Military transport aircraft

Summary

A military transport aircraft, military cargo aircraft or airlifter is a military-owned transport aircraft used to support military operations by airlifting troops and military equipment. Transport aircraft are crucial to maintaining supply lines to forward bases that are difficult to reach by ground or waterborne access, and can be used for both strategic and tactical missions. They are also often used for civilian emergency relief missions by transporting humanitarian aid.

Airbus A400M Atlas transport aircraft of the Royal Air Force.

Air frames

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Fixed-wing

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A Douglas C-47 Skytrain, derived from the Douglas DC-3

Fixed-wing transport aeroplanes are defined in terms of their range capability as strategic airlift or tactical airlift to reflect the needs of the land forces which they most often support. These roughly correspond to the commercial flight length distinctions: Eurocontrol defines short-haul routes as shorter than 1,500 km (810 nmi), long-haul routes as longer than 4,000 km (2,200 nmi) and medium-haul between.[1]

The military glider is an unpowered tactical air transport which has been used in some campaigns to transport troops and/or equipment to the battle front.

Rotary wing

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Military transport helicopters are used in places where the use of conventional aircraft is impossible. For example, the military transport helicopter is the primary transport asset of US Marines deploying from LHDs and LHA. The landing possibilities of helicopters are almost unlimited, and where landing is impossible, for example densely packed jungle, the ability of the helicopter to hover allows troops to deploy by abseiling and roping.

Transport helicopters are operated in assault, medium and heavy classes. Air assault helicopters are usually the smallest of the transport types, and designed to move an infantry squad or section and their equipment. Helicopters in the assault role are generally armed for self-protection both in transit and for suppression of the landing zone. This armament may be in the form of door gunners, or the modification of the helicopter with stub wings and pylons to carry missiles and rocket pods. For example, the Sikorsky S-70, fitted with the ESSM (External Stores Support System), and the Hip E variant of the Mil Mi-8 can carry as much disposable armament as some dedicated attack helicopters.

Medium transport helicopters are generally capable of moving up to a platoon of infantry, or transporting towed artillery or light vehicles either internally or as underslung roles. Unlike the assault helicopter they are usually not expected to land directly in a contested landing zone, but are used to reinforce and resupply landing zones taken by the initial assault wave. Examples include the unarmed versions of the Mil Mi-8, Super Puma, CH-46 Sea Knight, and NH90.

Heavy lift helicopters are the largest and most capable of the transport types, currently limited in service to the CH-53 Sea Stallion and related CH-53E Super Stallion, CH-47 Chinook, Mil Mi-26, and Aérospatiale Super Frelon.[2] Capable of lifting up to 80 troops and moving small Armoured fighting vehicles (usually as slung loads but also internally), these helicopters operate in the tactical transport role in much the same way as small fixed wing turboprop air-lifters. The lower speed, range and increased fuel consumption of helicopters are offset by their not requiring a runway.

Payload comparison

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The Sikorsky CH-53K
 
A 1970s Ilyushin-Il-76 airlifter designed for both strategic and tactical military operations
Country Aircraft Payload t Max takeoff weight
kg (lb))
Cargo hold Length
m (ft)
Cargo hold Width
m (ft)
Cargo hold Height
m (ft)
Ferry Range (no payload)
km (nmi)
Range with max payload
km (nmi)
Range with specified payload
km (nmi)
Range with specified payload
km (nmi)
Soviet Union (Ukraine) Antonov An-225 (destroyed in Feb 2022 Russian invasion) 247 640,000 (1,410,000) 43.35 (142.2) 6.4 (21) 4.4 (14) 15,400 (8,300) 4,000 (2,200) (with 200000 kg payload)
Soviet Union (Ukraine) Antonov An-124 150 402,000 (886,000) 36 (118) 6.4 (21) 4.4 (14) 14,000 (7,600) 3,700 (2,000) 8,400 (4,500) (with 80000 kg payload) 11,500 (6,200) (with 40000 kg payload)
United States Lockheed C-5 Galaxy 129.274 381,018 (840,001) 37 (121) 5.8 (19) 4.1 (13) 13,000 (7,000) 4,260 (2,300) 8,900 (4,800) (payload 54431 kg)
Soviet Union (Ukraine) Antonov An-22[3] 80 250,000 (550,000) 32.7 (107) 4.44 (14.6) 4.44 (14.6) 5,000 (2,700) 10,950 (5,910) (with payload 45000 kg)
United States Boeing C-17[4] 77.5 265,352 (585,001) 26.83 (88.0) 5.49 (18.0) 3.76 (12.3) 11,540 (6,230) 4,482 (2,420) (with 71000 kg payload)
China Xi'an Y-20 66 220,000 (490,000) 20 (66) 4 (13) 4 (13) 7,800 (4,200)
Soviet Union (Uzbekistan) Ilyushin Il-76 60 190,000 (420,000) 24.54 (80.5) 3.45 (11.3) 3.4 (11) 9,300 (5,000) 4,400 (2,400) (with 52000 kg payload)
Europe Airbus A330 MRTT[5] 45 233,000 (514,000) 45 (148) 5.28 (17.3) 2.54 (8.3) 14,816 (8,000)
Europe Airbus A400M 37 141,000 (311,000) 17.71 (58.1) 4 (13) 3.85 (12.6)
rear section:4 (13)
8,900 (4,800) 3,300 (1,800) 4,500 (2,400) (with 30000 kg payload) 6,400 (3,500) (with 20000 kg payload)
Japan Kawasaki C-2 36 141,000 (311,000) 16 (52) 4 (13) 4 (13) 9,800 (5,300) 4,500 (2,400) 5,700 (3,100) (with 30000 kg payload) 7,600 (4,100) (with 20000 kg payload)
Brazil Embraer C-390 26 86,999 (191,800) 18.5 (61) 3.00 (9.84) 3.04 (10.0) 6,240 (3,370) 2,000 (1,100) 2,720 (1,470) (with 23000 kg payload) 5,020 (2,710) (with 14000 kg payload)
China Shaanxi Y-9[6] 23 65,000 (143,000) 16.2 (53) 3.2 (10) 2.35 (7.7) 5,800 (3,100)
Soviet Union Mil Mi-26[7] 20 56,000 (123,000) 12 (39) 3.3 (11) 2.9 (9.5) 800 (430)
United States Lockheed Martin C-130J[4] 19.8 70,370 (155,140) 12.5 (41) 3.05 (10.0) 2.75 (9.0) 3,334 (1,800) 3,300 (1,800) (with 15422 kg payload)
Ukraine Antonov An-178 16 (18 max) 51,000 (112,000) 13.21 (43.3) 2.73 (9.0) 2.73 (9.0) 5,500 (3,000)
United States Sikorsky CH-53K 15.876 39,916 (88,000) 9.14 (30.0) 2.46 (8.1) 2 (6.6) 1,851 (999)
Italy Alenia C-27J Spartan[8] 11.6 max 32,500 (71,700) 11.43 (37.5) 3.33 (10.9) 2.59 (8.5) 5,926 (3,200) 1,759 (950) 5,056 (2,730) (with 4536 kg payload)
United States Boeing CH-47 Chinook[9] 10.886 22,680 (50,000) 9.14 (30.0) 2.53 (8.3) 1.98 (6.5) 1,173 (633)
Spain CASA C295 7 (9.25 max) 23,200 (51,100) 12.69 (41.6) 2.7 (8.9) 1.9 (6.2) 5,000 (2,700) 1,555 (840) 4,587 (2,477) (with 2940 kg payload)

See also

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References

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  1. ^ "Study into the impact of the global economic crisis on airframe utilisation" (PDF). Eurocontrol. January 2011. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-06. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
  2. ^ "Articles Tagged: Transport Aircraft". Military.com. Retrieved 2023-11-20.
  3. ^ "Antonov An-22". Aerocorner. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Comparison of military transport aircraft". theaviationzone.com. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Airbus A330 MRTT". Aerocorner. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  6. ^ "Shaanxi Y-9". Military Today.
  7. ^ "Mi-26 HALO". Federations of American Scientists - Military Analysis Network. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  8. ^ "C-27J Capabilities and Cost Analysis Report" (PDF). wildfiretoday. Convergent Performance, LLC. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  9. ^ "CH-47 Chinook". helis.com. Retrieved 3 November 2021.

Further reading

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  • Richard Aboulafia (Jun 7, 2018). "Opinion: Why Military Transports Are Less Popular Than You'd Expect". Aviation Week & Space Technology.