List of largest known stars

Summary

Below are lists of the largest stars currently known, ordered by radius and separated into categories by galaxy. The unit of measurement used is the radius of the Sun (approximately 695,700 km; 432,300 mi).[1]

The angular diameters of stars can be measured directly using stellar interferometry. Other methods can use lunar occultations or from eclipsing binaries, which can be used to test indirect methods of finding stellar radii. Only a few useful supergiant stars can be occulted by the Moon, including Antares A (Alpha Scorpii A). Examples of eclipsing binaries are Epsilon Aurigae (Almaaz), VV Cephei, and V766 Centauri (HR 5171). Angular diameter measurements can be inconsistent because the boundary of the very tenuous atmosphere (opacity) differs depending on the wavelength of light in which the star is observed.

Uncertainties remain with the membership and order of the lists, especially when deriving various parameters used in calculations, such as stellar luminosity and effective temperature. Often stellar radii can only be expressed as an average or be within a large range of values. Values for stellar radii vary significantly in different sources and for different observation methods.

All the sizes stated in these lists have inaccuracies and may be disputed. The lists are still a work in progress and parameters are prone to change.

Caveats

Various issues exist in determining accurate radii of the largest stars, which in many cases do display significant errors. The following lists are generally based on various considerations or assumptions; these include:

  • Stellar radii or diameters are usually derived only approximately using Stefan–Boltzmann law for the deduced stellar luminosity and effective surface temperature.
  • Stellar distances, and their errors, for most stars, remain uncertain or poorly determined.
  • Many supergiant stars have extended atmospheres, and many are within opaque dust shells, making their true effective temperatures and surfaces highly uncertain.[citation needed]
  • Many extended supergiant atmospheres also significantly change in size over time, regularly or irregularly pulsating over several months or years as variable stars. This makes adopted luminosities poorly known and may significantly change the quoted radii.
  • Other direct methods for determining stellar radii rely on lunar occultations or from eclipses in binary systems. This is only possible for a very small number of stars.
  • Most distance estimates for red supergiants come from stellar cluster or association membership, because it is difficult to calculate accurate distances for red supergiants that are not part of any cluster or association.
  • In these lists are some examples of extremely distant extragalactic stars, which may have slightly different properties and natures than the currently largest known stars in the Milky Way. For example, some red supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds are suspected to have slightly different limiting temperatures and luminosities. Such stars may exceed accepted limits by undergoing large eruptions or changing their spectral types over just a few months (or potentially years).[2][3]

Lists

The following lists show the largest known stars based on the host galaxy.

Milky Way

List of the largest known stars in the Milky Way[a]
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Method[b] Notes
Orbit of Saturn 2,0472,049.9[4][c] Reported for reference
UY Scuti 1,708±192[5] AD The radius of UY Sct is more extreme than what current stellar evolution models predict. One paper mentions this extremity, and the reason for it is not yet clear.[6]
The above radii are larger than what stellar evolution theory predicts, and are thus potentially unreliable
Theoretical limit of star size (Milky Way) ~1,500[7] This value comes from the rough average radii of the three largest stars studied in the paper. It is consistent with the largest possible stellar radii predicted from the current evolutionary theory, and it is believed that stars above this radius would be too unstable and simply do not form.[7]
Reported for reference
V766 Centauri Aa 1,492±540[6] AD V766 Centauri Aa is a rare variable yellow supergiant.
KY Cygni 1,420±284(–2,850±570)[7] L/Teff
AH Scorpii 1,411±124[5] AD
W Cephei 1,329.62[8] ?
Westerlund 1 W237 (Westerlund 1 BKS B) 1,241±70[9] L/Teff
BC Cygni 1,230.27[10]1,140±228[7] L/Teff A more detailed but older study gives values of 1,081 R (8561,375) for the year 2000, and 1,303 R (1,0211,553) for the year 1900.[11]
IRC -10414 ~1,200[12] L/Teff
PZ Cassiopeiae 1,190±238(–1,940±388)[7] L/Teff
V1489 Cygni (NML Cygni) 1,183[13] L/Teff
GCIRS 7 1,170±60[14]1,368[15] AD
Westerlund 1 W26 (Westerlund 1 BKS AS) 1,165±581,221±120[9] L/Teff
RW Cephei 1,157.92[8] ?
Orbit of Jupiter 1,114.51,115.8[4][c] Reported for reference
RT Carinae 1,090±218[7] L/Teff
V396 Centauri 1,070±214[7]1,145.31[8] L/Teff & ?
V602 Carinae 1,050±165[16] AD
IM Cassiopeiae 1,039.43[8] ?
CK Carinae 1,013.421,060±212[7] L/Teff
KW Sagittarii 994.794[8]1,009±142[5] AD
UW Aquilae 946.285[8] ?
AZ Cephei 944.221[8] ?
CD Hydri 920[17] ?
CL Carinae 919.787[8] ?
AZ Cygni 911+57
−50
[18]
AD
NSV 25875 891[13] L/Teff
V437 Scuti 874[13] L/Teff
LL Pegasi 869[13] L/Teff
V669 Cassiopeiae 859[13] L/Teff
Westerlund 1 W20 (Westerlund 1 BKS D) 858±48[9] L/Teff
VX Sagittarii 853[13]-1,335±215[19] L/Teff
BI Cygni 851.14[10]1,240±248[7] L/Teff
μ Cephei (Herschel's Garnet Star) 830[13]-972±228[20] AD
V1185 Scorpii 830[13] L/Teff
CW Leonis 826[13] L/Teff
LP Andromedae 815[13] L/Teff
RT Ophiuchi 801±217[21] AD
V354 Cephei 791.845[8]1,520±304[7] ? & L/Teff
BO Carinae 790±158[7] L/Teff
S Persei 780±156(–1,230±246)[7] L/Teff
SU Persei 780±156[7] – 971.405[8] L/Teff
RS Persei 770±30[22] AD
V355 Cephei 770±154[7] L/Teff
GU Cephei A 766.486[8] ?
Betelgeuse (α Orionis) 764+116
−62
[23]
? Tenth brightest star in the night sky.[24]
HD 303250 750±150[7] L/Teff
UU Pegasi 742±193[21] AD
Westerlund 1 W75 (Westerlund 1 BKS E) 722±36[9] L/Teff
V Camelopardalis 716±185[21] AD
V923 Centauri 715.539[8] ?
V528 Carinae 700±140[7] L/Teff
V821 Herculis 686[13] L/Teff
Antares (α Scorpii) 680[25] AD Fourteenth brightest star in the night sky.[24]
RW Cygni 676.08[10]980±196[7]1,502.16[8] ?
HD 95687 674±109[16] AD
6 Geminorum (BU Geminorum) 670±134[7] L/Teff
V407 Puppis 654.439[8] ?
V605 Cassiopeiae 649.826[8] ?
RR Aquilae 648±169[21] AD
TZ Cassiopeiae 645.65,[10] 766.813[8]800±160[7] L/Teff
RW Leonis Minoris 641[13] L/Teff
3XMM J174347.4-292309 640[26] ?
R Hydrae 631[13] L/Teff
NO Aurigae 630±126[7]1,481.85[8] L/Teff
DU Crucis 629.63[8] ?
IX Carinae 620.718[8]920±184[7] L/Teff
V1749 Cygni 620±124(–1,040±208)[7] L/Teff
TV Geminorum ~620710[27] L/Teff
BU Persei 620±124[7] L/Teff
W Persei 620±124[7] L/Teff
R Sculptoris 617[13] L/Teff
NV Aurigae 615[13] L/Teff
V589 Cassiopeiae 610±122[7] L/Teff
U Arietis 610±125[28] - 801±205[21] AD
V Hydrae 609[13] L/Teff
X Pavonis 608[13] L/Teff
VY Canis Majoris A 605[29]-1,420±120[30] L/Teff & AD
S Serpentis 601±159[21] AD
RR Persei 599±161[21] AD
V349 Carinae 590.604[8]640±128[7] L/Teff
V419 Cephei 590±118[7] L/Teff
119 Tauri (CE Tauri) 587±85593±86[31] AD
4U 1954+31 586+188
−127
[32]
L/Teff
RS Virginis 577±155[21] AD
RU Herculis 572±147[21] AD
GU Cephei 570±114[7] L/Teff
R Leonis Minoris 569±146[21] AD
V648 Cassiopeiae 565.185[8]710±142[7] L/Teff
TX Camelopardalis 560[13] L/Teff
MM Virginis 554[17] ?
AO Crucis 547.915[8] ?
II Lupis 547[13] L/Teff
S Orionis 545±142[21] AD
HS Cassiopeiae 541.585[8] ?


Mira A (ο Ceti) 541[13] L/Teff
V361 Carinae 540±108[7] – 577.038[8] L/Teff & ?
V1300 Aquilae 529[13] L/Teff
YZ Persei 524±175[33]540±108,[7] 744.245[8] AD & L/Teff


WX Piscium 520[13] L/Teff
GP Cassiopeiae 519.819[8] ?
V644 Cephei 516.674[8] ?
VV Cephei A 515.632[8]1,050[34] ? & AD


R Draconis 511±142[21] AD
T Persei 510±20[22] – 622.081[8] AD
V2099 Cygni 509[17] ?
V1427 Aquilae 507[13] L/Teff
V441 Persei 500.389[8]650±130[7] L/Teff
V384 Puppis 500±100(–850±170)[7] – 580.415[8] L/Teff & ?
HR Carinae B 500±150[35] AD
DG Cygni 499±140[21] AD
V589 Cassiopeiae 498.741[8] ?
PS Muscae 493.743[8] ?
V530 Carinae 492.063[8] ?
V336 Vulpeculae 490.745[8] ?
RT Capricorni 490±70[36] AD
QY Puppis 485.319[8] ?
V1092 Centauri 478.408[8] ?
IRAS 22358+6006 (TYC 4265-470-1) 476.067[8] ?
R Pegasi 476±122[21] AD
V Cassiopeiae 472±129[21] AD
BS Aurigae 470±110[36] AD
V356 Cephei 468.134[8]590±118[7] L/Teff & ?
V838 Monocerotis 464[37]–730[38] ? & AD
NSV 24761 467[13] L/Teff
S Pegasi 459±135[21] AD
AD Persei 457.09[10] – 537.197[8] L/Teff
S Coronae Borealis 457±116[21] AD
V774 Cassiopeiae 452.309 – 520±104[7] L/Teff
IK Tauri (NML Tauri) 451[13] L/Teff
π1 Gruis 447[13] L/Teff
V910 Centauri 440±88[7] L/Teff
AW Aurigae 440±100[36] AD
R Aquarii 438±114[21] AD
U Herculis 431±114[21] AD
3XMM J185210.0+001205 430[26] ?
V348 Velorum 428.049[8] ?
NR Vulpeculae 426.58,[10] 668.395[8]980±196[7] L/Teff
V778 Cassiopeiae 420±84[7] – 422.049[8] L/Teff
Unurgunite (σ Canis Majoris) 420±84[7] L/Teff
V810 Centauri 420[39] L/Teff
W Aquilae 419[13] L/Teff
T Cassiopeiae 416±108[21] AD
Y Cassiopeiae 413±110[21] AD
V772 Centauri 410.215[8] ?
V634 Cassiopeiae 410±82[7] L/Teff
V809 Cassiopeiae 410±82[7] L/Teff
R Cassiopeiae 410[13] - 593±181[21] L/Teff & AD
R Aurigae 407±105[21] AD
NX Serpentis 403[13] L/Teff
V Cygni 402[13] L/Teff
PR Persei 400.606[8]405±137[33] AD
R Leporis 400±90[40] ?
U Hydrae 395[13] L/Teff
S Scuti 386[13] L/Teff
WY Geminorum 384.879[8] ?
KK Persei 383.865[8] ?
V1172 Centauri 381.551[8] ?
MZ Puppis 376.973[8] ?
Westerlund 1 W243 (Westerlund 1 BKS G) 376.9[41] ?
PP Persei 374.148[8] ?
V439 Persei 373.215[8]380±76[7] L/Teff
V634 Cassiopeiae 372.628[8] ?
U Orionis 370±96[21] AD
AB Pyxidis 368.358[8] ?
RZ Sagittarii 363[13] L/Teff
BD+59 274 360±72[7] L/Teff
HD 17958 360±72[7] L/Teff
V717 Cygni 356.769[8] ?
BG Serpentis 354±124[21] AD
R Aquilae 354±99[21] AD
U Persei 352±101[21] AD
V362 Aurigae 351±159[33]500±100[7] AD & L/Teff
AX Sagittarii 350.935[8] ?
V412 Centauri 350.587[8] ?
V4650 Sagittarii 350[42] ?
RX Bootis 347[13] L/Teff
V672 Cephei 342.27[8] ?
V1057 Scorpii 342[17] ?
V466 Cassiopeiae 331.13[10]380±76[7] L/Teff
MZ Cassiopeiae 329.147 – 600±120[7] L/Teff & ?
R Serpentis 328±86[21] AD
U Antliae 325[13] L/Teff
FZ Persei 323.59[10] – 411.975[8] L/Teff
WX Cassiopeiae 322.326[8] ?
Orbit of Mars 322323.1[4][c] Reported for reference
V743 Cassiopeiae 322±113[33] AD
FG Vulpeculae 321±129[33] AD
HD 306799 320±64[7] L/Teff
Z Scorpii 320±100[28] AD
5 Lacertae (V412 Lacertae) 319.2+26.6
−32.0
[43]
AD
X Ophiuchi 314±81[21] AD
T Ceti 312[13] L/Teff
GLMP 1048 311[13] L/Teff
Z Pegasi 310±92[21] AD
AZ Cassiopeiae 307.821[8] ?
Y Canum Venaticorum (La Superba) 307[13] L/Teff
Pistol Star (V4647 Sagittarii) 306[42] ?
RT Aquilae 305±79[21] AD
V368 Andromedae 303.12±32.05[44] AD
V550 Persei 301±99[33] AD
R Leonis 299[13] - 409±105[21] AD & L/Teff
R Doradus (P Doradus) 298±21[45] AD
V403 Persei 297.845[8]380±76[7] L/Teff
BD+28 697 296.93±41.26[44] AD
S Ursae Minoris 296±82[21] AD
EP Aquarii 291[13] L/Teff
BD+59 372 290±58[7] L/Teff
KN Cassiopeiae 288.777[8] ?
V438 Ophiuchi 286[13] L/Teff
Rasalgethi (α Herculis) 284±60 (264303)[46] L/Teff
ο1 Canis Majoris 280±56[7] L/Teff
R Canum Venaticorum 279±75[21] AD
V643 Persei 279[17] ?
41 Geminorum 266±82[33] AD
R Aquilae 259±67[21] AD
HD 9366 254±73[33] AD
S Doradus 240±140[47] ?
V424 Lacertae 239±80[33]260±52[7] AD & L/Teff
DR Cassiopeiae 237.501[8] ?
BG Cygni 236±76[21] AD
HD 207119 235±92[33] AD
SW Cephei 234.42[10] L/Teff
V2361 Ophiuchi 234[17] ?
W Hydrae 229[13] L/Teff
NGC 6910 RLP 10 (Cygnus OB2-12) 229[48] L/Teff
HD 4817 227±73[33] AD
OT Hydrae 222[17] ?
HR Carinae A 220±60[35] AD
Wezen (δ Canis Majoris) 215±66[49] AD Thirty-sixth brightest star in the night sky.[24]
Orbit of Earth (~1 AU) 214[4][c] Reported for reference
HD 11092 214±56[33] AD
Enif (ε Pegasi) 210.37 – 210.69[50] ?
AE Trianguli 210.18±15.09[44] AD
Suhail (λ Velorum) 210[51] ?
CY Canum Venaticorum 208.23±13.07[44] AD
V679 Cephei 206.793[8] ?


MV Delphini 205[17] ?
ZZ Canis Minoris 204.16±23.68[44] AD
Deneb (α Cygni) 203±17[52] ? Eighteenth brightest star in the night sky.[24]
HD 205349 200±40[7] L/Teff
HD 236947 200±84[33] AD
The following stars with sizes below 200 R are shown for comparison.
Orbit of Venus 158.6[4][c] Reported for reference
Orbit of Mercury 82.984.6[4][c] Reported for reference
Vega (α Lyrae) 2.726±0.006 × 2.418±0.012[53] Fifth brightest star in the night sky.[24]
Reported for reference
Sun 1 The largest object in the Solar System.
Reported for reference


Other galaxies (within the Local Group)

List of the largest known stars in other galaxies (within the Local Group)
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Galaxy Method[d] Notes
Sextans A 10 995±130[54] Sextans A L/Teff
Sextans A 5 870±145[54] Sextans A L/Teff
Sextans A 7 710±100[54] Sextans A L/Teff
IC 10 3 685±90[54] IC 10 L/Teff
WLM 14 610±80[54] WLM L/Teff
Sextans B 1 565±70[54] Sextans B L/Teff
IC 1613 2 560±70[54] IC 1613 L/Teff
WLM 12 430±70[54] WLM L/Teff
IC 10 5 420±50[54] IC 10 L/Teff
Sextans B 2 405±90[54] Sextans B L/Teff
WLM 13 380±50[54] WLM L/Teff
Sextans A 6 350±40[54] Sextans A L/Teff
Pegasus 1 340±50[54] Pegasus Dwarf L/Teff
Sextans A 4 335±40[54] Sextans A L/Teff
WLM 11 310±50[54] WLM L/Teff
IC 1613 1 300±40[54] IC 1613 L/Teff
IC 10 2 280±30[54] IC 10 L/Teff
Pegasus 2 260±40[54] Pegasus Dwarf L/Teff
Sextans A 8 260±60[54] Sextans A L/Teff
Sextans A 9 230±50[54] Sextans A L/Teff
IC 10 4 200±25[54] IC 10 L/Teff
IC 10 1 165±60[54] IC 10 L/Teff
IC 10 6 160±25[54] IC 10 L/Teff
Phoenix 3 90±15[54] Phoenix Dwarf L/Teff

Outside the Local Group

List of the largest known stars in galaxies outside the Local Group
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Galaxy Group Method[e] Notes
NGC 2363-V1 194356[55] NGC 2363 M81 Group ?

Notes

  1. ^ Currently only contains radii that are stated in the cited papers
  2. ^ Methods for calculating the radius:
  3. ^ a b c d e f At the J2000 epoch
  4. ^ Methods for calculating the radius:
  5. ^ Methods for calculating the radius:

References

  1. ^ Mamajek, E. E.; Prsa, A.; Torres, G.; Harmanec, P.; Asplund, M.; Bennett, P. D.; Capitaine, N.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Depagne, E.; Folkner, W. M.; Haberreiter, M. (October 2015). "IAU 2015 Resolution B3 on Recommended Nominal Conversion Constants for Selected Solar and Planetary Properties". arXiv:1510.07674. Bibcode:2015arXiv151007674M. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, Andre (July 2006). "The Effective Temperatures and Physical Properties of Magellanic Cloud Red Supergiants: The Effects of Metallicity". The Astrophysical Journal. 645: 1102–1117. arXiv:astro-ph/0603596. Bibcode:2006ApJ...645.1102L. doi:10.1086/504417. ISSN 0004-637X.
  3. ^ Ren, Yi; Jiang, Bi-Wei (July 2020). "On the Granulation and Irregular Variation of Red Supergiants". The Astrophysical Journal. 898: 24. arXiv:2006.06605. Bibcode:2020ApJ...898...24R. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9c17. ISSN 0004-637X.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "HORIZONS Web-Interface". ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  5. ^ a b c Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H. (June 2013). "The atmospheric structure and fundamental parameters of the red supergiants AH Scorpii, UY Scuti, and KW Sagittarii". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 554: A76. arXiv:1305.6179. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..76A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220920. ISSN 0004-6361.
  6. ^ a b Wittkowski, M.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Guirado, J. C. (January 2017). "VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry of the late-type supergiants V766 Cen (=HR 5171 A), σ Oph, BM Sco, and HD 206859". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 597: A9. arXiv:1610.01927. Bibcode:2017A&A...597A...9W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629349. ISSN 0004-6361.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Josselin, Eric; Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges (August 2005). "The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not As Cool As We Thought". The Astrophysical Journal. 628: 973–985. arXiv:astro-ph/0504337. Bibcode:2005ApJ...628..973L. doi:10.1086/430901. ISSN 0004-637X.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl Stassun K.G.; et al. (October 2019). "The revised TESS Input Catalog and Candidate Target List". The Astronomical Journal. 158 (4): 138. arXiv:1905.10694. Bibcode:2019AJ....158..138S. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab3467. S2CID 166227927.
  9. ^ a b c d Arévalo, Aura de Las Estrellas Ramírez (July 2018). The Red Supergiants in the Supermassive Stellar Cluster Westerlund 1 (text thesis). University of São Paulo. doi:10.11606/D.14.2019.tde-12092018-161841.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Josselin, E.; Plez, B. (July 2007). "Atmospheric dynamics and the mass loss process in red supergiant stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 469: 671–680. arXiv:0705.0266. Bibcode:2007A&A...469..671J. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20066353. ISSN 0004-6361.
  11. ^ Turner, David G.; Rohanizadegan, Mina; Berdnikov, Leonid N.; Pastukhova, Elena N. (November 2006). "The Long-Term Behavior of the Semiregular M Supergiant Variable BC Cygni". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 118: 1533–1544. Bibcode:2006PASP..118.1533T. doi:10.1086/508905. ISSN 0004-6280.
  12. ^ Gvaramadze, V. V.; Menten, K. M.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Mackey, J.; Kraus, A.; Meyer, D. M. -A.; Kamiński, T. (January 2014). "IRC -10414: a bow-shock-producing red supergiant star". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 437: 843–856. arXiv:1310.2245. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.437..843G. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1943. ISSN 0035-8711.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; De Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Verhoelst, T.; Kemper, F.; Menten, K. M. (2010). "Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles. II. CO line survey of evolved stars: Derivation of mass-loss rate formulae". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 523: A18. arXiv:1008.1083. Bibcode:2010A&A...523A..18D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913771. S2CID 16131273.
  14. ^ Tsuboi, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyoshi, Makoto; Miyazaki, Atsushi (April 2020). "Sub-millimeter detection of a Galactic center cool star IRS 7 by ALMA". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 72: 36. arXiv:2002.01620. Bibcode:2020PASJ...72...36T. doi:10.1093/pasj/psaa013. ISSN 0004-6264.
  15. ^ Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Gravity Collaboration (July 2021). "The Molecular Layer of GCIRS7". 528: 397. Bibcode:2021ASPC..528..397R. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ a b Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J. (March 2015). "What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?. Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 575: A50. arXiv:1501.01560. Bibcode:2015A&A...575A..50A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425212. ISSN 0004-6361.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Koen, Chris; Laney, Dave (2000). "Rapidly oscillating M giant stars?". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 311 (3): 636. Bibcode:2000MNRAS.311..636K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03127.x.
  18. ^ Norris, Ryan P.; Baron, Fabien R.; Monnier, John D.; Paladini, Claudia; Anderson, Matthew D.; Martinez, Arturo O.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Che, Xiao; Chiavassa, Andrea; Connelley, Michael S.; Farrington, Christopher D. (June 2021). "Long Term Evolution of Surface Features on the Red Supergiant AZ Cyg". arXiv:2106.15636. Bibcode:2021arXiv210615636N. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Xu, Shuangjing; Zhang, Bo; Reid, Mark J.; Menten, Karl M.; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Guangli (May 2018). "The Parallax of the Red Hypergiant VX Sgr with Accurate Tropospheric Delay Calibration". The Astrophysical Journal. 859: 14. arXiv:1804.00894. Bibcode:2018ApJ...859...14X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabba6. ISSN 0004-637X.
  20. ^ Montargès, M.; Homan, W.; Keller, D.; Clementel, N.; Shetye, S.; Decin, L.; Harper, G. M.; Royer, P.; Winters, J. M.; Le Bertre, T.; Richards, A. M. S. (May 2019). "NOEMA maps the CO J = 2 - 1 environment of the red supergiant μ Cep". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 485: 2417–2430. arXiv:1903.07129. Bibcode:2019MNRAS.485.2417M. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz397. ISSN 0035-8711.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Van Belle, G. T.; Thompson, R. R.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. (2002). "Angular Size Measurements of Mira Variable Stars at 2.2 Microns. II". The Astronomical Journal. 124 (3): 1706–1715. arXiv:astro-ph/0210167. Bibcode:2002AJ....124.1706V. doi:10.1086/342282. S2CID 33832649.
  22. ^ a b Baron, F.; Monnier, J. D.; Kiss, L. L.; Neilson, H. R.; Zhao, M.; Anderson, M.; Aarnio, A.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Ridgway, S. T. (April 2014). "CHARA/MIRC Observations of Two M Supergiants in Perseus OB1: Temperature, Bayesian Modeling, and Compressed Sensing Imaging". The Astrophysical Journal. 785: 46. arXiv:1405.4032. Bibcode:2014ApJ...785...46B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/785/1/46. ISSN 0004-637X.
  23. ^ Joyce, Meridith; Leung, Shing-Chi; Molnár, László; Ireland, Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi (October 2020). "Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: New Mass and Distance Estimates for Betelgeuse through Combined Evolutionary, Asteroseismic, and Hydrodynamic Simulations with MESA". The Astrophysical Journal. 902: 63. arXiv:2006.09837. Bibcode:2020ApJ...902...63J. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abb8db. ISSN 0004-637X.
  24. ^ a b c d e Hoffleit, D.; Warren, W. H., Jr. (November 1995). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991)". VizieR Online Data Catalog: V/50. Bibcode:1995yCat.5050....0H.
  25. ^ Ohnaka, K.; Hofmann, K. -H.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Baffa, C.; Chelli, A.; Petrov, R.; Robbe-Dubois, S. (July 2013). "High spectral resolution imaging of the dynamical atmosphere of the red supergiant Antares in the CO first overtone lines with VLTI/AMBER". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 555: A24. arXiv:1304.4800. Bibcode:2013A&A...555A..24O. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321063. ISSN 0004-6361.
  26. ^ a b Nebot Gómez-Morán, A.; Motch, C.; Pineau, F. -X.; Carrera, F. J.; Pakull, M. W.; Riddick, F. (September 2015). "Infrared identification of hard X-ray sources in the Galaxy". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 452: 884–901. arXiv:1506.03083. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.452..884N. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1020. ISSN 0035-8711.
  27. ^ Wasatonic, Richard P.; Guinan, Edward F.; Durbin, Allyn J. (October 2015). "V-Band, Near-IR, and TiO Photometry of the Semi-Regular Red Supergiant TV Geminorum: Long-Term Quasi-Periodic Changes in Temperature, Radius, and Luminosity". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 127: 1010. Bibcode:2015PASP..127.1010W. doi:10.1086/683261. ISSN 0004-6280.
  28. ^ a b Mondal, Soumen; Chandrasekhar, T. (August 2005). "Angular Diameter Measurements of Evolved Variables by Lunar Occultations at 2.2 and 3.8 Microns". The Astronomical Journal. 130: 842–852. arXiv:astro-ph/0504326. Bibcode:2005AJ....130..842M. doi:10.1086/430457. ISSN 0004-6256.
  29. ^ Massey, Philip; Levesque, Emily M.; Plez, Bertrand (August 2009). "Bringing VY Canis Majoris Down to Size: An Improved Determination of Its Effective Temperature". The Astrophysical Journal. 646 (2): 1203–1208. arXiv:astro-ph/0604253. Bibcode:2006ApJ...646.1203M. doi:10.1086/505025.
  30. ^ Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M. (April 2012). "Fundamental properties and atmospheric structure of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 540: L12. arXiv:1203.5194. Bibcode:2012A&A...540L..12W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219126. ISSN 0004-6361.
  31. ^ Montargès, M.; Norris, R.; Chiavassa, A.; Tessore, B.; Lèbre, A.; Baron, F. (June 2018). "The convective photosphere of the red supergiant CE Tauri. I. VLTI/PIONIER H-band interferometric imaging". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 614: A12. arXiv:1802.06086. Bibcode:2018A&A...614A..12M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731471. ISSN 0004-6361.
  32. ^ Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Lebzelter, Thomas; Fekel, Francis C.; Straniero, Oscar; Joyce, Richard R.; Prato, Lisa; Karnath, Nicole; Habel, Nolan (December 2020). "The M Supergiant High-mass X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+31". The Astrophysical Journal. 904: 143. arXiv:2010.01081. Bibcode:2020ApJ...904..143H. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abbe01. ISSN 0004-637X.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m van Belle, G. T.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.; Hart, A. (April 2009). "Supergiant temperatures and linear radii from near-infrared interferometry". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 394: 1925–1935. arXiv:0811.4239. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.394.1925V. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14146.x. ISSN 0035-8711.
  34. ^ Hagen Bauer, Wendy; Gull, Theodore R.; Bennett, Philip D. (September 2008). "Spatial Extension in the Ultraviolet Spectrum of VV Cephei". The Astronomical Journal. 136: 1312–1324. Bibcode:2008AJ....136.1312H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/3/1312. ISSN 0004-6256.
  35. ^ a b Boffin, Henri M. J.; Rivinius, Thomas; Mérand, Antoine; Mehner, Andrea; LeBouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Pourbaix, Dimitri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Martayan, Christophe; Guieu, Sylvain (September 2016). "The luminous blue variable HR Carinae has a partner. Discovery of a companion with the VLTI". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 593: A90. arXiv:1607.07724. Bibcode:2016A&A...593A..90B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629127. ISSN 0004-6361.
  36. ^ a b c Baug, Tapas; Chandrasekhar, T. (January 2012). "Near-infrared angular diameters of a few asymptotic giant branch variables by lunar occultations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 419: 866–872. arXiv:1109.0388. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.419..866B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19750.x. ISSN 0035-8711.
  37. ^ Kamiński, Tomek; Tylenda, Romuald; Kiljan, Aleksandra; Schmidt, Mirek; Lisiecki, Krzysztof; Melis, Carl; Frankowski, Adam; Joshi, Vishal; Menten, Karl M. (June 2021). "V838 Monocerotis as seen by ALMA: a remnant of a binary merger in a triple system". arXiv:2106.07427. Bibcode:2021arXiv210607427K. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  38. ^ Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Menten, Karl M.; Kamiński, Tomasz; Brunthaler, Andreas; Reid, Mark J.; Tylenda, Romuald (June 2020). "SiO maser astrometry of the red transient V838 Monocerotis". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 638: A17. arXiv:2004.01488. Bibcode:2020A&A...638A..17O. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037712. ISSN 0004-6361.
  39. ^ Kienzle, F.; Burki, G.; Burnet, M.; Meynet, G. (September 1998). "The pulsating yellow supergiant V810 Centauri". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 337: 779–789. arXiv:astro-ph/9807088. Bibcode:1998A&A...337..779K. ISSN 0004-6361.
  40. ^ Hofmann, K.-H.; Eberhardt, M.; Driebe, T.; Schertl, D.; Scholz, M.; Schoeller, M.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M.; Woodruff, H. C. (2005). "Interferometric observations of the Mira star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI instrument in the near-infrared". Proceedings of the 13th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars. 560: 651. Bibcode:2005ESASP.560..651H.
  41. ^ Ritchie, B. W.; Clark, J. S.; Negueruela, I.; Najarro, F. (December 2009). "Spectroscopic monitoring of the luminous blue variable Westerlund1-243 from 2002 to 2009". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 507: 1597–1611. arXiv:0910.0529. Bibcode:2009A&A...507.1597R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912986. ISSN 0004-6361.
  42. ^ a b Najarro, Francisco; Figer, Don F.; Hillier, D. John; Geballe, T. R.; Kudritzki, Rolf P. (February 2009). "Metallicity in the Galactic Center: The Quintuplet Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal. 691: 1816–1827. arXiv:0809.3185. Bibcode:2009ApJ...691.1816N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1816. ISSN 0004-637X.
  43. ^ Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Zavala, R. T.; Benson, James A.; Hutter, Donald J.; Tycner, Christopher; van Belle, Gerard T. (January 2018). "Fundamental Parameters of 87 Stars from the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer". The Astronomical Journal. 155: 30. arXiv:1712.08109. Bibcode:2018AJ....155...30B. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa9d8b. ISSN 0004-6256.
  44. ^ a b c d e van Belle, Gerard T.; von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R.; Pilyavsky, Genady; Buckingham, Ryan S.; Boden, Andrew F.; Clark, Catherine A.; Hartman, Zachary; van Belle, Gerald; Bucknew, William; Cole, Gary (July 2021). "Direct Measurements of Giant Star Effective Temperatures and Linear Radii: Calibration Against Spectral Types and V-K Color". arXiv:2107.09205. Bibcode:2021arXiv210709205V. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  45. ^ Ohnaka, Keiichi; Weigelt, Gerd; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz (September 2019). "Infrared Interferometric Three-dimensional Diagnosis of the Atmospheric Dynamics of the AGB Star R Dor with VLTI/AMBER". The Astrophysical Journal. 883: 89. arXiv:1908.06997. Bibcode:2019ApJ...883...89O. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3d2a. ISSN 0004-637X.
  46. ^ Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F.; Khosroshahi, Habib; Wasatonic, Rick (December 2013). "The Age and Mass of the α Herculis Triple-star System from a MESA Grid of Rotating Stars with 1.3". The Astronomical Journal. 146: 148. arXiv:1308.1632. Bibcode:2013AJ....146..148M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/6/148. ISSN 0004-6256.
  47. ^ Lamers, H. J. G. L. M. (February 6–10, 1995). "Observations and Interpretation of Luminous Blue Variables". Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 155, Astrophysical applications of stellar pulsation. Astrophysical Applications of Stellar Pulsation. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. 83. Cape Town, South Africa: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 176–191. Bibcode:1995ASPC...83..176L.
  48. ^ Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Hamann, W. -R.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ignace, R.; Todt, H.; Hainich, R. (August 2017). "On the Binary Nature of Massive Blue Hypergiants: High-resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy Suggests That Cyg OB2 12 is a Colliding Wind Binary". The Astrophysical Journal. 845: 39. arXiv:1707.04473. Bibcode:2017ApJ...845...39O. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7e79. ISSN 0004-637X.
  49. ^ Davis, J.; Booth, A. J.; Ireland, M. J.; Jacob, A. P.; North, J. R.; Owens, S. M.; Robertson, J. G.; Tango, W. J.; Tuthill, P. G. (October 2007). "The Emergent Flux and Effective Temperature of δ Canis Majoris". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia. 24: 151–158. arXiv:0709.3873. Bibcode:2007PASA...24..151D. doi:10.1071/AS07017. ISSN 1323-3580.
  50. ^ Stock, S.; Reffert, S.; Quirrenbach, A. (May 2018). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar parameters of 372 giant stars (Stock+, 2018)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog. 361 (33): 600. Bibcode:2018yCat..36160033S.
  51. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Harper, Graham M.; Bennett, Philip D.; Brown, Alexander; Mullan, Dermott J. (1999). "GHRS Observations of Cool, Low-Gravity Stars. V. The Outer Atmosphere and Wind of the Nearby K Supergiant λ Velorum". The Astrophysical Journal. 521 (1): 382–406. Bibcode:1999ApJ...521..382C. doi:10.1086/307520.
  52. ^ Schiller, F.; Przybilla, N. (March 2008). "Quantitative spectroscopy of Deneb". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 479: 849–858. arXiv:0712.0040. Bibcode:2008A&A...479..849S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078590. ISSN 0004-6361.
  53. ^ Monnier, J. D.; Che, Xiao; Zhao, Ming; Ekström, S.; Maestro, V.; Aufdenberg, Jason; Baron, F.; Georgy, C.; Kraus, S.; McAlister, H.; Pedretti, E. (December 2012). "Resolving Vega and the Inclination Controversy with CHARA/MIRC". The Astrophysical Journal. 761: L3. arXiv:1211.6055. Bibcode:2012ApJ...761L...3M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/761/1/L3. ISSN 0004-637X.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Britavskiy, N. E.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Herrero, A.; Cerviño, M.; García-Álvarez, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Masseron, T.; Mehner, A.; McQuinn, K. B. W. (November 2019). "Physical parameters of red supergiants in dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 631: A95. arXiv:1909.13378. Bibcode:2019A&A...631A..95B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935212. ISSN 0004-6361.
  55. ^ Petit, V.; Drissen, L.; Crowther, P. A. (September 2005). "Quantitative analysis of STIS spectra of NGC 2363-V1". 332: 159. Bibcode:2005ASPC..332..157P. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

See also

External links

  • Giant Stars An interactive website comparing the Earth and the Sun to some of the largest known stars
  • Three largest stars identified BBC News
  • What is the Biggest Star in the Universe? Universe Today