List of state and union territory capitals in India

Summary

India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 8 union territories.[1] All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[2] Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.

The legislatures of three states Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand meet in different capitals for their summer and winter sessions. Ladakh has both Leh and Kargil as its administrative capitals.

List

The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to administrative, legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located.

States
No. State Administrative / Executive capital Legislative capital Judicial capital Year of establishment Former capital
1 Andhra Pradesh Amaravati Amaravati Amaravati 2017 Hyderabad[a](1956–2017)
2 Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Itanagar Guwahati 1987  —
3 Assam Dispur Dispur Guwahati 1972 Shillong[b] (1950–1972)
4 Bihar Patna Patna Patna 1950  —
5 Chhattisgarh Raipur[c] Raipur Bilaspur 2000  —
6 Goa Panaji[d] Porvorim Mumbai 1987  —
7 Gujarat Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1970 Ahmedabad (1960–1970)
8 Haryana Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966  —
9 Himachal Pradesh Shimla Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[5]
Shimla 1971  —
10 Jharkhand Ranchi Ranchi Ranchi 2000  —
11 Karnataka Bangalore Bangalore (Summer)
Belgaum (Winter)
Bangalore 1956  —
12 Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Ernakulam 1956  —
13 Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Bhopal Jabalpur 1956  —
14 Maharashtra Mumbai[e] Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)
Mumbai 1960  —
15 Manipur Imphal Imphal Imphal 1972  —
16 Meghalaya Shillong Shillong Shillong 1972  —
17 Mizoram Aizawl Aizawl Guwahati 1987  —
18 Nagaland Kohima Kohima Guwahati 1963  —
19 Odisha Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Cuttack 1950
20 Punjab Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966  —
21 Rajasthan Jaipur Jaipur Jodhpur 1950  —
22 Sikkim Gangtok[f] Gangtok Gangtok 1975  —
23 Tamil Nadu Chennai[g] Chennai Chennai 1956  —
24 Telangana Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad 2014  —
25 Tripura Agartala Agartala Agartala 1972  —
26 Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Lucknow Prayagraj 1950  —
27 Uttarakhand Dehradun Bhararisain (summer)[7]
Dehradun (winter)
Nainital 2000  —
28 West Bengal Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata 1950  —
Union Territories
No. Union Territory Administrative / Executive

Capital

Legislative

Capital

Judicial Capital Year of establishment
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair Kolkata 1956
2 Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966
3 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Daman Mumbai 2020
4 Delhi New Delhi New Delhi New Delhi 1956
5 Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
2019
6 Ladakh Leh (summer)
Kargil (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
2019
7 Lakshadweep Kavaratti Ernakulam 1956
8 Puducherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Chennai 1951

Notes

  1. ^ Hyderabad is de jure joint capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana until 2024.
  2. ^ Shillong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1972.[3]
  3. ^ Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
  4. ^ Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.[4]
  5. ^ Mumbai (Bombay) was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
  6. ^ Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.[6]
  7. ^ Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.

Citations

  1. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir bifurcated: India has one less state, gets two new UTs in J&K, Ladakh". India Today. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  2. ^ Sharma 2007, p. 49.
  3. ^ Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
  4. ^ Ring 1996, p. 288.
  5. ^ "Dharamshala Declared Second Capital of Himachal". www.hillpost.in. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  6. ^ Spate 1953, p. 200.
  7. ^ "Bhararisain declared as summer capital of Uttarakhand". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 24 November 2021.

References

  • Baruah, Sanjib (1999). India Against Itself: Assam and the Politics of Nationality. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3491-6. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • Boland-Crewe, Tara; Lea, David, eds. (15 November 2002). The Territories and States of India. Europa. ISBN 978-1-85743-148-3. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • "Country Profile: India" (PDF), Library of Congress Country Studies (5th ed.), Library of Congress Federal Research Division, December 2004, retrieved 30 September 2011
  • Khandewale, Shrinivas Vishnu (1989). Industrial Area and Regional Resources: A Case Study of Nagpur Industrial Area. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-134-2. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • Mathew, George (1995). Status of Panchayati Raj in the States of India, 1994. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-553-9. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  • Kini, N. G. S. (1974). The City Voter in India: A Study of 1967 General Elections in Nagpur. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-0-88386-524-8. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • Kumāra, Braja Bihārī (1 January 1998). Small States Syndrome In India. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-691-8. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • Kippen, James (2006). Gurudev's Drumming Legacy: Music, Theory, and Nationalism in the Mr̥daṅg Aur Tablā Vādanpaddhati of Gurudev Patwardhan. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5424-7. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  • Menon, N. R. Madhava; Banerjea, D. (2002). Criminal Justice India Series: Haryana, 2002. Allied Publishers in collaboration with National University of Juridical Sciences. ISBN 978-81-7764-518-7. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  • "Post-Independence Era", History of Andhra Pradesh, Government of Andhra Pradesh, archived from the original on 20 December 2013, retrieved 4 August 2012
  • Ring, Trudy (1 January 1996). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad; Kumar, Kamlesh (2004). Uttaranchal: Dilemma Of Plenties And Scarcities. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-898-3. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  • Sharma, B. K. (August 2007). Introduction to the Constitution of India (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-81-203-3246-1.
  • Spate, Oskar Hermann Khristian (1953). The Changing Map Of Asia A Political Geography. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 15 August 2012.

External links

  • List of states in India