 361 – 26 June 363
(1 year, 7 months and 24 days)
Acclaimed by the Gallic army in early 360, became sole emperor after the death of his cousin, Constantius II 331 – 26 June 363
(aged 31–32)
Last non-Christian emperor. Mortally wounded during campaign against Persia.[129]
coin Jovian
Jovianus[n]
27 June 363 – 17 February 364
(7 months and 21 days)
Commander of imperial household guard; proclaimed emperor by the army after Julian's death 331 – 17 February 364
(aged 33)
Possibly died of inhaling toxic fumes or indigestion[131]

Valentinianic dynasty (364–392)

  (#) – Ambiguous legitimacy[h]
Valentinianic dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Valentinian I "the Great"
Valentinianus
25/26 February 364 – 17 November 375
(11 years, 8 months and 23 days)
General; proclaimed emperor by the army after Jovian's death 321 – 17 November 375
(aged 54)
Died of a stroke while yelling at envoys[132]
coin Valens 28 March 364 – 9 August 378
(14 years, 4 months and 12 days)
Brother of Valentinian I, made eastern emperor by his brother (Valentinian retaining the west) c. 328 – 9 August 378
(aged nearly 50)
Killed at the Battle of Adrianople[133]
coin Procopius (#) 28 September 365 – 27 May 366
(7 months and 29 days)
Maternal cousin and intended heir of Julian; revolted against Valens and captured Constantinople, where the people proclaimed him emperor c. 326 – 27/28 May 366
(aged 40)
Deposed, captured and executed by Valens[134]
coin Gratian
Gratianus
24 August 367 – 25 August 383
(16 years and 1 day)
Son of Valentinian I; proclaimed joint-emperor, emperor in his own right after Valentinian's death 18 April 359 – 25 August 383
(aged 24)
Killed by Andragathius, an officer of Magnus Maximus[135]
statue Valentinian II
Valentinianus
22 November 375 – 15 March 392
(16 years, 3 months and 22 days)
Son of Valentinian I, proclaimed emperor after his father's death and accepted as co-ruler by Gratian 371 – 15 March 392
(aged 20)
Probably suicide, possibly killed by Arbogast[136]

Theodosian dynasty (379–457)

  (#) – Ambiguous legitimacy[h]
Theodosian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Theodosius I "the Great" 19 January 379 – 17 January 395
(15 years, 11 months and 29 days)
Retired general; proclaimed eastern emperor by Gratian. Ruler of the entire empire after Gratian's death. 11 January 346/347 – 17 January 395
(aged 48/49)
Died of natural causes[137]
coin Magnus Maximus (#) Spring 383 – 28 August 388
(5 years)
with Victor (383/387–388)[o]
General, related to Theodosius I; proclaimed emperor by the troops in Britain. Briefly recognized by Theodosius I and Valentinian II. Unknown – 28 August 388
Defeated by Theodosius I at the Battle of Save, executed after surrendering[139]
coin Eugenius (#) 22 August 392 – 6 September 394
(2 years and 15 days)
Teacher of Latin grammar and rhetoric, secretary of Valentinian II. Proclaimed emperor by Arbogast. Unknown – 6 September 394
Defeated by Theodosius I at the Battle of the Frigidus and executed[140]
bust Arcadius 17 January 395 – 1 May 408
(13 years, 3 months and 14 days)
Son of Theodosius I; co-emperor since 16 January 383. Emperor in the east. c. 377 – 1 May 408
(aged 31)
Died of natural causes[141]
carved portrait Honorius 17 January 395 – 15 August 423
(28 years, 6 months and 29 days)
Son of Theodosius I; co-emperor since 23 January 393. Emperor in the west. 9 September 384 – 15 August 423
(aged 38)
Died of edema[142]
coin Constantine III (#)
Flavius Claudius Constantinus
407 – 411
(4 years)
with Constans (409–411)
Common soldier, proclaimed emperor by the troops in Britain. Recognized by Honorius in 409. Emperor in the west. Unknown – 411 (before 18 September)
Surrendered to Constantius, a general of Honorius, and abdicated. Sent to Italy but murdered on the way.[143]
bust Theodosius II 1 May 408 – 28 July 450
(42 years, 2 months and 27 days)
Son of Arcadius; co-emperor since 10 January 402. Emperor in the east. 10 April 401 – 28 July 450
(aged 49)
Died of a fall from his horse[144]
coin Priscus Attalus (#) Late 409 – summer 410
(less than a year)
A leading member of the Roman Senate, proclaimed emperor by Alaric after the Sack of Rome. Emperor in the west. Unknown lifespan
Deposed by Alaric after reconciling with Honorius. Tried to claim the throne again 414–415 but was defeated and forced into exile; fate unknown.[145]
coin Constantius III 8 February – 2 September 421
(6 months and 25 days)
Prominent general under Honorius and husband of Galla Placidia, a daughter of Theodosius I. Made co-emperor by Honorius. Emperor in the west. Unknown – 2 September 421
Died of illness[146]
coin Joannes (#)
Iohannes
20 November 423 – 425
(a little over a year)
Senior civil servant, seized power in Rome and the west after Theodosius II delayed in nominating a successor of Honorius Unknown – 425
Captured by the forces of Theodosius II, brought to Constantinople and executed[147]
coin Valentinian III
Placidius Valentinianus
23 October 425 – 16 March 455
(29 years, 4 months and 21 days)
Son of Constantius III and grandson of Theodosius I, installed as emperor of the west by Theodosius II 2 July 419 – 16 March 455
(aged 35)
Murdered by Optelas and Thraustelas, retainers of Aetius[148]
coin Marcian
Marcianus
25 August 450 – 27 January 457
(6 years, 5 months and 2 days)
Soldier and official, proclaimed emperor after marrying Pulcheria, a daughter of Arcadius. Emperor in the east. c. 392 – 27 January 457
(aged 65)
Died after a prolonged period of illness[149]

Puppet emperors (west, 455–476)

Puppet emperors
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Petronius Maximus 17 March – 31 May 455
(2 months and 14 days)
General and civil official, murdered Valentinian III and married his widow, Licinia Eudoxia Unknown – 31 May 455
Killed while fleeing during the Vandalic sack of Rome[150]
coin Avitus
Eparchius Avitus
9 July 455 – 17 October 456
(1 year, 3 months and 8 days)
General; proclaimed emperor by the Visigoths and Gallo-Romans after the death of Petronius Maximus Unknown – 456/457
Defeated and deposed by the magister militum Ricimer, consecrated as a bishop but died soon thereafter[151]
coin Majorian
Julius Valerius Maiorianus
28 December 457 – 2 August 461
(3 years, 7 months and 10 days)
General; proclaimed emperor by the army and backed by Ricimer Unknown – 7 August 461
Deposed by Ricimer and executed five days later[152]
coin Libius Severus 19 November 461 – 14 November 465
(3 years, 11 months and 26 days)
Proclaimed emperor by Ricimer Unknown – 14 November 465
Died of natural causes[153]
coin Anthemius
Procopius Anthemius
12 April 467 – 11 July 472
(5 years, 2 months and 29 days)
General; husband of Marcia Euphemia, a daughter of Marcian. Proclaimed western emperor by the eastern emperor Leo I. Unknown – 11 July 472
Murdered by Gundobad after a civil war with Ricimer[154]
coin Olybrius
Anicius Olybrius
c. April – 2 November 472
(c. 7 months)
Husband of Placidia, a daughter of Valentinian III. Proclaimed emperor by Ricimer. Unknown – 2 November 472
Died of natural causes[155]
coin Glycerius 3/5 March 473 – June 474
(1 year and 3 months)
General; proclaimed emperor by Gundobad Unknown lifespan
Deposed by Julius Nepos and made a bishop, subsequent fate unknown[156]
coin Julius Nepos 24 June 474 – 28 August 475
(1 year, 2 months and 4 days)
General; married to a relative of Verina, the wife of the eastern emperor Leo I. Proclaimed western emperor by Leo. Unknown – 9 May 480
Fled to Dalmatia in the face of an attack by his magister militum Orestes. Continued to claim to be emperor in exile. Murdered by his retainers.[157]
coin Romulus "Augustulus"
Romulus Augustus
31 October 475 – 4 September 476
(10 months and 4 days)
Proclaimed emperor by his father, the magister militum Orestes c. 465 – after 507/511?
The last western emperor. Deposed by the Germanic general Odoacer and retired. Possibly alive as late as 507 or 511; fate unknown.[158]

Leonid dynasty (east, 457–518)

Leonid dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
bust Leo I "the Butcher" 7 February 457 – 18 January 474
(16 years, 11 months and 11 days)
Low-ranking army officer; chosen by the magister militum Aspar to succeed Marcian c. 400 – 18 January 474
(aged 73)
Died of dysentery[159]
coin Leo II 18 January – November 474
(11 months)
Grandson of Leo I; co-emperor since 17 November 473 c. 467 – November 474
(aged 7)
Died of illness[160]
coin Zeno 29 January 474 – 9 April 491
(17 years, 2 months and 11 days)
Husband of Ariadne, a daughter of Leo I, and father of Leo II. Crowned co-emperor with the approval of the Eastern Senate c. 425/430 – 9 April 491
(aged 60/65)
Died of dysentery or epilepsy[161]
coin Basiliscus 9 January 475 – August 476
(1 year and 7 months)
with Marcus (475–476)
Brother of Verina, the wife of Leo I. Proclaimed emperor by his sister in opposition to Zeno and seized Constantinople. Unknown – 476/477
Deposed by Zeno upon his return to Constantinople; imprisoned in a dried-up resorvoir and starved to death[162]
coin Anastasius I "Dicorus" 11 April 491 – 9 July 518
(27 years, 2 months and 28 days)
Government official; chosen by Ariadne, whom he married, to succeed Zeno c. 430 – 9 July 518
(aged 88)
Died of natural causes[163]

Justinian dynasty (east, 518–602)

Justinian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Justin I
Iustinus
9/10 July 518 – 1 August 527
(9 years and 23 days)
Soldier; proclaimed emperor by the troops after the death of Anastasius I c. 450 – 1 August 527
(aged approx. 77)
Died of natural causes[164]
mosaic Justinian I "the Great"
Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus
1 April 527 – 14 November 565
(38 years, 7 months and 13 days)
Nephew and adoptive son of Justin I c. 482 – 14 November 565
(aged approx. 83)
Died of natural causes[165]
coin Justin II
Iustinus
14 November 565 – 5 October 578
(12 years, 10 months and 21 days)
Son of Vigilantia, sister of Justinian I Unknown – 5 October 578
Died of natural causes[166]
coin Tiberius II Constantine
Tiberius Constantinus
26 September 578 – 14 August 582
(3 years, 10 months and 19 days)
Adoptive son of Justin II Mid-6th century – 14 August 582
Died after a sudden illness, supposedly after accidentally eating bad food[167]
coin Maurice
Mauricius Tiberius
13 August 582 – 27 November 602
(20 years, 3 months and 14 days)
with Theodosius (590–602)
Husband of Constantina, a daughter of Tiberius II Constantine c. 539 – 27 November 602
(aged 63)
Captured and executed by troops loyal to Phocas[168]
coin Phocas
Focas
23 November 602 – 5 October 610
(7 years, 10 months and 12 days)
Centurion in the army; proclaimed emperor by the troops against Maurice c. 547 – 5 October 610
(aged approx. 63)
Deposed and then beheaded on the orders of Heraclius[169]

Later eastern emperors (610–1453)

Heraclian dynasty (610–695)

Heraclian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Heraclius
Ἡράκλειος
[p]
5 October 610 – 11 February 641
(30 years, 4 months and 6 days)
Son of Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Carthage. Led a revolt and deposed Phocas. c. 575 – 11 February 641
(aged approx. 65)
Died of natural causes[172]
coin Heraclius Constantine
Heraclius Constantinus
  Ἡράκλειος Κωνσταντῖνος[q]
11 February – 25 May 641
(3 months and 14 days)
Son of Heraclius; co-emperor since 22 January 613 3 May 612 – 25 May 641
(aged 29)
Died of tuberculosis[174]
coin Heraclonas
Constantinus Heraclius
  Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος[r]
11 February – 5 November (?) 641
(8 months and 25 days)
with Tiberius (641)
Son of Heraclius; co-emperor since 4 July 638. Co-ruler with Constantine and then sole emperor under the regency of his mother Martina 626 – unknown
Deposed, mutilated and exiled, subsequent fate unknown[177]
coin Constans II "the Bearded"
Heraclius Constantinus
Ἡράκλειος Κωνσταντῖνος
September 641 – 15 July 668
(26 years and 10 months)
Son of Heraclius Constantine; proclaimed co-emperor by Heraclonas 7 November 630 – 15 July 668
(aged 37)
Murdered while bathing by supporters of the usurper Mezezius[178]
mosaic Constantine IV
Constantinus, Κωνσταντῖνος
September 668 – 10 July (?) 685
(16 years and 10 months)
with Heraclius and Tiberius (659–681)
Son of Constans II; co-emperor since April 654 c. 650 – 10 July (?) 685
(aged approx. 35)
Died of dysentery[179]
mosaic Justinian II "Rhinotmetus"
Iustinianus, Ἰουστινιανός
(first reign)
July 685 – 695
(10 years)
Son of Constantine IV; co-emperor since 681/682 c. 668 – 4 November 711
(aged 42)
Deposed and mutilated (hence his nickname, "Slit-nosed") by Leontius in 695; returned to the throne in 705[180]

Twenty Years' Anarchy (695–717)

Twenty Years' Anarchy
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Leontius
Λέων(τιος)
695 – 698
(3 years)
General; deposed Justinian II Unknown – 15 February (?) 706
Deposed by Tiberius III in 698 and later executed by Justinian II in 706[181]
coin Tiberius III
Τιβέριος
698 – 705
(7 years)
General; proclaimed emperor by the troops against Leontius Unknown – 15 February (?) 706
Deposed and later executed by Justinian II alongside Leontius[182]
mosaic Justinian II "Rhinotmetus"
Iustinianus, Ἰουστινιανός
(second reign)
21 August (?) 705 – 4 November 711
(6 years, 2 months and 14 days)
with Tiberius (706–711)
Retook the throne with the aid of the Khazars c. 668 – 4 November 711
(aged 42)
Defeated and killed by supporters of Philippicus after fleeing Constantinople[180]
coin Philippicus
Filepicus
Φιλιππικός
4 November 711 – 3 June 713
(1 year and 8 months)
General; proclaimed emperor by the troops against Justinian II Unknown – 20 January 714/715
Deposed and blinded in favor of Anastasius II, later died of natural causes[183]
coin Anastasius II
Artemius Anastasius
Ἀρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος
4 June 713 – fall 715
(less than 2 years)
Senior court official, proclaimed emperor after the deposition of Philippicus Unknown – 1 June 719
Abdicated to Theodosius III after a six-month civil war, becoming a monk. Beheaded by Leo III after an attempt to retake the throne.[184]
coin Theodosius III
Θεοδόσιος
Fall 715 – 25 March 717
(less than 2 years)
Tax-collector, possibly son of Tiberius III; proclaimed emperor by the troops against Anastasius II Unknown lifespan
Deposed by Leo III, whereafter he became a monk. His subsequent fate is unknown.[185]

Isaurian dynasty (717–802)

  (#) – Ambiguous legitimacy[h]
Isaurian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
coin Leo III "the Isaurian"
Λέων[s]
25 March 717 – 18 June 741
(24 years, 2 months and 24 days)
General; deposed Theodosius III c. 685 – 18 June 741
(aged approx. 56)
Died of dropsy[186]
coin Constantine V "Copronymus"
Κωνσταντῖνος
18 June 741 – 14 September 775
(34 years, 2 months and 27 days)
Son of Leo III; co-emperor since 720 718 – 14 September 775
(aged 57)
Died of a fever[187]
coin Artabasdos (#)
Ἀρτάβασδος
June 741/2 – 2 November 743
(1/2 years and 5 months)
with Nikephoros (741/742–743)
Husband of Anna, a daughter of Leo III. Revolted against Constantine V and briefly ruled at Constantinople. Unknown lifespan
Deposed and blinded by Constantine V, relegated to a monastery where he died of natural causes[188]
coin Leo IV "the Khazar"
Λέων
14 September 775 – 8 September 780
(4 years, 11 months and 25 days)
Son of Constantine V; co-emperor since 751 25 January 750 – 8 September 780
(aged 30)
Died of a fever[189]
coin Constantine VI
Κωνσταντῖνος
8 September 780 – 19 August 797
(16 years, 11 months and 11 days)
Son of Leo IV; co-emperor since 776 14 January 771 – before 805
(aged less than 34)
Deposed and blinded by Irene, died in exile[190]
coin Irene
Εἰρήνη
19 August 797 – 31 October 802
(5 years, 2 months and 12 days)
Widow of Leo IV and former regent of Constantine VI. Dethroned and blinded Constantine in 797, becoming the first female ruler of the empire. c. 752 – 9 August 803
(aged approx. 51)
Deposed by Nikephoros I and exiled to Lesbos, where she died of natural causes[191]

Nikephorian dynasty (802–813)

Nikephorian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Nikephoros I "the Logothete"
Νικηφόρος
31 October 802 – 26 July 811
(8 years, 8 months and 26 days)
Court official; proclaimed emperor in opposition to Irene c. 760 – 26 July 811
(aged approx. 51)
Killed at the Battle of Pliska[192]
coin Staurakios
Σταυράκιος
28 July – 2 October 811
(2 months and 4 days)
Son of Nikephoros I; co-emperor since December 803 790s – 11 January 812
(in his late teens)
Gravely wounded at the Battle of Pliska; abdicated in favor of Michael I and became a monk[193]
miniature portrait Michael I Rangabe
Μιχαὴλ
2 October 811 – 11 July 813
(1 year, 9 months and 9 days)
with Theophylact and Staurakios (811–813)
Husband of Prokopia, a daughter of Nikephoros I c. 770 – 11 January 844
(aged approx. 74)
Abdicated in 813 in favor of Leo V after suffering a defeat at the Battle of Versinikia and retired as a monk[194]
miniature portrait Leo V "the Armenian"
Λέων
11 July 813 – 25 December 820
(7 years, 5 months and 14 days)
with Constantine (813–820)
General; proclaimed emperor after the Battle of Versinikia c. 775 – 25 December 820
(aged approx. 45)
Murdered while in church by supporters of Michael II[195]

Amorian dynasty (820–867)

  (§) – Varying ascribed status[t]
Amorian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Michael II "the Amorian"
Μιχαὴλ
25 December 820 – 2 October 829
(8 years, 9 months and 7 days)
General; sentenced to execution by Leo V but proclaimed emperor by Leo V's assassins and crowned by Patriarch Theodotus I on the same day c. 770 – 2 October 829
(aged approx. 59)
Died of kidney failure[197]
miniature portrait Theophilos
Θεόφιλος
2 October 829 – 20 January 842
(12 years, 3 months and 18 days)
with Constantine (c. 834–835)
Son of Michael II; co-emperor since spring 821 812/813 – 20 January 842
(aged approx. 30)
Died of dysentery[198]
coin Theodora (§)
Θεοδώρα
20 January 842 – 15 March 856
(14 years, 1 month and 24 days)
with Thekla (842–856)
Widow of Theophilos; ruler in her own right during the minority of their son Michael III c. 815 – c. 867
(aged approx. 52)
Deposed by Michael III in 856, later died of natural causes[199]
miniature portrait Michael III "the Drunkard"
Μιχαὴλ
20 January 842 – 24 September 867
(25 years, 8 months and 4 days)
Son of Theophilos; co-emperor since 840. Under his mother's regency until 856. 19 January 840 – 24 September 867
(aged 27)
Murdered by Basil I and his supporters[200]

Macedonian dynasty (867–1056)

Macedonian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Basil I "the Macedonian"
Βασίλειος
24 September 867 – 29 August 886
(18 years, 9 months and 5 days)
with Constantine (868–879)
General; proclaimed co-emperor by Michael III on 26 May 866 and became senior emperor after Michael's murder. 811, 830, 835 or 836 – 29 August 886
(aged approx. 50, 56 or 75)
Died after a hunting accident[201]
mosaic Leo VI "the Wise"
Λέων
29 August 886 – 11 May 912
(25 years, 8 months and 12 days)
Son of Basil I or illegitimate son of Michael III; co-emperor since 6 January 870 19 September 866 – 11 May 912
(aged 45)
Died of an intestinal disease[202]
mosaic Alexander
Αλέξανδρος
11 May 912 – 6 June 913
(1 year and 27 days)
Son of Basil I; co-emperor since 879 23 November 870 – 6 June 913
(aged 42)
Died of illness, possibly testicular cancer[203]
carved portrait Constantine VII
Porphyrogenitus

Κωνσταντῖνος
6 June 913 – 9 November 959
(46 years, 5 months and 3 days)
Son of Leo VI; co-emperor since 15 May 908. Successively dominated by regents and co-emperors until 27 January 945, when he deposed Romanos I's sons. 17/18 May 905 – 9 November 959
(aged 54)
Died of natural causes[204]
miniature portrait Romanos I Lekapenos
Ῥωμανὸς
17 December 920 – 20 December 944
(24 years and 3 days)
with Christopher (921–931), Stephen and Constantine Lekapenos (924–945)
Overthrew Constantine VII's regency, married him to his daughter Helena and was made senior co-emperor. Made several sons co-emperors to curb Constantine VII's authority. c. 870 – 15 June 948
(aged approx. 78)
Deposed by his sons Stephen and Constantine. Died of natural causes in exile as a monk[205]
carved portrait Romanos II
Ῥωμανὸς
9 November 959 – 15 March 963
(3 years, 4 months and 6 days)
Son of Constantine VII and grandson of Romanos I; co-emperor since 6 April 945 939 – 15 March 963
(aged 23)
Died of exhaustion on a hunting trip[206]
miniature portrait Nikephoros II Phokas
Νικηφόρος
16 August 963 – 11 December 969
(6 years, 3 months and 25 days)
General; proclaimed emperor on 2 July 963 against the unpopular Joseph Bringas (regent for the young sons of Romanos II), entered Constantinople on 16 August 963. Married Theophano, the widow of Romanos II. c. 912 – 11 December 969
(aged 57)
Murdered in a conspiracy involving his former supporters (including John I Tzimiskes) and Theophano[207]
miniature portrait John I Tzimiskes
Ἰωάννης
11 December 969 – 10 January 976
(6 years and 30 days)
Nephew of Nikephoros II, took his place as senior co-emperor c. 925 – 10 January 976
(aged 50)
Possibly poisoned by Basil Lekapenos[208]
miniature portrait Basil II "the Bulgar-Slayer"
Βασίλειος
10 January 976 – 15 December 1025
(49 years, 11 months and 5 days)
Son of Romanos II; co-emperor since 22 April 960. Succeeded as senior emperor upon the death of John I. 958 – 15 December 1025
(aged approx. 67)
The longest-reigning emperor. Died of natural causes[209]
coin Constantine VIII
Κωνσταντῖνος
15 December 1025 – 12 November 1028
(2 years, 10 months and 28 days)
Son of Romanos II and brother of Basil II; co-emperor since 30 March 962 960/961 – 12 November 1028
(aged approx. 68)
Died of natural causes[210]
miniature portrait Romanos III Argyros
Ῥωμανὸς
12 November 1028 – 11 April 1034
(5 years, 4 months and 30 days)
Husband of Zoë, a daughter of Constantine VIII c. 968 – 11 April 1034
(aged approx. 66)
Possibly drowned on Zoë's orders[211]
miniature portrait Michael IV "the Paphlagonian"
Μιχαὴλ
12 April 1034 – 10 December 1041
(7 years, 7 months and 28 days)
Lover of Zoë, made emperor after their marriage following Romanos III's death c. 1010 – 10 December 1041
(aged approx. 31)
Died of epilepsy[212]
coin Michael V "Kalaphates"
Μιχαὴλ
13 December 1041 – 21 April 1042
(4 months and 8 days)
Nephew and designated heir of Michael IV, proclaimed emperor by Zoë three days after Michael IV's death c. 1015 – unknown
Deposed in a popular uprising after attempting to sideline Zoë, blinded and forced to become a monk[213]
mosaic Zoë Porphyrogenita
Ζωή
21 April – 12 June 1042
(1 month and 22 days)
Daughter of Constantine VIII and widow of Romanos III and Michael IV. Ruled in her own right from Michael V's deposition until her marriage to Constantine IX. c. 978 – 1050
(aged 72)
Died of natural causes[214]
Portrait from the Monomachos crown Theodora Porphyrogenita
Θεοδώρα
(first reign)
21 April – 12 June 1042
(1 month and 22 days)
Daughter of Constantine VIII and sister of Zoë, proclaimed co-empress during the revolt that deposed Michael V c. 980 – 31 August 1056
(aged approx. 76)
Sidelined after Zoë's marriage to Constantine IX, returned to the throne in 1055[215]
mosaic Constantine IX Monomachos
Κωνσταντῖνος Μονομάχος[u]
12 June 1042 – 11 January 1055
(12 years, 6 months and 30 days)
Husband of Zoë, made emperor the day after their marriage c. 1006 – 11 January 1055
(aged approx. 49)
Died of natural causes[217]
Portrait from the Monomachos crown Theodora Porphyrogenita
Θεοδώρα
(second reign)
11 January 1055 – 31 August 1056
(1 year, 7 months and 20 days)
Claimed the throne again after Constantine IX's death as the last living member of the Macedonian dynasty c. 980 – 31 August 1056
(aged approx. 76)
Died of natural causes[215]
coin Michael VI Bringas "Stratiotikos"
Μιχαήλ[u]
22 August 1056 – 30 August 1057
(1 year and 8 days)
Proclaimed emperor by Theodora on her deathbed 980s/990s – c. 1057
(in his sixties)
Deposed in a revolt, retired to a monastery and died soon afterwards[218]
coin Isaac I Komnenos
Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός
1 September 1057 – 22 November 1059
(2 years, 2 months and 21 days)
General, revolted against Michael VI c. 1007 – 31 May/1 June 1060
(aged approx. 53)
Abdicated to Constantine X due to illness and hostile courtiers, became a monk[219]

Doukas dynasty (1059–1078)

  (§) – Varying ascribed status[t]
Doukas dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Constantine X Doukas
Κωνσταντῖνος Δούκας
23 November 1059 – 23 May 1067
(7 years and 6 months)
Designated as emperor by Isaac I Komnenos on his deathbed c. 1006 – 23 May 1067
(aged 61)
Died of natural causes[220]
miniature portrait Eudokia Makrembolitissa
Εὐδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα (§)
23 May – 31 December 1067
(7 months and 8 days)
Widow of Constantine X; ruler in her own right on behalf of their sons until her marriage to Romanos IV. Briefly resumed her regency in 1071. c. 1030 – after 1078
Retired as a nun in November 1071 and later died of natural causes[221]
coin Romanos IV Diogenes
Ῥωμανὸς Διογένης
1 January 1068 – 1 October 1071
(3 years and 9 months)
with Leo (1069–1071) and Nikephoros Diogenes (1070–1071)
Husband of Eudokia. Regent and senior co-emperor together with Constantine X's and Eudokia's children. c. 1032 – 4 August 1072
(aged approx. 40)
Deposed in a palace coup while imprisoned by the Seljuk Sultanate, captured and blinded on 29 June 1072, later dying of his wounds[222]
portrait from the Holy Crown of Hungary Michael VII Doukas "Parapinakes"
Μιχαὴλ Δούκας
23 May 1067 – 24/31 March 1078
(10 years, 10 months and 1/8 days)
with Konstantios[v] (1060–1078), Andronikos (1068–1070s) and Constantine Doukas (1074–1078; 1st time)
Son of Constantine X; co-emperor with Eudokia and Romanos IV c. 1050 – c. 1090
(aged approx. 40)
Abdicated in 1078 and retired to a monastery as a monk. Died of natural causes several years later[226]
miniature portrait Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης
3 April 1078 – 1 April 1081
(2 years, 11 months and 29 days)
General; revolted against Michael VII on 2 July or 2 October 1077 and entered Constantinople on 27 March or 3 April. Married Maria of Alania, the former wife of Michael VII. 1001/1002 – c. 1081
(aged approx. 80)
Abdicated after Alexios I captured Constantinople, became a monk and died of natural causes, probably later in the same year[227]

Komnenos dynasty (1081–1185)

Komnenos dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Alexios I Komnenos
Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός
1 April 1081 – 15 August 1118
(37 years, 4 months and 14 days)
with Constantine Doukas
(1081–1087; 2nd time)
Husband of Irene Doukaina, a grand-niece of Constantine X. General; revolted against Nikephoros III on 14 February 1081, seized Constantinople on 1 April. Crowned on 4 April. c. 1057 – 15 August 1118
(aged approx. 61)
Died of natural causes[228]
mosaic John II Komnenos
"the Good"
Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός
15 August 1118 – 8 April 1143
(24 years, 7 months and 24 days)
with Alexios Komnenos (1122–1142)
Son of Alexios I, made heir just before his death 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143
(aged 55)
Died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident, possibly assassinated (perhaps involving Raymond of Poitiers or supporters of Manuel I)[229]
miniature portrait Manuel I Komnenos
"the Great"
Μανουὴλ Κομνηνός
8 April 1143 – 24 September 1180
(37 years, 5 months and 16 days)
Youngest son and allegedly designated heir of John II on his deathbed, crowned around 28 November 1143 after a few months of having to establish his rights 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180
(aged 61)
Died of natural causes[230]
miniature portrait Alexios II Komnenos
Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός
24 September 1180 – c. September 1183
(3 years)
Son of Manuel I; co-emperor since 1171 14 September 1169 – c. September 1183
(aged 13/14)
Strangled on the orders of Andronikos I, body thrown in the sea[231]
miniature portrait Andronikos I Komnenos "Misophaes"
Ἀνδρόνικος Κομνηνός
c. September 1183 – 12 September 1185
(2 years)
with John Komnenos (1183–1185)
Son of Isaac Komnenos, a son of Alexios I. Overthrew the regency of Alexios II in April 1182, crowned co-emperor in 1183 and shortly thereafter had Alexios II murdered. c. 1118/1120 – 12 September 1185
(aged 64–67)
Overthrown by Isaac II, tortured and mutilated in the imperial palace, then slowly dismembered alive by a mob in the Hippodrome[232]

Angelos dynasty (1185–1204)

Angelos dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Isaac II Angelos
Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός Ἄγγελος
(first reign)
12 September 1185 – 8 April 1195
(9 years, 6 months and 27 days)
Great-grandson of Alexios I, proclaimed emperor by the people of Constantinople after refusing an order of arrest issued by Andronikos I, then captured, deposed and had Andronikos I killed c. 1156 – 28/29 January 1204
(aged 47)
Overthrown and blinded by Alexios III in 1195, reinstalled in 1203[233]
miniature portrait Alexios III Angelos
Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός[w]
8 April 1195 – 17/18 July 1203
(8 years, 3 months and 10 days)
Elder brother of Isaac II, overthrew and blinded his brother c. 1156 – 1211/1212
(aged approx. 58)
Fled after brief resistance against the Fourth Crusade. Died a natural death after being captured and forced to become a monk by Theodore I.[235]
miniature portrait Isaac II Angelos
Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός Ἄγγελος
(second reign)
19 July 1203 – 27 January 1204
(6 months and 8 days)
Freed from imprisonment during the Fourth Crusade by courtiers and reinstated as ruler after Alexios III abandoned the defense of Constantinople c. 1156 – 28/29 January 1204
(aged 47)
Became senile or demented and died of natural causes[236]
miniature portrait Alexios IV Angelos
Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος
19 July 1203 – 27 January 1204
(6 months and 8 days)
Son of Isaac II, made co-emperor after the populace of Constantinople were convinced by the crusaders to accept him alongside his father c. 1182/1183 – c. 8 February 1204
(aged approx. 21)
Deposed and imprisoned by Alexios V, then strangled in prison[237]
miniature portrait Alexios V Doukas "Mourtzouphlos"
Ἀλέξιος Δούκας
27/28 January – 12 April 1204
(2 months and 16 days)
Seized power through a palace coup c. 1139 – c. late November 1204
(aged approx. 65)
Captured by crusader Thierry de Loos, tried by the Latin Empire and thrown from the Column of Theodosius[238]

Laskaris dynasty (1205–1261)

Note: Roman rule in Constantinople was interrupted with the capture of the city by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Though the crusaders created a new line of Latin emperors in the city, modern historians recognize the line of emperors of the Laskaris dynasty, reigning in Nicaea, as the legitimate Roman emperors during this period as the Nicene Empire eventually retook Constantinople.[239] For other lines of claimant emperors, see List of Trapezuntine emperors and List of Thessalonian emperors.
Laskaris dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Theodore I Laskaris
Θεόδωρος Κομνηνὸς Λάσκαρις
c. August 1205 – November 1221
(16 years and 3 months)
with Nicholas Laskaris (1208–1210)
Husband of Anna Komnene Angelina, a daughter of Alexios III. Organized resistance against the Latin Empire in Nicaea and proclaimed emperor in 1205 after the Battle of Adrianople; crowned by Patriarch Michael IV on 6 April 1208. c. 1174 – November 1221
(aged approx. 47)
Died of natural causes[240]
miniature portrait John III Doukas Vatatzes
Ἰωάννης Δούκας Βατάτζης
c. December 1221 – 3 November 1254
(32 years and 11 months)
Husband of Irene Laskarina, a daughter of Theodore I c. 1192 – 3 November 1254
(aged 61)
Died of natural causes[241]
miniature portrait Theodore II Laskaris
Θεόδωρος Δούκας Λάσκαρις
3 November 1254 – 16 August 1258
(3 years, 9 months and 13 days)
Son of John III and grandson of Theodore I November 1221 – 16 August 1258
(aged 36)
Died of epilepsy[242]
miniature portrait John IV Laskaris
Ἰωάννης Δούκας Λάσκαρις
16 August 1258 – 25 December 1261
(3 years, 4 months and 9 days)
Son of Theodore II 25 December 1250 – c. 1305
(aged approx. 55)
Blinded, deposed and imprisoned by Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261, died in captivity several decades later[243]

Palaiologos dynasty (1259–1453)

Palaiologos dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Succession Life details
miniature portrait Michael VIII Palaiologos
Μιχαὴλ Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνὸς Παλαιολόγος
1 January 1259 – 11 December 1282
(23 years, 11 months and 10 days)
Great-grandson of Alexios III; became regent for John IV in 1258 and crowned co-emperor in 1259. Regained Constantinople on 25 July 1261, entered the city on 15 August. Became sole ruler after deposing John IV on 25 December. 1224/1225 – 11 December 1282
(aged 58)
Died of dysentery[244]
miniature portrait Andronikos II Palaiologos
Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνὸς Παλαιολόγος
11 December 1282 – 24 May 1328
(45 years, 5 months and 13 days)
Son of Michael VIII; co-emperor since 8 November 1272 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332
(aged 72)
Deposed by his grandson Andronikos III in 1328 and became a monk, dying of natural causes four years later[245]
miniature portrait Michael IX Palaiologos
Μιχαὴλ Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνὸς Παλαιολόγος
21 May 1294 – 12 October 1320
(26 years, 4 months and 21 days)
Son and co-ruler of Andronikos II, named co-emperor in 1281 but not crowned until 21 May 1294 17 April 1277/1278 – 12 October 1320
(aged 42/43)
Allegedly died of grief due to the accidental murder of his second son[246]
miniature portrait Andronikos III Palaiologos
Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνός Παλαιολόγος
24 May 1328 – 15 June 1341
(13 years and 22 days)
Son of Michael IX, named co-emperor between 1308 and 1313. Fought with his grandfather Andronikos II for power from April 1321 onwards. Crowned emperor on 2 February 1325, became sole emperor after deposing Andronikos II. 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341
(aged 44)
Died of sudden illness, possibly malaria[247]
miniature portrait John V Palaiologos
Ίωάννης Κομνηνός Παλαιολόγος
15 June 1341 – 16 February 1391
(49 years, 8 months and 1 day)
Son of Andronikos III, not formally crowned until 19 November 1341. Dominated by regents until 1354, faced numerous usurpations throughout his reign. 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391
(aged 58)
Reigned almost 50 years, but only held effective power for 17. Died of natural causes[248]
miniature portrait John VI Kantakouzenos
Ἰωάννης Ἄγγελος Κομνηνὸς Παλαιολόγος Καντακουζηνός
8 February 1347 – 10 December 1354
(7 years and 10 months)
with Matthew Kantakouzenos (1353–1357)
Related to the Palaiologoi through his mother. Proclaimed by the army on 26 October 1341, became regent and senior co-emperor after a lengthy civil war with John V's mother, Anna of Savoy. Entered Constantinople on 8 February, crowned on 21 May 1347. c. 1295 – 15 June 1383
(aged approx. 88)
Deposed by John V in another civil war and retired, becoming a monk. Died of natural causes several decades later.[249]
miniature portrait Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Ἀνδρόνικος Κομνηνός Παλαιολόγος
12 August 1376 – 1 July 1379
(2 years, 10 months and 19 days)
Son of John V and grandson of John VI; co-emperor since 1352. Rebelled and deposed his father in 1376, not formally crowned until 18 October 1377. 11 April 1348 – 25/28 June 1385
(aged 37)
Deposed by John V in 1379 and fled to Galata in exile but restored as co-emperor and heir in 1381. Rebelled again in 1385 but died shortly thereafter.[250]
miniature portrait John VII Palaiologos
Ίωάννης Παλαιολόγος
14 April – 17 September 1390
(5 months and 3 days, in Constantinople)
1403 – 22 September 1408
(5 years, in Thessalonica)
with Andronikos V Palaiologos (1403–1407)
Son of Andronikos IV, usurped the throne from John V in 1390. Deposed shortly thereafter but granted Thessalonica by Manuel II in 1403, from where he once more ruled as emperor until his death. 1370 – 22 September 1408
(aged 38)
Died of natural causes[251]
miniature portrait Manuel II Palaiologos
Μανουὴλ Παλαιολόγος
16 February 1391 – 21 July 1425
(34 years, 4 months and 5 days)
Son of John V and grandson of John VI; co-emperor since 25 September 1373 27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425
(aged 74)
Suffered a stroke in 1422, whereafter the government was run by his son, John VIII. Died of natural causes.[252]
miniature portrait John VIII Palaiologos
Ίωάννης Παλαιολόγος
21 July 1425 – 31 October 1448
(23 years, 4 months and 10 days)
Son of Manuel II; co-emperor since before 1408 and full emperor since 19 January 1421 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448
(aged 55)
Died of natural causes[253]
miniature portrait Constantine XI Palaiologos
Κωνσταντῖνος Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος
6 January 1449 – 29 May 1453
(4 years, 4 months and 23 days)
Son of Manuel II and favored successor of his brother John VIII. Crowned emperor on Mystras on 6 January 1449, entered Constantinople on 12 March. 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453
(aged 48)
Died in battle at the fall of Constantinople[254]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The term basileus eventually replaced augustus as the official title of the emperor, although both were seen as equals already by the times of Constantine I.[15]
  2. ^ The Byzantine Empire is universally recognized as the remnant, continuation or later stage of the Roman Empire. There is no universally agreed date used to separate the ancient Roman and "Byzantine" empires, with proposed dates ranging in age from 284 to 716.[16] Some authors reject the term "Byzantine" entirely.[17]
  3. ^ There is no "official" count of Roman emperors given that different scholars sometimes include and omit different emperors (see Legitimacy). This list includes 177 emperors and 5 ruling empresses (a total of 182 monarchs), 15 of whose legitimacy is disputed in scholarship. Also included are 27 junior co-emperors and 1 junior co-empress, 4 of whose legitimacy is debated. All in all, this list thus includes a total of 210 occupants of the Roman imperial office.
  4. ^ This was one of the titles used for the emperors in Constantinople by Ottoman writers prior to 1453.[25]
  5. ^ The conventional date is 27 BC,[1] when the Senate awarded Octavian the title and name Augustus alongside one of several grants of power.[2] Ancient writers, however, give him a rule of 56 years.[1] He became de facto sovereign in 31 BC, after defeating his last remaining opposition at the Battle of Actium.[45] This is a date also used by some early writers.[1] Augustus himself dated his accession to legal power to 43 BC, when he first received imperium.[2] Later that year he became consul (19 August) and then triumvir (27 November) alongside Mark Antony and Lepidus.[2]
  6. ^ By this time, 'Caesar' and 'Augustus' are regarded less as personal names and more as imperial titles, with the former denoting the heir-apparent and the latter indicating the emperor himself.[61]
  7. ^ Some emperors added unique elements to their regnal name, like Septimius Severus, who took the name "Pertinax", or Didius Julianus and Macrinus, who took the name "Severus".[67]
  8. ^ a b c d e f Unless otherwise noted to be some other ambiguity, the emperors marked to be of ambiguous legitimacy are those who fulfill one or more of the inclusion criteria above, but who are not universally regarded by scholars to count as legitimate. In most cases, such figures are those who held power only briefly, and/or who in times of more than one emperor held one of the capitals but never achieved the full recognition of the other emperor(s).[75][76][77][78]
  9. ^ a b c d e f On account of the limited surviving source material, the dates used here for the Year of the Six Emperors (238) are approximate and only one of several estimates.[79]
  10. ^ Unmentioned in literary sources and known only from coins seemingly issued in Rome, implying he was proclaimed emperor in the capital, probably between Aemilianus and Valerian, or against either.[94][95][96]
  11. ^ Made Caesar by his father and is only referred to as Augustus in a single series of coins, issued while he was besieged in Cologne in 260. Not accredited as Augustus elsewhere; doubtful whether he was ever officially recognized as such by Gallienus.[99]
  12. ^ a b Legitmately appointed as co-emperor by Licinius, though as western emperor (in opposition to Constantine I). Did not actually rule anything given that Licinius did not control the west.[118]
  13. ^ Although technically recognized by Constantius II, who even sent him the imperial diadem, Vetranio is often regarded as a usurper.[127]
  14. ^ From the fourth century, emperors and other high-profile men of non-aristocratic birth often bore the name "Flavius", the family name of the Constantinian dynasty. Because it was often used as a status marker rather than personal name,[130] "Flavius" will generally be omitted in the following entries for simplicity, unless an emperor demonstrably used it in his full nomenclature.
  15. ^ Although they constitutionally held the same supreme power as their senior counterpart, it is customary among scholars of the later empire to only regard those who actually ruled as emperors, omitting junior co-emperors who only exercised power nominally and never governed in their own name.[138]
  16. ^ In 629, Heraclius transitioned to issuing administrative documents in Greek.[170] Latin continued to be used in communication with Western Europe until the end of the empire and coins continued to be struck with Latin inscriptions until the early eighth century.[171]
  17. ^ Often enumerated as Constantine III.[173]
  18. ^ The name Constantine is only mentioned in the chronicle of Theophanes, as official documents only call him "Heraclius", hence why some scholars refer to him as Heraclius II.[175] Coins issued under his reign only bear the name "Constantinus", but these have also been dated to the early reign of Constans II, whose full name was "Heraclius Constantinus" and who was also known as Constantine the Bearded.[176]
  19. ^ Latin ceased being used in coin inscriptions under Leo III.[171]
  20. ^ a b The empresses marked as being of "varying ascribed status" are figures who were undisputed as legitimate heads of the imperial government and who are sometimes (including by the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium),[196] though not always, seen as having been empresses regnant.
  21. ^ a b Emperors began to officially use family names from Constantine IX Monomachos onwards. The sole exception after Constantine IX's reign is Michael VI, whose family name (Bringas) was far less distinguished than those of the other imperial families and thus does not appear in official use.[216]
  22. ^ Konstantios Doukas, as Michael VII's designated successor, technically ruled as senior emperor in Constantinople for three days, from Michael VII's abdication in his favor in 24/31 March until Nikephoros III's entry into the city in 27 March/3 April.[223] Ancient historians, however, ignore him completely and rather speak of an interregnum.[224] He is typically not counted among the rulers of the empire by modern historians either.[225]
  23. ^ Alexios III used the name Alexios Komnenos Angelos (Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός Ἄγγελος) prior to his accession but reigned as Alexios Komnenos, dropping his own family name in order to stress his matrilineal descent from the Komnenos dynasty.[234]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d Mosshammer 2008, pp. 342–343.
  2. ^ a b c d Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 53–54.
  3. ^ Loewenstein 1973, pp. 239–240.
  4. ^ Loewenstein 1973, pp. 329, 403.
  5. ^ Loewenstein 1973, p. 238.
  6. ^ Loewenstein 1973, p. 329.
  7. ^ Loewenstein 1973, p. 245.
  8. ^ Richardson 1984, pp. 39–40.
  9. ^ Wu 2016, p. 35.
  10. ^ Loewenstein 1973, p. 443.
  11. ^ Loewenstein 1973, pp. 238, 403.
  12. ^ Sandberg 2008, pp. 199–213.
  13. ^ Arnold, Bjornlie & Sessa 2016, p. 3.
  14. ^ Williams & Friell 1998, p. 187.
  15. ^ ODB, p. 264.
  16. ^ Mango 2002, p. 2.
  17. ^ Goldsworthy 2009, p. 8.
  18. ^ Halsall 2018, p. 53.
  19. ^ Collins 2004, pp. 47–49.
  20. ^ Becker 1913, p. 370.
  21. ^ Hartmann 1913, p. 196.
  22. ^ Logan 2012, pp. 71–74.
  23. ^ Chalandon 1923, p. 325.
  24. ^ Nicol 1992, p. ix.
  25. ^ Çolak 2014, p. 19.
  26. ^ Nicol 1967, p. 334.
  27. ^ Çolak 2014, pp. 21–22.
  28. ^ Nicol 1992, pp. 115–116.
  29. ^ Omissi 2018, p. 3.
  30. ^ a b Smolin 2021, p. 22.
  31. ^ a b Claes 2015, p. 15.
  32. ^ a b Omissi 2018, p. 25.
  33. ^ a b Claes 2015, p. 23.
  34. ^ Omissi 2018, pp. 9, 14, 17, 24.
  35. ^ Smolin 2021, pp. 22–23.
  36. ^ Omissi 2018, pp. 21, 29–30.
  37. ^ Omissi 2018, p. 34.
  38. ^ Omissi 2018, p. 32.
  39. ^ Omissi 2018, p. xix.
  40. ^ Mathisen 1998.
  41. ^ Claes 2015, p. 18.
  42. ^ Omissi 2018, p. 17.
  43. ^ Van Tricht 2011, p. 79–80.
  44. ^ Lawler 2004, p. 323.
  45. ^ Meijer 2004, pp. 14–16.
  46. ^ Grant, pp. 8, 9, 12–13; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 53–54, 350.
  47. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 70–72, 350; Grant, pp. 8, 16, 20, 25.
  48. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 78; Grant, pp. 8, 25, 27.
  49. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 82; Grant, pp. 8, 29, 33.
  50. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 88–89, 350; Grant, pp. 8, 34, 39.
  51. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 94; Grant, pp. 43, 44; Hammond, p. 24.
  52. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 97; Grant, pp. 46–47.
  53. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 99–100; Grant, pp. 48–50.
  54. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 101; Grant, pp. 51–52, 55.
  55. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 105; Grant, p. 55; Hammond, p. 27.
  56. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 109; Grant, pp. 60–69.
  57. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 114; Grant, p. 69.
  58. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 116–117; Grant, pp. 71, 73, 76; Omissi 2018, p. 8; Cooley 2012, p. 492.
  59. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 122–123; Grant, pp. 68, 76; Omissi 2018, p. 8.
  60. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 128; Grant, p. 87.
  61. ^ Hammond, pp. 29–31.
  62. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 131–132; Grant, pp. 68, 89, 91, 93.
  63. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 135; Grant, pp. 93, 94.
  64. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 140–141; Grant, p. 97; Omissi 2018, p. 8.
  65. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 145; Grant, pp. 103–104.
  66. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 147; Grant, pp. 106–108; Cooley 2012, p. 495.
  67. ^ Cooley 2012, pp. 495–496.
  68. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 149–150; Grant, pp. 108, 110; Omissi 2018, p. 9.
  69. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 156–157; Grant, pp. 119, 120; Hammond, pp. 35, 36.
  70. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 160; Grant, p. 122.
  71. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 162; Grant, pp. 123, 124, 125–126.
  72. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 163–164; Grant, p. 125.
  73. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 165; Grant, pp. 126, 129; Cooley 2012, p. 496.
  74. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 171–172; Grant, pp. 130, 133; Cooley 2012, p. 496.
  75. ^ Vagi 1999, pp. 415, 463, 529.
  76. ^ Omissi 2018, p. 24.
  77. ^ Seibt 2018, p. 213.
  78. ^ Tilemachos 2015, p. 243.
  79. ^ Rea 1972, pp. 1–19.
  80. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 176–179; Grant, pp. 137–139; Omissi 2018, p. 10.
  81. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 180–181; Grant, pp. 140–141; Meijer 2004, p. 85.
  82. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 182; Grant, pp. 142–143; Meijer 2004, p. 85.
  83. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 183–184; Grant, pp. 146–148; Meijer 2004, p. 87.
  84. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 185–186; Grant, pp. 144–145; Adkins & Adkins 1994, p. 26.
  85. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 187–189; Grant, pp. 149–151.
  86. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 190–191; Grant, pp. 152–155.
  87. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 192–193; Grant, pp. 152–155.
  88. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 195–197; Grant, pp. 156–159.
  89. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 197–198; Grant, pp. 156–159.
  90. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 200–201; Grant, pp. 160–161.
  91. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 198–199; Adkins & Adkins 1994, p. 28; Peachin 1990, p. 34.
  92. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 201–202; Grant, pp. 160–161; Peachin 1990, p. 36.
  93. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 203–204; Grant, p. 162; Peachin 1990, pp. 36–37.
  94. ^ Claes 2015, p. 44.
  95. ^ a b Estiot 1996, pp. 105–117.
  96. ^ Hartmann 2002.
  97. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 205–207; Grant, pp. 163–167; Peachin 1990, pp. 37–38.
  98. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 209–211; Grant, pp. 168–172; Peachin 1990, pp. 39–40.
  99. ^ Shiel 1979, p. 117.
  100. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 213; Grant, pp. 168–172.
  101. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 222; Grant, pp. 179–180; Stein 1924, pp. 45, 50.
  102. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 224; Grant, pp. 181–182; Stein 1924, pp. 46, 50.
  103. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 225–227; Grant, pp. 183–187; Peachin 1990, pp. 43–44; Stein 1924, pp. 46, 50.
  104. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 241–242; Grant, pp. 188–189; Watson 1999, pp. 110, 225, 250 (n. 46).
  105. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 243; Grant, p. 190; Peachin 1990, pp. 46–47.
  106. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 244–245; Grant, pp. 191–193; Peachin 1990, p. 47.
  107. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 248–249; Grant, pp. 194–195; Peachin 1990, p. 49.
  108. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 250–251; Grant, pp. 196–197; Peachin 1990, pp. 49–50.
  109. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 252; Grant, pp. 198–201.
  110. ^ Barnes, pp. 4, 30–32; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 257–258; Grant, p. 204.
  111. ^ Barnes, pp. 4, 13, 32, 34; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 262–263; Grant, pp. 210–212.
  112. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 269; Barnes, pp. 35–36; Grant, pp. 216–218.
  113. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 272–273; Barnes, pp. 4–6, 46; Grant, pp. 221–222.
  114. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 278; Barnes, pp. 4–5, 38–39; Grant, pp. 223–224.
  115. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 279; Grant, pp. 224–226; Barnes, pp. 12–13, 34.
  116. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 282; Barnes, pp. 6–7, 43–44; Grant, pp. 235–237.
  117. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 276; Barnes, pp. 6–7, 39; Grant, pp. 238–240.
  118. ^ Vagi 1999, pp. 466–467.
  119. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 284; Barnes, p. 15.
  120. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 285; Barnes, p. 15.
  121. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 286–288; Barnes, pp. 5–8, 39–42; Grant, pp. 228–231, 234.
  122. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 296; Barnes, pp. 8, 44–45; Grant, p. 241.
  123. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 298; Barnes, pp. 8, 45.
  124. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 300–301; Grant, pp. 242–244.
  125. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, p. 532; Grant, pp. 248–250; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 305–306.
  126. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, pp. 624; Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 306.
  127. ^ Grant, p. 249; Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 307; Meijer 2004, p. 127–128.
  128. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 307; PLRE, Vol. I, p. 954; Omissi 2018, pp. 181–182.
  129. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 309–310; Grant, pp. 251–253.
  130. ^ Cameron 1988, pp. 26, 28, 33.
  131. ^ Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 312; Grant, pp. 255–258; PLRE, Vol. I, p. 461.
  132. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, pp. 933–934; Grant, pp. 259–262; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 313–314.
  133. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, pp. 930–931; Grant, pp. 263–265; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 316–318.
  134. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, pp. 742–743; Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 318.
  135. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, p. 401; Grant, pp. 266–267; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 319–320.
  136. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, pp. 934–935; Grant, pp. 268–269; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 321–322.
  137. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, pp. 904–905; Grant, pp. 270–273; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 323–329; ODB, pp. 2050–2051.
  138. ^ Foss 2005, p. 101.
  139. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, p. 588; Grant, pp. 274–275; Kienast, Eck & Heil, pp. 327–328.
  140. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, p. 293; Kienast, Eck & Heil, p. 329.
  141. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, p. 99; ODB, pp. 173–174; Grant, pp. 276–281; Croke 1995, p. 58.
  142. ^ PLRE, Vol. I, p. 442; ODB, p. 946; Grant, pp. 282–285.
  143. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 316–317; Grant, pp. 286–287.
  144. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, p. 1100; ODB, pp. 2051–2052; Grant, pp. 288–291.
  145. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 180–181.
  146. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 321–325; Grant, pp. 292–295.
  147. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 594–595; Grant, pp. 296–297.
  148. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 1138–1139; Grant, pp. 298–304.
  149. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 714–715; ODB, pp. 1296–1297; Grant, pp. 305–307.
  150. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 308–309; Grant, pp. 315–316.
  151. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 196–198; Grant, pp. 310–311.
  152. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 702–703; Grant, pp. 315–316.
  153. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 1004–1005; Grant, pp. 317–318.
  154. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 96–98; Grant, pp. 319–321.
  155. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 796–798; Grant, p. 322.
  156. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 514, 777; Grant, pp. 323–324.
  157. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 777–778; Grant, pp. 325–326.
  158. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 949–950; Grant, pp. 332–334.
  159. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 663–664; ODB, pp. 1206–1207; Grant, pp. 312–314; Croke 2004, p. 569–572.
  160. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 664–665; ODB, pp. 1207–1208; Croke 2004, pp. 563–575.
  161. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 1200–1202; ODB, p. 2223; Grant, pp. 327–329; Croke 2004, p. 572.
  162. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 212–214; Grant, pp. 330–331.
  163. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 78–80; ODB, pp. 86–87.
  164. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 648–651; ODB, p. 1082; Grierson 1962, p. 45.
  165. ^ PLRE, Vol. II, pp. 645–648; ODB, pp. 1083–1084.
  166. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIA, pp. 754–756; ODB, pp. 1082–1083; Grierson 1962, p. 47.
  167. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIB, pp. 1323–1326; ODB, pp. 2083–2084.
  168. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIB, pp. 855–860; ODB, p. 1318.
  169. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIB, pp. 1030–1032; ODB, p. 1666.
  170. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 194.
  171. ^ a b Grierson 1973, p. 177.
  172. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIA, p. 587; ODB, p. 916–917; Treadgold 1997, pp. 306, 308.
  173. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIA, p. 349; Grierson 1973, p. 385; Treadgold 1997, p. 308ff; Kaegi 2003, p. 112ff.
  174. ^ ODB, pp. 916–917; Grierson 1962, p. 48; Treadgold 1997, p. 309.
  175. ^ Grierson 1966, pp. 389–394; Kaegi 2003, p. 61ff.
  176. ^ Foss 2005, p. 96; ODB, p. 500.
  177. ^ PLRE, Vol. IIIA, p. 588; ODB, p. 916, 918; Treadgold 1990, pp. 431–33.
  178. ^ ODB, pp. 496–497, 918; Grierson 1962, pp. 49–50; Grierson 1973, p. 402.
  179. ^ ODB, pp. 500–501; Grierson 1962, pp. 49–50.
  180. ^ a b ODB, pp. 1084–1085; Grierson 1962, pp. 50–51.
  181. ^ ODB, pp. 1212–1213.
  182. ^ ODB, p. 2084; Grierson 1962, p. 51.
  183. ^ ODB, p. 1654; Grierson 1962, pp. 51–52.
  184. ^ ODB, pp. 87, 2052; Grierson 1962, p. 52.
  185. ^ ODB, p. 2052.
  186. ^ ODB, pp. 1208–1209; Treadgold 1997, p. 356.
  187. ^ ODB, pp. 501, 1208; Treadgold 1997, p. 366.
  188. ^ ODB, p. 192; Garland 2006, p. 10; Schreiner, pp. 85–86.
  189. ^ ODB, pp. 501, 1209.
  190. ^ ODB, pp. 501–502, 1209; Grierson 1962, pp. 54–55.
  191. ^ ODB, pp. 502, 1008–1009, 1476; Grierson 1962, p. 55.
  192. ^ ODB, pp. 1476–1477.
  193. ^ ODB, pp. 1945–1946; Grierson 1962, p. 55; Treadgold 1997, p. 429.
  194. ^ ODB, p. 1362; Treadgold 1997, p. 431–433.
  195. ^ ODB, pp. 1209–1210, 1362; Treadgold 1997, pp. 431–433, 438.
  196. ^ ODB, pp. 739, 2037.
  197. ^ ODB, p. 1363; Treadgold 1997, pp. 433–436, 438.
  198. ^ ODB, p. 2066; Treadgold 1997, p. 445.
  199. ^ ODB, pp. 2037–2038; Treadgold 1997, p. 438; Garland 1999, p. 102.
  200. ^ ODB, pp. 1364; Grierson 1962, p. 57; Treadgold 1997, pp. 446–455.
  201. ^ ODB, p. 260; Treadgold 1997, pp. 461, 490; Grierson 1973, pp. 473–476.
  202. ^ ODB, pp. 1210–1211; Treadgold 1997, p. 458–462, 470, 491.
  203. ^ ODB, pp. 56–57; Treadgold 1997, p. 471; Grierson 1973, p. 473–476.
  204. ^ ODB, pp. 502–503; Treadgold 1997, p. 491.
  205. ^ ODB, p. 1806; Schreiner, p. 121–128.
  206. ^ ODB, pp. 1806–1807; Treadgold 1997, pp. 495–497.
  207. ^ ODB, pp. 1478–1479.
  208. ^ ODB, p. 1045.
  209. ^ ODB, pp. 261–262, 1045; Grierson 1973, pp. 589, 599; Rogers 2010, p. 126.
  210. ^ ODB, p. 503; Grierson 1962, p. 58.
  211. ^ ODB, pp. 503, 1807; Grierson 1962, p. 59.
  212. ^ ODB, p. 1365; Treadgold 1997, p. 491.
  213. ^ ODB, pp. 1365–1366; Treadgold 1997, p. 491.
  214. ^ ODB, p. 2228; Treadgold 1997, p. 590.
  215. ^ a b ODB, p. 2038; Treadgold 1997, pp. 491, 590.
  216. ^ Grierson 1973, p. 180.
  217. ^ ODB, p. 504.
  218. ^ ODB, p. 1366; Treadgold 1997, p. 597; Schreiner, pp. 149–150.
  219. ^ ODB, pp. 1011–1012; Schreiner, pp. 151–152; Grierson 1973, pp. 759–760.
  220. ^ ODB, pp. 504–505; Schreiner, pp. 151–152; Grierson 1973, p. 764.
  221. ^ ODB, pp. 739–740; Treadgold 1997, p. 608; Grierson 1973, pp. 779–780.
  222. ^ ODB, p. 1807; Treadgold 1997, pp. 601–604, 608; Schreiner, p. 156.
  223. ^ Norwich 1993, p. 360–361; ODB, p. 1479; Schreiner, p. 157–159.
  224. ^ Schreiner, pp. 157–159.
  225. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 860.
  226. ^ ODB, pp. 1366–1367; Schreiner, p. 157–159.
  227. ^ ODB, p. 1479; Schreiner, p. 158–159; Grierson 1973, p. 798–799, 821.
  228. ^ ODB, p. 63; Schreiner, p. 159–164.
  229. ^ ODB, pp. 1046–1047; Treadgold 1997, pp. 628–637.
  230. ^ ODB, pp. 1289–1290; Treadgold 1997, pp. 636, 638–650.
  231. ^ ODB, pp. 64, 1289; Treadgold 1997, pp. 650–653; Schreiner, p. 176.
  232. ^ ODB, pp. 64, 94, 1012; Treadgold 1997, pp. 653–656; Lascaratos 1999, p. 73.
  233. ^ ODB, p. 1012; Treadgold 1997, pp. 654–660; Macrides 1999, VI: p. 75, X: p. 514, XII: p. 195.
  234. ^ Cotsonis 2020, pp. 260–261.
  235. ^ ODB, pp. 64–65, 1012; Treadgold 1997, pp. 659–664; Schreiner, pp. 183–185.
  236. ^ ODB, p. 1012; Treadgold 1997, pp. 654–660; Schreiner, pp. 183–185; Macrides 1999, VI: p. 75, X: p. 514, XII: p. 195.
  237. ^ ODB, pp. 65–66; Schreiner, pp. 183–185.
  238. ^ ODB, p. 66; Treadgold 1997, pp. 265–266, 665; Schreiner, pp. 185–186.
  239. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 734.
  240. ^ ODB, pp. 2039–2040; Schreiner, pp. 187–188; Angelov 2019, p. 18; Dragon 2003, p. 275.
  241. ^ ODB, pp. 1047–1048; Angelov 2019, p. 256.
  242. ^ ODB, pp. 2040–2041; Treadgold 1997, p. 731; Angelov 2019, p. 325.
  243. ^ ODB, pp. 1048–1049; Treadgold 1997, p. 737; Angelov 2019, p. 305; Schreiner, pp. 196.
  244. ^ ODB, p. 1367; Treadgold 1997, p. 745; Schreiner, pp. 196–206; PLP, p. 3929 (#21528).
  245. ^ ODB, pp. 94–95; Angelov 2009, p. 100; PLP, p. 3889 (#21436).
  246. ^ ODB, pp. 1367–8; Treadgold 1997, p. 755; Angelov 2009, p. 100; PLP, p. 3931 (#21529).
  247. ^ ODB, p. 95; Treadgold 1997, p. 764; Lascaratos & Marketos 1997, pp. 106–9; PLP, p. 3891 (#21437).
  248. ^ ODB, p. 1050; Schreiner, pp. 253, 345; PLP, p. 3912 (#21485).
  249. ^ ODB, pp. 1050–1051; Schreiner, pp. 252–288; PLP, p. 2046 (#10973); Feiller 1976.
  250. ^ ODB, p. 95; Mladenov 2003, p. 190; Schreiner, pp. 312–321; PLP, p. 3893 (#21438).
  251. ^ ODB, p. 1052; Oikonomides 1977, p. 331; Schreiner, pp. 340–343.
  252. ^ ODB, p. 1291; Schreiner, pp. 276, 309, 429; PLP, p. 3923 (#21513).
  253. ^ ODB, pp. 1053–1054; Schreiner, pp. 340, 387–411; PLP, p. 3909 (#21481).
  254. ^ ODB, p. 505; Nicol 1992, pp. 2, 35–38, 70; PLP, p. 3919 (#21500).

Main bibliography

  • Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (1994). "Emperors". Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 20–37. ISBN 0-8160-2755-2.
  • Cooley, Alison E. (2012). "Appendix 2; Augustus−Justinian". The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 488–509. ISBN 978-0-521-84026-2.
  • Barnes, Timothy D. (1982). The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine. Harvard: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-28066-0.
  • Grant, Michael (1985). The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Imperial Rome, 31 BC–AD 476. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-18388-9.
  • Grierson, Philip (1962). "The Tombs and Obits of the Byzantine Emperors (337–1042)". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 16. doi:10.2307/1291157. JSTOR 1291157.
  • Grierson, Philip (1973). Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, 3: Leo III to Nicephorus III, 717-1081. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0-88402-012-6.
  • Jones, A. H. M.; Martindale, J. R.; Morris, John, eds. (1971–1992). Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (3 volumes). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (see PLRE)
  • Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. (see ODB)
  • Kienast, Dietmar; Werner Eck & Matthäus Heil (2017) [1990]. Römische Kaisertabelle: Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie [Roman imperial table: Basics of the Roman imperial chronology] (in German) (6th ed.). Darmstadt: WBG. ISBN 978-3-534-26724-8.
  • Meijer, Fik (2004). Emperors Don't Die in Bed. Translated by Leinbach, S. J. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31201-9.
  • Omissi, Adrastos (2018). Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire: Civil War, Panegyric, and the Construction of Legitimacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-882482-4.
  • Peachin, Michael (1990). Roman Imperial Titulature and Chronology, A.D. 235–284. Amsterdam: Gieben. ISBN 90-5063-034-0.
  • Schreiner, Peter (1977). Die byzantinischen Kleinchroniken II: Historischer Kommentar [Byzantine small chronicles 2: Historical commentary]. Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae (in German). Vienna: ÖAW. ISBN 978-3-7001-0206-9.
  • Trapp, Erich, ed. (2001). Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit [Prosopographical Lexicon of the Palaiologan era] (in German). Vienna: ÖAW. ISBN 978-3-7001-1462-8. (see PLP)
  • Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6.

Secondary bibliography

  • Angelov, Dimiter G. (2009). "Emperors and Patriarchs as Ideal Children and Adolescents: Literary Conventions and Cultural Expectations". In Papaconstantinou, Arietta; Talbot, Alice-Mary (eds.). Becoming Byzantine: Children and Childhood in Byzantium. Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-356-2.
  • Angelov, Dimiter (2019). The Byzantine Hellene: The Life of Emperor Theodore Laskaris and Byzantium in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-48071-0.
  • Arnold, Jonathan J.; Bjornlie, M. Shane; Sessa, Kristina (2016). "Introduction". In Arnold, Jonathan J.; Bjornlie, M. Shane; Sessa, Kristina (eds.). A Companion to Ostrogothic Italy. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-31376-7.
  • Cameron, Alan (1988). "Flavius: a Nicety of Protocol". Latomus. 47 (1): 26–33. JSTOR 41540754.
  • Grierson, Philip (1966). Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection. Vol. 2. Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 9780884020240.
  • Becker, C. H. (1913). "The Expansion of the Saracens—The East". In Gwatkin, H. M.; Whitney, J. P. (eds.). The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume II: The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundation of the Western Empire. New York: The Macmillan Company. OCLC 14739796.
  • Chalandon, Ferdinand (1923). "The Earlier Comneni". In Tanner, J. R.; Previté-Orton, C. W.; Brooke, Z. N. (eds.). The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume IV: The Eastern Roman Empire (717–1453). New York: The Macmillan Company. OCLC 14739796.
  • Treadgold, W. (1990). "A Note on Byzantium's Year of the Four Emperors". Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 83: 431–33. doi:10.1515/byzs.1990.83.2.431.
  • Claes, Liesbeth (2015). "Coins with power?: imperial and local messages on the coinage of the usurpers of the second half of the third century". Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde. 102: 15–60. OCLC 948592865.
  • Çolak, Hasan (2014). "Tekfur, fasiliyus and kayser: Disdain, Negligence and Appropriation of Byzantine Imperial Titulature in the Ottoman World". In Hadjianastasis, Marios (ed.). Frontiers of the Ottoman Imagination. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-9004283510.
  • Collins, Roger (2004). Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631181859.
  • Cotsonis, John A. (2020). The Religious Figural Imagery of Byzantine Lead Seals I. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-367-34696-6.
  • Croke, Brian (1995). The Chronicle of Marcellinus: A translation with commentary. London: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-34463-1.
  • Croke, Brian (2004). "The Imperial Reigns of Leo II". Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 96 (2): 559–575. doi:10.1515/BYZS.2003.559.
  • Dragon, Gilbert (2003). Emperor and Priest: The Imperial Office in Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521801232.
  • Estiot, Sylviane (1996). "L'empereur Silbannacus, un second antoninien" [Emperor Silbannacus, a second Antoninianus]. Revue numismatique (in fr-FR). 6 (151): 105–117. doi:10.3406/numi.1996.2087.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Feiller, Albert (1976). "Nouvelle note sur la chronologie du règne de Jean Cantacuzène" [New note on the chronology of the reign of John Kantakouzenos]. Études byzantines. 34: 119–124.
  • Foss, Clive (2005). "Emperors named Constantine". Revue numismatique. 6 (161): 93–102. doi:10.3406/numi.2005.2594.
  • Garland, Lynda (1999). Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527–1204. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14688-7.
  • Garland, Lynda (2006). Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800–1200. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5737-8.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2009). How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-13719-4.
  • Halsall, Guy (2018). "Transformations of Romanness: The northern Gallic case". In Pohl, Walter; Gantner, Clemens; Grifoni, Cinzia; Pollheimer-Mohaupt, Marianne (eds.). Transformations of Romanness: Early Medieval Regions and Identities. Berlin: De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110598384.
  • Hammond, Mason (1957). "Imperial Elements in the Formula of the Roman Emperors during the First Two and a Half Centuries of the Empire". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. 25: 19–64. doi:10.2307/4238646. JSTOR 4238646.
  • Hartmann, L. M. (1913). "Italy under the Lombards". In Gwatkin, H. M.; Whitney, J. P. (eds.). The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume II: The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundation of the Western Empire. New York: The Macmillan Company. OCLC 14739796.
  • Hartmann, Udo (2002). Rezension zu: C. Körner: Philippus Arabs [Review of C. Körner: Philip the Arab]. H-Soz-Kult. Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften (in German). ISBN 3-11-017205-4. Retrieved 2021-04-11.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  • Kaegi, Walter E. (2003). Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81459-6.
  • Lascaratos, J.; Marketos, S. (1997), "The fatal disease of the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus (1328-1341 A.D.)", Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 90 (2): 106–109, doi:10.1177/014107689709000215, PMC 1296151, PMID 9068444
  • Lascaratos, J. (1999). ""Eyes" on the Thrones: Imperial Ophthalmologic Nicknames". Survey of Ophthalmology. 44 (1): 73–78. doi:10.1016/S0039-6257(99)00039-9. ISSN 0039-6257. PMID 10466590.
  • Lawler, Jennifer (2004). Encyclopedia of the Byzantine Empire. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786466160.
  • Logan, F. Donald (2012). A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781134786695.
  • Loewenstein, Karl (1973). The Governance of Rome. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-1458-2.
  • Macrides, Ruth (1999). Kinship and Justice in Byzantium, 11th–15th Centuries. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-86078-799-0.
  • Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814098-3.
  • Mathisen, Ralph W. (1998). "Julius Nepos (19/24 June 474 - [28 August 475] - 25 April/9 May/22 June 480)". De Imperatoribus Romanis.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  • Mosshammer, Alden (2008). The Easter Computus and the Origins of the Christian Era. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-156236-5.
  • Mladenov, Momchil (2003). "John VII Palaiologos and the Bulgarian Lands in 1390". Journal Epohi (in Bulgarian). 11 (1): 189–196. ISSN 2534-8418.
  • Nicol, Donald M. (1967). "The Byzantine View of Western Europe". Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies. 8 (4): 315–339.
  • Nicol, Donald M. (1992). The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-58369-8.
  • Norwich, John Julius (1993). Byzantium: The Apogee. Virginia: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-011448-3.
  • Oikonomides, Nicolas (1977). "John VII Palaeologus and the Ivory Pyxis at Dumbarton Oaks". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 31: 329–337. doi:10.2307/1291411. JSTOR 1291411.
  • Rea, J. R. (1972). "O. Leid. 144 and the Chronology of A. D. 238". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 9: 1–19. JSTOR 20180380.
  • Richardson, John (1984). Roman Provincial Administration. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 9780862921286. OCLC 1067756325.
  • Rogers, Clifford J. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6.
  • Sandberg, Kaj (2008). "The So-Called Division of the Roman Empire in AD 395: Notes on a Persistent Theme in Modern Historiography". Arctos. 42: 199–213. ISSN 0570-734X.
  • Seibt, Werner (2018). "Wer war Niketas Nobellisimos und Komes von Opsikion (8. Jahrhundert)?" [Who was Niketas Nobellisimos and Komes of Opsikion (8th century)?] (PDF). Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik (in German). 67: 213–216. doi:10.1553/joeb67s213.
  • Shiel, Norman (1979). "The Coinage of Saloninus as Augustus". Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society). 24: 117–122. JSTOR 43573579.
  • Stein, Arthur (1924). "Zur Chronologie der römischen Kaiser von Decius bis Diocletian" [On the chronology of the Roman emperors from Decius to Diocletian]. Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete. 7 (1–2): 30–51. doi:10.1515/apf.1924.7.1-2.30. S2CID 161464046.
  • Smolin, Nathan Israel (2021). Christ the Emperor: Roman Emperor and Christian Theology in the 4th Century AD (Doctoral thesis). University of North Carolina. doi:10.17615/wg7y-3h07.
  • Tilemachos, Lounghis (2015). "Review Article: Juan Signes Codoner, The emperor Theophilos and the East, 829-842: Court and frontier in Byzantium during the last phase of Iconoclasm, Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies, vol 13, Ashgate 2014". Byzantina Symmeikta. 25: 237–260. doi:10.12681/byzsym.8773.
  • Van Tricht, Filip (2011). "The Imperial Ideology". The Latin Renovatio of Byzantium: The Empire of Constantinople (1204–1228). Leiden: Brill. pp. 61–101. ISBN 978-90-04-20323-5.
  • Vagi, David L. (1999). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire: c. 82 B.C. – A.D. 480. Volume I: History. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-99907-7.
  • Watson, A. (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4.
  • Williams, Stephen; Friell, Gerard (1998). The Rome that Did Not Fall: The Survival of the East in the Fifth Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-98231-0.
  • Wu, Chiang-Yuan (2016). ""Live Like a King": The Monument of Philopappus and the Continuity of Client-Kingship". In So, Francis K. H. (ed.). Perceiving Power in Early Modern Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-58624-7.