NHIndustries NH90

Summary

The NHIndustries NH90 is a European medium-sized, twin-engine, multirole military helicopter. It was the first production helicopter to feature entirely fly-by-wire flight controls.[3]

NH90
A French Navy NH90
Role Medium utility military helicopter
National origin Multinational
Manufacturer NHIndustries
First flight 18 December 1995
Introduction 2007[1]
Status In service
Primary users Italian Armed Forces
Bundeswehr (Germany)
French Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Produced 1995–present
Number built 515 as of March 2024[2]
Variants MRH-90 Taipan

The NH90 was developed in response to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) requirements for a battlefield helicopter which would also be capable of being operated in naval environments. It was developed and is manufactured by NHIndustries, a collaborative company owned by Airbus Helicopters (formally Eurocopter) and Leonardo (formerly AgustaWestland) and Fokker Aerostructures. The first prototype conducted its maiden flight in December 1995; the type first entered operational service in 2007. As of June 2022, the NH90 logged 327,053 flight hours in the armed forces of thirteen countries.[4] It is an advanced but high maintenance military helicopter employed by a dozen countries in two major versions. It has a Naval version that can land on ships and is used for sea rescue and submarine warfare, and an Army version that has been used for transporting cargo, people, medivac, and special operations.

The NH90 has two main variants: the Tactical Transport Helicopter (TTH) for army use and the navalised NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH); each customer typically has various alterations and customizations made to their own NH90 fleets, such as different weapons, sensors, and cabin arrangements, to meet their own specific requirements. In addition, local construction of airframes was accommodated in many cases, giving participants in the program a chance to develop experience in construction. However, despite many advanced features, there have been a series of complaints about the overall experience, including delays in delivery, high maintenance, software issues, and durability, leading to the early retirement of some fleets. Nevertheless, it has served in increasing numbers and roles in the 2010s, taking on naval search and rescue, ASW, troop transport, special operations, various resupply and disaster relief, and medical evacuation. In several cases, NH90 variants can be quite specialized towards a certain role.

Since its introduction into service, the NH90 has suffered several technical issues, which have delayed active deployment of the type by some operators. It is a key next-generation helicopter for many NATO countries: some have opted to stick with the type while others have chosen to discontinue operations. In 2022, Norway terminated the program and demanded a full refund. Australia withdrew the type in 2023, well ahead of the planned retirement date of 2037. Currently, a dozen other countries continue on with the NH90, while additional orders and improvements equate to ongoing and widespread use of the type. Efforts are ongoing to increase roles, upgrades, and increase the service life and ease of maintenance. As of 2023, the NH90 is in service with 12 nations.[5][6][7]

Development edit

Origins edit

 
NH90 prototype in 2004

In 1985, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom teamed to develop a NATO battlefield transport and anti-ship/anti-submarine helicopter for the 1990s. The United Kingdom left the team in 1987.[8] On 1 September 1992, NHIndustries signed an NH90 design-and-development contract with NAHEMA (NATO Helicopter Management Agency).[9] This agency represented the four participating states: France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. Portugal later joined the agency in June 2001. Design work on the helicopter started in 1993.[10] The first prototype, PT1, made the type's first flight on 18 December 1995.[8][10] The second prototype, PT2, first flew on 19 March 1997 and the third prototype, PT3, on 27 November 1998.[10] On 12 December 2002, PT3 became the first helicopter to fly exclusively with fly-by-wire controls after the removal of mechanical back-up controls.[11]

The NH90 was developed into two main variants: the Tactical Transport Helicopter (TTH) and the NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH).[8] These two main variants share about 75% commonality with each other.[12] Many of the operators have requested specific configurations to their own helicopter fleets, thus each country's NH90 is effectively customized to the end-user's requirements. During the development phase of the programme in the 1990s, both technical and funding problems were experienced.[13] In June 2000, the partner states placed a large production order, worth US$8.6 billion, for a total of 366 helicopters.[8][14] Additional orders have since followed from customers in Europe, Asia, and Australia. By April 2013, a total of 529 NH90s of all variants were on order by various customers.[15] As of early 2023, there were 597 on order, and the 500th airframe was delivered at that time.[16]

Production edit

 
In progress NH90 production model over Brisbane, 2009

The NH90 was initially intended to be produced at three exporting final assembly lines (FAL): Cascina Costa in Italy for AgustaWestland, Marignane in France and Donauwörth in Germany for Airbus Helicopters. The Nordic and Australian contracts stipulated production locally (the Nordic ones at Patria in Finland and the Australian ones in Brisbane). Spain has a final assembly line at Albacete.[17][18] The Marignane assembly line can reportedly complete up to 22 NH90s per year.[12]

Major components are produced by each of the shareholding companies:

  • Airbus Helicopters France 31.25% (Engines, rotors, electrical system, flight control, and the core avionics systems)
  • Airbus Helicopters Deutschland 31.25% (Forward and center fuselage, fuel system, communications, and avionics control systems)
  • Fokker 5.5% (Tail structure, doors, sponsons, landing gear, and the intermediate gearbox)
  • AgustaWestland 32% (Rear fuselage, main gearbox, hydraulic system, automatic flight control and plant management systems, power plant, and the NFH mission system)

Items built by the shareholding companies are then distributed to the six locations for assembly and flight test (Marignane, France; Tessera, Italy; Donauwörth, Germany; Halli, Finland; and Brisbane, Australia).[19]

 
The glass cockpit of an NH90

In late 2006, the German Army, the first customer to receive production aircraft, accepted delivery of its first NH90 TTH.[20] In April 2010, the Royal Netherlands Navy was the first customer to receive the navalised NH90 NFH variant.[21] In June 2014, the consortium announced that it had completed delivery of the 200th NH90; at that point, the backlog of orders was reported as reaching out to 2020.[22] In order to alleviate delays and reduce the complexity of manufacturing a large number of NH90 variants, NHIndustries proposed the adoption of a simplified baseline airframe which could be configured to the individual customer's requirements.[22] Between 2004 and 2016, the production lead times for the NH90 had reduced from 18 months to 7.5 months.[23]

In 2014, worldwide production of the NH90 peaked at 53 helicopters per year.[23] In October 2015, the delivery of the 250th NH90 was formally accepted by the Italian Army.[24] In 2015, the rate of NH90 production declined, reportedly due to countries choosing to delay their orders and some contracts having been fulfilled; in 2016, the Finnish final assembly line became the first to close with its orders completed.[23] In 2023, the 500th NH90 was delivered to the French Army, from the Marignane facility.[16]

Although no US order has been taken, it has been noted that the NH90 could be produced at Airbus' facility in Mississippi, US. Although a civilian version has not been produced, the NH90 was designed from the start to potentially meet FAA certification requirements; it has been speculated that the high-cabin variant already in production would be typical of passenger rotorcraft. If produced, it would fit between the AS365 Dauphin and the AS322 Super Puma in Airbus' product line.[25] NHI studied making a civilian version of the NH90 in 2004.[26]

As of March 2024, 515 airframes had been delivered, including 24 different variants used by 14 countries.[2]

Performance concerns edit

In 2010, German tabloid Bild reported that German Army experts had concerns that the helicopter was not yet ready for the transportation of combat troops. They stated that the seats were rated for only 110 kg (240 lb), not considered enough for a fully equipped soldier. Heavy infantry weapons could not be adequately secured and the cabin floor was prone to damage, citing an anecdote of damage caused by footwear. The helicopter could only land on firm ground, with obstacles not exceeding 16 cm (6.3 in). Troops carrying full equipment could not use the rear ramp due to weight-limitations placed on it. Adding a door machine gun was not possible due to space taken by troop ingress and egress; there was also no provision for fast roping or paratrooper equipment.[27] In response, the German Defense Ministry proclaimed that this article referred to a prototype, not to the production model; the specifications for which were not even finalised at the time. The prototype evaluation and its results were described as a normal procedure in an ongoing design process.[28]

In November 2011, the MRH-90 program was placed on the Australian Department of Defence's "Projects of Concern" list.[29] The most serious problem identified by a diagnostic review, which caused a brief grounding in 2010,[30] is compressor blade rubbing caused by the bending of a spool in the Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 engine due to uneven cooling after shutdown. Other problems identified include failure of transmission oil cooler fans, windscreen cracking, an inertial navigation system that is slow to align, and the weakness of the cabin floor to withstand the impact of soldiers' boots – a problem also encountered in German service.[31]

In March 2014, it was announced that a Dutch NH90 had suffered higher than expected fuselage wear and corrosion following an extended deployment at sea; analysis by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory attributed the corrosion to design and assembly flaws. However, the fleet was not grounded. In response, NHIndustries launched a corrosion prevention programme and enacted several design modifications.[32] In December 2014, Dutch NH90 deliveries, which had been temporarily halted earlier in the year, restarted after the majority of identified points were addressed and an agreement was made by the manufacturer to bear the cost of developing modifications, repairs, and preventive measures against corrosion.[33]

Operational costs edit

 
Dutch NH90 NFH coming in for a landing on a ship in 2016

Ron Mark, New Zealand First Deputy Leader and Spokesperson for Defence put out a press release in 2017 criticising the NH90's cost, citing the statistics of 2015: "The NH90s cost $1,182 an hour to fly and that is 2.5 times more expensive than the Iroquois they replaced. They're also unreliable, chewing through $3.3 million worth of spares in just two years."[34]

The operating cost of a NH90 HCV (High Cabin Version) was reported in Swedish media during 2018 as at least 200,000 SEK (later specified as 242,000 SEK in the McKinnley report, ordered by the Swedish defence ministry) per hour flown, or about US$28,000. In contrast, the Hkp 16, MH-60 Blackhawks in Swedish service had a cost of 40,000 SEK per hour, something that sparked a heated debate not least since it was revealed that the defence minister had demanded that the purchase had to be a joint procurement with the other Nordic countries which in turn excluded all other contenders.[35][36][37] (see Nordic Standard Helicopter Program) Debate among defence bloggers commenced when it was revealed that much of these costs was the result of the accounting practices forced upon the Swedish defence forces; the purchase cost and annual services had been factored in, meaning that the cost per hour increases the less flight time per year the fleet gets.[38] In this debate, it was also pointed out that the Finnish defence had budgeted CPFH to €15,900 in 2017, which the year after had been lowered to €10,000.[39]

In 2020, the Belgian ministry of defence announced a 40% cut to the NH90's annual flight time, stating that, while the Westland Sea Kings retired in 2019 had a cost per flight hour of around €5,000, the NH-90 was more than double that at €12,000. per hour. Additionally, the reliability was impacted by a lack of service personnel to keep the fleet flightworthy.[40]

The Australian Parliament released their report "MRH-90 Taipan helicopter: a quick guide" in 2021, detailing problems with the NH90 since 2005 and why they will be replaced. There the CPFH is listed as "the helicopter's estimated operating costs were $30,000 to $40,000 per hour, which is 'higher than those combat aircraft with sophisticated weapons and sensor systems' (p. 72). More recently, the cost has increased to $50,000 per hour."[41]

Axel Aloccio, head of NHI since mid-September 2022, believes that most problems stem from the teething issues of a new system that take a few years of service to find and correct, and that most are either solved or will be addressed with the transformation plan called "New Horizon" that Aloccio's predecessor, Nathalie Tarnaud Laude, launched. This program of system-wide changes had the aim of 50-60% average global fleet availability by the end of 2022 through better spare part availability and localisation of overhaul services. It also seeks to lower operating costs, the time between maintenance inspections and overhaul for dynamic components have both been raised by 50% in order to keep them synchronized, from 600/1200 flight hours to 900/1800 hours respectively.[42][43] The Australian fleet retirement is being dismantled for spare parts, which it is hoped will increase the supply of spare parts for other users.[2]

Design edit

 
Italian Navy NH90 NFH in flight, 2012
 
NH90 interior seating (Finnish TTH)
 
Swedish Army HCV version, with a higher cabin height
 
HENSOLDT SferiSense 500 on an NH90

The NH90 was designed to fulfill a NATO staff requirement for a multi-role, medium-sized military helicopter for both land and maritime operations.[44] According to Flight International, the NH90 has the distinction of being the first helicopter in the world to be developed in line with NATO requirements.[45] As such, the design of the NH90 meets with multiple national and international standards, including military airworthiness processes in Germany, France, Italy, and the Netherlands; conformance with FAR 29 and MIL-STDS design standards, as well as DEF-STN 00-970 icing conditions performance and electro-magnetic compatibility.[44] It is produced in two principal variants, the battlefield Tactical Transport Helicopter (TTH) and the maritime NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH).[46]

One key innovation of the rotorcraft is the four-channel fly-by-wire control system employed; the NH90 is the first helicopter in the world to be equipped with full fly-by-wire flight controls.[3][45] A four-axis autopilot is also integrated with the fly-by-wire system, as are mission and navigation systems, to enable greater autonomy during operations and reduce pilot workload.[47] The flight envelope of the NH90 is capable of all-weather day-and-night operations, ship-borne operations during high sea states, across a temperature range from −40 °C to +50 °C, and up to a maximum altitude of 20,000 feet.[44] Power is provided by a pair of turboshaft engines, dependent on customer selection, the NH90 is either fitted with Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 or General Electric CT7-8F powerplants; exhaust gases from the engines are filtered through an infrared suppression system for decreased sensory visibility.[46][48] The NH90 has three gearboxes including the Main Gearbox (MGB), Intermediate Gearbox (IGB), and a Tail Rotor Gearbox (TGB).

According to Airbus Helicopters, the NH90 possesses the lowest radar signature in its class, principally due to its diamond-shaped composite fuselage.[47]

The NH90 features an advanced composite airframe, designed for ballistic tolerance, a high level of crashworthiness, lower weight, and 30 per cent greater endurance than a metallic counterpart.[47] The four main rotor blades are also composed of composite materials, increasing fatigue strength and lifespan while providing greater damage tolerance.[47] The unobstructed main cabin area is entered either by large sliding doors on either side of the fuselage or via a rear ramp. The cabin is designed to accommodate modular equipment packages to enable the rotorcraft to be rapidly reconfigured, providing for operational flexibility.[46][47] In a troop-transport capacity, the cabin can accommodate up to 20 fully equipped soldiers, or up to 12 stretchers in a medical evacuation role, some light vehicles may also be transported; the main cabin is equipped with environmental control systems and sound proofing measures to improve passenger conditions.[46][47]

The NH90 can be equipped with various mission-specific systems, including modular armor plating around the cabin area for undertaking high-risk missions and an ice protection system for operations within cold climates. It can also make use of the Helicopter In-Flight Refuelling System (HIFR) as well as additional internal and external fuel tanks to conduct extended range missions.[46] Other equipment includes a wire strike protection system, rappelling system, hoist, cargo hook, search light and various seating options, including crashworthy foldable seats.[46] For performing maritime operations, such tasked NH90s are typically equipped with the Harpoon deck-locking system, automatic main rotor blade and tail folding mechanisms, and other deck handling systems to conduct all-weather ship-borne operations;[46] it is also typically outfitted with dipping sonar and sonobuoy processing equipment.[22] The NH90 is equipped with emergency floats, which deploy in case of a water landing and are designed to give personnel enough time to exit the helicopter before it sinks.[49][50]

 
NH90 inside a C-17 for transport, 2020

The NH90 features a range of customizable avionics systems, dependent on customer selection and purpose. On some models, French firm Thales Group provides various parts of the avionics, such as the glass cockpit, full-colour multifunction displays, tactical mission and encrypted communication systems, the TopOwl helmet-mounted sight/display, IFF and autonomous navigation systems, and the electrical power generation system.[46][51] Other systems include a forward looking infrared (FLIR), weather radar, digital map generation system, enhanced ground proximity warning system, personal locator system, and VHF/UHF/HF tactical radios.[46] In 2015, the NH90 became the first helicopter to receive a laser-based airborne collision avoidance system.[52] Onboard mission systems feature a dual-redundant databus, are compliant with MIL-STD 1553, and are comprehensively managed via sensor fusion functionality.[44][46] Customer demand for future avionics improvements such as new data links and communication systems, as well as additional electro-optical sensors, has been anticipated by the manufacturer.[22]

NHI's long-term plan for the NH90 had reportedly included service life extensions, avionics upgrades, and possibly adding heavier armament for the army versions, such as rockets or guided missiles.[53] In 2020, an upgraded TFRA2 Special Operations version was announced, featuring numerous specialized modifications on the TTH, including extra fuel tanks, twin gun mounts, fast roping from the removable rear door, Helmet Mounted Sight Digital Display, and various enhanced or extra visual sensors with displays for increased situational awareness.[54]

Operational history edit

Australia edit

 
Australian Army NH90
 
A Royal Australian Navy MRH-90 in 2015

In 2004, Australia announced it would order 12 NH90s to supplement its Army's aging S-70A Black Hawk helicopters.[55] In June 2006, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) announced plans to replace its UH-60 Black Hawk and Westland Sea King helicopters;[56] a further 34 NH90s were ordered for a total of 46; four were manufactured in Europe while 42 being manufactured locally by Australian Aerospace (an Airbus Helicopters subsidiary) in Brisbane.[57] Its ADF designation and name "MRH-90 Taipan" refers to its use as a "Multi Role Helicopter" and refers to a native species of snake.[58][59][60] The first MRH-90 entered service in December 2007 with the Army.[61] Six MRH-90s would be operated by 808 Squadron of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), which was reformed in 2011 and recommissioned in 2013.[60][62][63] Overall, there were 46 airframes in service, with a 47th kept as a spare.[64]

On 20 April 2010, a MRH-90 suffered a single engine failure near Adelaide, landing safely at RAAF Base Edinburgh. NHIndustries personnel investigated the cause.[65] On 18 May, the ADF announced that the MRH-90 fleet was grounded due to engine issues since the April incident.[66] All MRH-90s used the Rolls-Royce Turbemeca RTM322.[67] The cause of the failure was determined as the compressor blade contacting the engine casing, leading to new preventative inspections; flights resumed in July 2010.[68]

In July 2014, the Australian National Audit Office released a report on the MRH-90, citing procurement errors and development deficiencies delaying final operational capability (FOC), originally set for that month, until April 2019, nearly five years later than planned. NH90s first delivered in 2007 had not yet validated any of the 11 set operational capability milestones, and forced redesigns included bolstered cabin floors and windscreens, rappelling hooks, and door gunner positions; obtaining spare parts and fleet sustainment had also been more costly. The Australian Army was forced to operate its aging S-70A Black Hawks beyond its planned retirement date.[69] Due to the delays, Australia received an additional helicopter for a total of 47.[70] By September 2015, most flaws had reportedly been addressed.[71]

In 2015, the Australian Army decided to delay retiring 20 Black Hawks by four years until the end of 2021 in order to develop a special operations capable MRH-90.[72][73] This required developing a Fast Roping and Rappelling Extraction System (FRRES) and a gun mount for the cabin door.[72][73] The Taipan Gun Mount can fit either a M134D minigun or MAG 58 machine gun and when not in use, can be moved into an outward stowed position to provide clearance to enable fast roping and rappelling.[74][75] In February 2019, the first two of 12 MRH-90s were delivered to the 6th Aviation Regiment.[76][73] In June 2021, all MRH-90s were temporarily grounded due to lack of maintenance and spare parts which had to be shipped from Europe.[77]

In December 2021, on the same day the older generation of Black Hawks was retired, the Australian Government announced plans to replace the Army's MRH-90 fleet with new UH-60M Black Hawks;[78][79] their retirement date was moved to 2024.[80] In April 2022, the RAN ceased flying their MRH-90s and stored them.[81][82] In May 2022, the government announced that the RAN's six MRH-90s would be replaced with more MH-60R Seahawks;[83][84] it already operated 24 Seahawks, delivered between 2013 and 2016, alongside the MRH-90.[85]

In March 2023, an Army MRH-90 carrying 10 personnel appeared to malfunction mid-flight while hovering over a Jervis Bay beach at night amid a training exercise, leading to a controlled ditch into the water. All ten personnel survived and the helicopter was towed onto a nearby beach.[86] Following the incident, all MRH-90s were grounded pending an investigation.[86] Early indications pointed to a missing flight software update.[87][88][89] The MRH-90 returned to service on 6 April 2023.[89] In July 2023, another MRH-90 crashed at night during Exercise Talisman Sabre off the coast of Hamilton Island, Queensland, resulting in four missing crew members.[90][91] By early August, the cockpit and human remains were found in a debris field in 40 meters of water, consistent with a catastrophic impact.[89] On 8 August 2023, divers recovered the flight data recorder.[92]

On 29 September 2023, the Australian Government announced that the MRH-90 will not return to ADF service, bringing forward the previously planned retirement date of December 2024.[93][94] Officials stated the early retirement was not meant to preempt the outcome of the crash investigation, which was still ongoing; the fleet has been grounded since the July 2023 crash.[5] At the time of its grounding, there were 38 MRH-90s in service.[95] Australia filled service gaps created by the grounding, operational pauses, and early retirement by extending the older S-70A's service life, by buying additional Chinook helicopters as a stop gap, leasing six AW139, as well as the urgent procurement of a replacement helicopter. The ADF invested about $3.5 billion over two decades in the program.[80] In August 2022, Australia approved the purchase of 40 UH-60M Blackhawks to replace the MRH-90.[96][97]

Belgium edit

 
Belgian NH90 with two people on the winch, 2015

In 2007, Belgium signed on for a firm order of 8 aircraft (4 TTH, 4 NFH) and an option for 2 additional TTH.[98] In September 2012, NHI performed the first flight of the Belgium's Tactical Transport Helicopter (TTH), which is broadly similar to the French NH90 "Caiman" version.[99] In January 2013, eight NH90s were on firm order.[100] On 1 August 2013, Belgium received its first NH90 NFH at Full Operational Capability (FOC).[101] On 23 October 2013, Belgium's first NH90 TTH entered service, the last was delivered on 13 November 2014. From first delivery until the last, three NH90s flew 34 hours a month for a total of 450 flight hours with a 67 percent availability rate, making Belgium one of the type's most intensive users. Two NH90 NFHs for the navy were delivered, the final two were delivered by early 2015 to replace their Westland Sea King helicopters for Search and Rescue operations.[102]

On 21 August 2015, the Belgian Navy declared its NH90s had attained initial operational readiness;[103] on 28 August 2015, the first rescue mission performed by a Belgian Navy NH90 took place.[104]

In June 2020, the Strategic Defence Review (STAR) of Belgium planned to phase out the 4 TTH helicopters by 2024 due to their high operating costs and low availability. They are planned to be replaced, along with the Agusta A109, by 15 Airbus H145M helicopters. The 4 NFH variants are to remain operational and be provided with currently-lacking sensors and weapons for ASW.[105][106] There was discussion in 2023 to sell the 4 TTH and buy one more NFH; together with the acquisition of new helicopters the NFH will no longer be tasked with SAR missions.[107] Belgium is expanding its defense budget and naval capabilities in the 2030s, and naval NH90s are planned to be upgraded and to operate from in-service frigates. In addition, Belgium is buying a NH90 mission flight trainer in partnership with the Netherlands.[108]

Finland edit

 
Finnish Defence Forces NH90 in Turku, Finland in May 2012

In October 2001, Finland signed a contract for 20 NH90 TTHs for the Finnish Army to replace its ageing fleet of Mil Mi-8 helicopters.[109] This decision was done a group as part of the Nordic Standard Helicopter program along with Sweden and Norway.[110] In March 2008, NHIndustries began NH90 deliveries to Finland;[111] deliveries had been delayed from an initial 2004 date, to minimize further delay, aircraft were first delivered to an Initial Operational Configuration (IOC-) and Nearly Operational Configuration (IOC+), to be later modified by Patria into a Final Operational Configuration (FOC).[112][113] In September 2011, the Finnish Defence Forces and Patria signed an agreement to provide ballistic protection for onboard personnel across the NH90 fleet.[114]

In June 2011, nine Finnish NH90s participated in the Finnish Defense Forces' main field exercise, transporting 157 soldiers across 320 kilometers in two rotations; their performance was described as having exceeded expectations.[115] In January 2015, it was reported that Finnish NH90s had been experiencing considerable reliability issues, at one time in 2014 fleet availability dipped to 19%, and some spare parts had up to seven months waiting time.[116] By early 2015, the combined NH90s fleet had accumulated a total of 7,000 flight hours, and had an availability rate of 40%.[117] On 18 June 2015, delivery of the final Finnish NH90 took place.[118] In November 2015, the availability rate was reported as having surpassed 50 percent.[119] All were in Final Operational Configuration (FOC) in 2018.[citation needed]

France edit

 
French Army NH90, 2014

The French government had initially ordered a total of 34 NH90 TTHs for the French Army Light Aviation and 27 NFH for the Navy.[120] Both versions will be named "Caïman" and final assembly will be carried out by Airbus Helicopters.[100][121] Early on, the French Army stated its intention to buy 68 NH90 in two separate contracts.[15] Under the "Bonn rebate" deal, France received a 12% discount on its 68 Army NH90ss; a November 2012 Senate report put the French TTH unit price at €28.6M after discount, set on the assumption of total orders of 605 aircraft by 2020. Cuts to France's order would have led to workshare reallocation; possibly including French Navy NFH90s being assembled in Italy and Fokker performing maintenance of French TTHs.[15] On 29 May 2013, France formally ordered the second batch of 34 NH90 TTHs for just under €1 billion.[122] In January 2016, France placed an order for six additional NH90 TTHs.[123]

 
French NFH (naval version), 2018

The French Army took delivery of its first NH90 TTH in December 2011.[124] Just one week after entering service, a French NH90 rescued 19 people from supply ship TK Bremen at night.[125] On 21 December 2012, the French Navy received its first NH90 NFH in final operating capability.[126] In December 2010, the NH90 formally achieved in-service status with the French Navy, being initially used to perform search and rescue and maritime counter-terrorism operations. The first seven NH90s were delivered to an interim "Step A" configuration; later deliveries were to the "Step B" standard and produced at a rate of two per year until 2020.[12] For the ASW role in French service, it is equipped with dipping sonar, acoustic buoys and MU90 torpedoes.[127] The French Navy formally cleared the type to perform ASW duties in 2012, clearance to perform ASW missions followed in 2013, allowing the NH90 to take over missions previously performed by the Westland Lynx and Aérospatiale Super Frelon rotorcraft fleets.[12] On 3 November 2014, the French Army Light Aviation deployed two of its NH90s to Mali; both helicopters had been fitted with three additional fuel tanks to fly the four-day ferry flight to the region.[128]

In October 2020, France signed a contract to develop the TFRA Standard 2 configuration for the French Army's special forces using the final batch of 10 NH90 TTH already ordered.[129] A design study for the new configuration began 18 months earlier in cooperation with Belgium and Australia.[130][131] The first phase featured a Safran EuroFLIR 410 electro-optical system (EOS), external 500 kg (1,100 lb) fuel tanks and a digital 3D map.[129] The cabin was outfitted with a central rappelling and extraction device, gun mounts for M3M .50 caliber machine guns and foldable step.[129] The rear ramp has a quick removable leaf doors system, fast-rope beam, fold-able step and various improvements made to enable the door's use mid-flight.[129][130] Future gear, such as the Safran Eurofl'Eye distributed aperture system (DAS) and Thales TopOwl helmet-mounted display, may be integrated in a second phase with electrical and mechanical provisions made for their installation.[129][130] The first five are to be delivered in 2025 and the last five in 2026 to the 4th Special Forces Helicopter Regiment.[130]

In 2021, French NH90s rescued six people (and one stranded rescuer) from a capsized yacht in an offshore civilian sea rescue, in extreme sea and wind conditions at the edge of its flight envelope.[132] The weather was so extreme the first rescuer was stranded when the winch line snapped, but the rescuer along with the boaters, who were in a life raft were able to be retrieved by an additional NH90.[132] At the end of 2022, the French Navy finally retired its last Alouette III helicopters which had been in service for 60 years, and was on the training helicopters before pilots moved onto the NH90, along with Dauphin.[133][134]

Germany edit

 
German Army NH90 at the ILA Berlin Air Show 2016
 
The lowered rear cargo ramp of a German Army NH90

The German Army procured the troop transport variant; the first three serial production NH90s were delivered to the army in December 2006.[135] By January 2013, a total of 80 aircraft were on order for the army.[100] In 2009, the German Navy was also considering the procurement of up to 30 NFH for its new Maritime Helicopter.[136] In March 2013, the German government chose to reorganise the NH90 procurement; the Army's fleet of 122 NH90s was reduced to 82; 18 NH90s previously ordered for the army were converted to the NFH maritime variant for the navy instead.[137] On 26 June 2013, the German defense committee declared that the order for a combined 202 NH90 and Tiger helicopters was to be reduced to 157.[138] In December 2014, Germany announced that, in addition to the 80 troop transports firmly on order, it was considering an option for an additional 22 NH90s; it was investigating the possibility of setting up a multinational helicopter unit to operate these 22 NH90s as a shared NATO resource with other countries using and contributing to the force.[139][140]

In July 2012, Germany's NH90 fleet reached a combined total of 5,000 flight hours.[141] In April 2013, up to 4 German Army NH90 TTHs were deployed in Afghanistan in a Forward Air Medical Evacuation role in support of coalition forces operating in the country.[142] On 23 June 2013, German Army NH90s were declared operationally capable of medical evacuation operations.[143] Following an engine failure and controlled crash in Uzbekistan in July 2014, the army temporarily grounded the type for investigation.[144] In December 2015, it was announced that production of the German Navy's variant of the NH90 NFH, named Sea Lion, had commenced; a refit of the German Army's TTH variant was also underway at the same time.[145] Since late 2014, Germany has promoted the creation of a multinational NH90 force for combat MEDEVAC missions; the taskforce would comprise up to 20 NH90s.[146]

The Navy's version, known as the NH90 Sea Lion, is based on the NH90 NFH. It first flew on 8 December 2016.[147][148] The 18 NH90 Sea Lions are equipped with improved navigation and communications equipment, permitting operation within civil airspace, along with additional sensors for military missions. The IFF system was also updated. Designed to replace Germany's Westland Sea Kings in the SAR and Vertrep roles, the Sea Lion was to enter service with the German Navy by the second quarter of 2019.[149] The first NFH Sea Lion was accepted in October 2019.[150] On 26 November 2019, the German Navy stated that the NH90 was not operational yet due to deficiencies in technical documentation not allowing safe operations.[151] The NFH Sea Lion entered service in June 2020.[152] By February 2023, 18 Sea Lion had been delivered.[153]

On 20 November 2020, the Bundestag approved the purchase of 31 more helicopters for the navy to replace their 22 Sea Lynx Mk88A helicopters via a deal valued at €2.7 billion, including spares, accessories, and training material.[154] This version, called the Sea Tiger, is designed for ASW and ship warfare (and can also do SAR), and operates in conjunction with German Navy Frigates.[150] The Sea Tiger variant is similar to the French NFH Caiman version, it is planned to enter service starting in 2025.[153] The first flight of the Sea Tiger was in late November 2023.[155]

Greece edit

In August 2003, Greece ordered 20 NH90s with an option for 14 more.[156] In early 2013, the German newspaper Bild alleged that Airbus officials paid €41 million in bribes to Greek officials to secure the order; Airbus stated that the claim was "groundless".[157] On 12 December it was stated that deliveries would start again after an embargo by the Hellenic Government, with 4 helicopters being of the SPECOPS specification.

By early 2017, 12 NH90s had been delivered and are in service, with eight aircraft yet to be delivered.[158][159] By December 2023, there was 16 NH90 in service, which operated alongside around 60 older UH-1H (AB-205) as multirole helicopters; at this time it was announced the UH-60 was selected to replace both these older types.[160]

Italy edit

 
An Italian Army NH90 landing at Farah Air Base, Afghanistan, 2019
 
Italian NH90 in 2023

In June 2000, Italy signed an initial contract for a batch of 60 TTH (Tactical Transport Helicopter) for the Italian Army, along with a further 46 NFH (NATO Frigate Helicopter) and 10 TTH for the Italian Navy.[161] On 30 December 2007, the first NH90 TTH was formally handed over to the Italian Army.[162] On 23 June 2011, the navy received its first NH90, which was delivered to an interim MOC (Meaningful Operational Capability) standard, capable of performing training, search and rescue, and utility operations; anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare capabilities were not initially available until aircraft are retrofitted to a FOC (Final Operational Capability) standard.[163] In May 2013, the Italian Army took delivery of the first NH90 TTH of a FOC standard;[164] in November 2013, the Italian Navy took delivery of its first FOC-standard NH90 NFH.[165] The Italian NH90 fleet uses the GE T700-T6E1 turbine engine.[166] Italian NH90s are used for the following tasks tactical troop transport according NHI as reported by HeliHub news: logistics support, special operations, cargo resupply and hoisting, medical evacuations, light vehicle transport, disaster relief, and emergency response operations.[167]

In 2012, Italy deployed a total of 5 Army NH90 TTHs to support troops participating in the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.[168] The NH90s, which were air-transported individually by allied Boeing C-17 Globemaster III cargo aircraft, replaced six Agusta/Bell 205s in performing tactical transport and medevac operations; Army Aviation Commander Gen. Enzo Stefanini stated that "…in Afghan conditions, the NH90 is delivering performance 15 percent above what was envisaged".[169] In December 2022, Italy received its 60th and final TTH (Transport version) from the Venice Tessera facility which opened in 2010 and delivered its first aircraft in 2011.[167]

In October 2023, the Italian Navy received its 56th and final NH90; that same month, the service also reportedly attained a cumulative 35,000 flights hours across its fleet.[170]

Netherlands edit

 
A NH90 NFH from Royal Netherlands Navy

The Netherlands, one of the original supporters of the programme, ordered a total of 20 units, comprising 12 NFH and 8 TNFH for the Royal Netherlands Navy,[171][100][172][173] In 2010, the Royal Netherlands Navy became the first customer to receive the NFH variant.[174]

In 2009, concerns surfaced that design changes had made the NH90 too heavy to operate from Dutch frigates for which they were ordered.[175] In June 2014, the Dutch government decided not to accept the last batch of 7 NH90s due to some 100 shortcomings found in relation to the design, manufacture, and material choice of the rotorcraft, in particular corrosion in the presence of salt water.[176][177] In December 2014, deliveries restarted after the Dutch government came to an agreement with NHI, under which modifications and necessary repairs against corrosion would be made at the manufacturer's cost; 75 of the 100 shortcomings were also reported as having been solved.[33][178]

In April 2013, the navy deployed the type onboard HNLMS De Ruyter to fight piracy in the Gulf of Aden.[179] In November 2014, the navy deployed a single NH90NFH to Somalia to support Operation Atalanta.[180] In 2020 one NH90 was lost in an accident in the Caribbean, which reduced the fleet size to 19. In 2024, the Netherlands announced it would upgrade its remaining fleet with a mid-life upgrade including communications and weapon systems.[181]

New Zealand edit

 
A RNZAF NH90 in a tight turn
 
Royal New Zealand Air Force NH90 operating in the Solomon Islands, 2023

In July 2006, the New Zealand government signed a NZ$771 million (~€500M) contract to purchase eight NH90s (plus one extra for spares) to replace the Royal New Zealand Air Force's (RNZAF) fleet of 13 UH-1 Iroquois helicopters.[100][182] For ease of manufacture and logistics, New Zealand deliberately chose its NH90 configuration to be nearly identical to the larger Australian fleet.[183] On 7 December 2011, deliveries to New Zealand formally began with the first two NH90s being airlifted by a leased Antonov An-124 cargo aircraft to RNZAF Base Ohakea. In February 2013, the first phase of the RNZAF's operational evaluation of the NH90 was completed, clearing the type to begin operational duties.[183]

Between September 2013 and July 2014, the first four delivered NH90s were retrofitted to a final operational configuration; later aircraft were already delivered to this standard.[184] On 31 October 2014, the RNZAF announced that they had received into service the last of the eight NH90 TTHs.[183] Following command structure changes in December 2014, the NH90 fleet was tasked with additional responsibilities, including casualty evacuation during search and rescue operations and providing transport services to the New Zealand Police and other government personnel.[185] In April 2015, Defence Minister Gerry Brownlee questioned the inability of the NH90 fleet to contribute to relief efforts in the aftermath of Cyclone Pam, revealing that the fleet may be refitted with an automated blade and tail folding system to better enable ship borne deployments in the future.[186]

In April 2016, NH90s flew 160 hours during relief missions in Fiji following the devastation of Cyclone Winston, and in transported variety of staff to different locations. The NH90 served alongside the NZ Seaprites, and with additional logistical support from fixed wing aircraft.[187] After the Kaikōura earthquakes in November 2016, the NH90s were critical in delivering aid and supplies to the area. They also assisted with civilian evacuations of foreign nationals.[188]

In April 2017, the RNZAF's NH90 fleet was grounded following an in-flight single engine failure which forced an emergency landing.[189]

In November 2021, New Zealand NH90, NZ3302, became the first of its type to reach 2,000 flying hours. According to the RNZAF, despite being delivered years after other customers, high serviceability rates allow New Zealand NH90s to fly more hours per aircraft than other operators.[190] New Zealand states it was getting acceptable flight hours from its fleet and was not going to change its maintenance regime.[191]

Norway edit

In 2001, Norway ordered 14 NH90s for the Royal Norwegian Navy and Norwegian Coast Guard, originally set to be delivered in 2005–2008.[192] This move came as part of the Nordic Standard Helicopter Program along with Sweden and Finland.[110] In December 2011, the first NH90 was delivered.[193] In July 2012, the Norwegian Deputy Defence Minister Roger Ingebrigtsen announced that "once our current Westland Lynx helicopters reach their end of life in 2014, we are going to have replacement helicopters on our naval vessels. If the NH90 hasn't been delivered, we will purchase another helicopter ... considering that the aircraft were to be delivered by 2005, and that delivery is yet to start by 2012, our confidence in the producer isn't exactly on the rise"[194] In August 2012, it was reported that the Royal Norwegian Air Force would recommend that the Ministry of Defence contact Sikorsky to check if H-60 Seahawk variants, such as the MH-60R, could be a viable NH90 alternative for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) duties. Defence Minister Espen Barth Eide stated "We still believe the marine version of the NH90 to be the optimal platform, and we hope to purchase it, but there are limits to our patience."[195] By January 2016, six NH90s had been delivered.[196]

A February 2018 report by the Norwegian Armed Forces found that its NH90 fleet offered insufficient flight hours for the intended roles; this report advised that all helicopters be converted to the ASW role as required by the Royal Norwegian Navy, as opposed to current plans which see 6 of the 14 NH90s in that role, and the rest configured for Norwegian Coast Guard duties. The Norwegian Ministry of Defence stated that it would consider the report's recommendations.[197][198] In September 2018, the Norwegian Armed Forces reversed course via an updated study which affirmed that, under certain conditions, the requirements for both the navy and coast guard can be met with 14 NH90s; these conditions specifically state good spare parts availability, sufficient aircraft for maintenance scheduling, and a sufficient overhaul capacity. Norwegian Minister of Defence Frank Bakke-Jensen added that, although the inauguration is challenging, the ministry holds on to the timeline in which phasing in will be completed by 2022.[199][200]

In February 2022, the Norwegian Minister of Defense again threatened to terminate the NH90 contract due to concerns over new delays and NHI not meeting contractual obligations, considering sourcing alternative helicopters.[201] In June 2022, the Norwegian Minister of Defense Bjørn Arild Gram announced the Norwegian Defence Material Agency was given the task to terminate the NH90 contract due to NHI not meeting contractual obligations, and announced that the NH90 is taken out of operation with immediate effect.[202] Ten months later, Gram stated that the Lockheed Martin MH-60R Seahawk would replace the NH90.[203] Norway also operates Westland Sea Kings and AW101 Merlins.[204]

Oman edit

In July 2004, the Sultanate of Oman issued an order for a total of 20 NH90 TTHs for the Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO). To cope with the extreme flight conditions of the Middle East, RAFO NH90s are equipped with enhanced power plants; the type is to replace the Agusta/Bell 205A and Agusta/Bell 212 used for tactical transport and search and rescue operations.[205] On 23 June 2010, the first two NH90 TTHs were delivered to the RAFO at Musana Air Base.[206] By July 2012, ten NH90s had been delivered to the RAFO; in Omani service, the NH90 has established an endurance record, flying 700 nautical miles (1,300 km; 810 mi) without refueling during a 5-hour 21 minute-long mission.[207] The Oman NH90 are known to use 20 mm gun pods, as opposed to smaller caliber door guns.[53]

Qatar edit

In 2014, Qatar announced that it was set to spend $2.76 billion on procuring NH90s to modernizing its military helicopter fleet.[208][209] A contract valued at 3 billion euros was signed at the Dimdex defence exhibition on 14 March 2018, which finalised the purchase of 28 NH90s, comprising 16 NH90s for tactical transport and 12 NH90s for naval purposes.[210][211][212] On 20 August 2018, Leonardo announced the contract with Qatar was made effective for a total sum of US$3.7 billion, covering the agreed upon number of NH90s, with an option with six more of each type.[213][214][215]

On 23 December 2020, the first flights for Qatari-bound NH90s were being conducted for general evaluation.[216] The first two NH90 for Qatar were handed over in March 2022.[217]

Spain edit

 
Spanish NH90

On 20 May 2005 the Council of Ministers authorised the acquisition of 45 NH90 TTHs; in December 2006, it was announced that a procurement contract for the Spanish Armed Forces had been signed. The Spanish NH90 variant features domestically assembled General Electric CT7 8F5 engines, customised communications suite, and Indra-developed electronic warning systems.[218] The original budget for the procurement was for €1,260 million; by 2010, this had grown to €2,463M.[219] In June 2012, it was announced that Spain was negotiating to cut its purchase to 37 aircraft.[220] On 18 December 2014, Spain took delivery of the first NH90 TTH, which had been assembled at Airbus Helicopters Albacete facility; by this point, the order had been reduced to a total of 22 NH90s of the TTH variant.[221] Spain chose the GE CT7-85F turbine engine for its fleet.[222]

In January 2018, NHIndustries president Vincent Dubrule stated he was confident Spain would place a follow-on order by the end of 2018 for an additional 23 TTH NH90s, bringing the total back up to 45.[209] In September 2018, the Spanish government agreed to the purchase of the additional 23 TTH NH90s, including seven for naval purposes.[223][224] Spain stated in early 2023 the NH90 was "working perfectly".[225]

Sweden edit

In 2001, Sweden signed a contract for 18 NH90 TTH, made up of 13 TTT[i]/SAR and 5 SAR/ASW to be operated by the Swedish Air Force.[226][227] This decision to order the NH90 was done a group as part of the Nordic Standard Helicopter program along with Norway and Finland; the Swede version has the High Cabin Variant (HCV).[110] Because of renewed foreign submarine activity at the Swedish coast in 2014 it was decided in 2015 that four TTT/SAR would be modified to SAR/ASW in order to increase the anti-submarine warfare capability, so there will be 9 TTT/SAR and 9 SAR/ASW.[228] The NH90 is known as the Helikopter 14 (HKP14) in Swedish service, the FOC version of TTT/SAR are designated HKP14E and the FOC version of SAR/ASW are designated HKP14F.[229]

Overall the Swedish Hkp14 is used for antisubmarine operations, troop transportation, search and rescue, and medical evacuations.[230]

Sweden did not expect its NH90s to be operational until 2020 and ordered 15 UH-60M Black Hawks in 2011,[231] deploying four of its new Black Hawks to Afghanistan in March 2013.[232] In December 2015, the first Swedish NH90 in a full ASW configuration was delivered.[233][234] Sweden announced on 1 November 2022 that its NH90s will be replaced with S-70 (H-60) variants and an undetermined aircraft.[235] In December 2023, Sweden finished upgrades on the SAR version of its NH90 fleet.[236]

Cancelled orders and failed order campaigns edit

Portugal

Portugal was the fifth state to join the programme with an order for ten transport NH90 in June 2001; it was intended for these to equip the Portuguese Army Light Aviation Unit. However, in July 2012, fiscal consequences of the Great Recession led Portugal to cancel the order, despite having already spent €87m on the project, in order to save another €420m in acquisition and running costs to 2020.[237][238]

Saudi Arabia

In July 2006, the Saudi Government agreed to purchase 64 NH90s.[239] Then in October 2007 the government changed its plans, and agreed to buy 150 Russian-made Mi-35 and Mi-17 helicopters instead.[240]

Egypt

In July 2015, the Egyptian Navy entered negotiations for the purchase of 5 NH90 NFHs; these were intended to serve on board its newly acquired FREMM frigate Tahya Misr and 4 Gowind corvettes that were also on order. These NH90s would all be of French standard.[241][242] In October 2015, it was reported that negotiations for a "large quantity" of NH90s had reached an advanced stage.[243] In April 2019, it was announced that Egypt was ordering the AW149 and not the NH90.[244]

Variants edit

User TTH NFH
Australia Retired
Belgium Yes Yes
Finland Yes
France Yes Yes
Germany Yes Yes
Greece Yes
Italy Yes Yes
Netherlands Yes
New Zealand Yes
Norway Retired
Oman Yes
Qatar Yes Yes
Spain Yes Yes
Sweden Yes

There are two main variants, the TTH and the NFH. The NFH is oriented towards naval use and the TTH, land-based operations. A number of customizations such as for medical evacuation, search and rescue, special operations, and also a version with a higher cabin height were made.

Overall, the aircraft is multirole, but only certain aircraft take on certain missions. For example, Sweden has a TTH version they call the TTT, but they have two versions one for SAR and one for ASW.

NFH: NATO Frigate Helicopter edit

 
An NH90 NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH)

The primary role of the NFH version is autonomous ASW and anti-surface unit warfare (ASuW), mainly from naval ships. These aircraft are equipped for day and night, adverse weather and severe ship motion operations. Additional roles include anti-air warfare support, vertical replenishment (VERTREP), SAR and troop transport. France are splitting their purchase between the "NFH version combat" costing €43.3m in FY2013 and the "NFH version soutien" (support) at €36.4m in FY2013.[245]

One of the major differences of the NFH is that it has a folding tail and rotors, and a stronger undercarriage suitable for marine landings.[246]

SH-90A
Italian Navy designation from 2012 for NH90 NFH.[247]
NH90 NFH Caïman
French Navy designation for NH90 NFH.[100][121]
NH90 Sea Lion
German Navy development of the French NH90 NFH. The Sea Lion features a reduced set of sensors as the main task is SAR and ship based Transport (VERTREP and Special Forces) and is usually unarmed (doorguns can be installed). First flight was on 8 December 2016 and service deliveries started in October 2019.[147][148]
NH90 Sea Tiger
Another German Navy development of the NFH90 for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface unit warfare. The first helicopters were ordered in 2019 with a potential total of up to 31.[248]

TTH: Tactical Transport Helicopter edit

The primary role of the TTH version is the transport of 20 troops or more than 2,500 kg of cargo, heliborne operations and search & rescue. It can quickly be adapted to MEDEVAC/CASEVAC missions by fitting up to 12 stretchers or cargo delivery capability. Additional roles include special operations, electronic warfare, airborne command post, parachuting, VIP transport and flight training.

Helikopter 14 (Hkp 14)[249]
Swedish Armed Forces' designation of its eighteen NH90 TTH:[229] of the High Cabin Version (HCV), in which the cabin height is increased by 24 cm (9.4 in) to 1.82 m (6.0 ft) to allow it to be used as air ambulances as the original height of 1.57 m (5.2 ft) did not comply with peacetime work safety regulations.[250] The fleet consists of nine ground operative helicopters, Hkp 14E, and nine helicopters for maritime use equipped with sonar and search radar for submarine hunting with the designation Hkp 14F.[249] The Hkp 14 is equipped with a Saab-developed Tactical Mission System.[250][251] Finnish and Swedish TTHs are called Tactical Troop Transports (TTT) in some contexts.
HT-29 Caimán
Spanish Army designation for NH90 GSPA TTH.[252]
MRH-90 Taipan
Australian Defence Force designation for NH90 TTH.[60]
NH90 TTH Caïman
French Army designation for NH90 TTH.[100][121]
UH-90A
Italian Army designation for the NH90 TTH.[247]
MH-90A
Italian Navy variant of the NH90 TTH.[253]

MTT: Maritime Tactical Transport edit

The MTT is a blend between the TTH and NFH, combining the land-based configuration of the TTH with specialized maritime features of the NFH, including folding rotorblades, a tail-boom, and a strengthened undercarriage. The variant was first announced in February 2019 and has reportedly piqued interest from the Spanish and Italian armed forces who may order this variant as part of existing orders.[254]

Operators edit

 
NH90 NFH of the Belgian Air Component
 
A Finnish Army NH90 performing over RIAT 2013
  Belgium
  Finland
  France
  Germany
  Greece
  Italy
  Netherlands
  New Zealand
  Oman
  Qatar
  Spain
  Sweden

Former operators edit

  Australia
  Norway

Accidents edit

 
The capsized but floating NH90 that crashed near Aruba in 2020

From 2008 there have been reports at least 11 accidents involving NH90 of various types.[258]

Examples
  • In April 2010, an Australian MRH-90 suffered a single engine failure near Adelaide, landing safely at RAAF Base Edinburgh[65] Australia grounded their MRH-90 fleet due to engine issues.[66] The cause of the failure was determined to be contact between the compressor blade and the engine casing; new preventative inspections were enacted and flights resumed in July 2010.[68] One factor stated for the engine failure was complications relating to an inflight engine restart.[50]
  • In March 2023, an Australian MRH-90 with ten aboard experienced an engine failure and ditched in Jervis Bay with everyone surviving. The helicopter's flotation system was deployed, allowing it to float, and it was towed onto a nearby beach.[50]
  • In July 2023, an Australian MRH-90 crashed at night during Exercise Talisman Sabre off the coast of Hamilton Island, Queensland, with the loss of its four crew.[90][91] Parts of the airframe and human remains were found in a debris field[vague] in 40 meters of water, consistent with a catastrophic impact. The cause is under investigation as of late 2023.[89]

Specifications (NH90) edit

 

Data from AgustaWestland,[46] Airbus Helicopters,[47] The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003[259]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2 flight crew + loadmaster / sensor operator
  • Capacity: 20 seated troops; or 12 medevac stretchers; or 2 NATO pallets; or 4,200 kg (9,259 lb) external slung load
  • Length: 16.13 m (52 ft 11 in)
  • Empty weight: 6,400 kg (14,110 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 10,600 kg (23,369 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-8E turboshaft engines, 1,845 kW (2,474 hp) each (option)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322-1/9 turboshaft engines, 1,802 kW (2,417 hp) each (option)
  • Main rotor diameter: 16.3 m (53 ft 6 in)
  • Main rotor area: 208.699 m2 (2,246.42 sq ft) root: ONERA OA312; tip: ONERA OA409/OA407[260]

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 300 km/h (190 mph, 160 kn)
  • Range: 800 km (500 mi, 430 nmi) TTH
1,000 km (620 mi; 540 nmi) NFH
  • Endurance: 5 hours
  • Service ceiling: 6,000 m (20,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 8 m/s (1,600 ft/min)

Armament

  • Guns: 2 door guns
  • Missiles: anti-submarine and/or air to surface missiles (NFH version)

See also edit

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Notes edit

  1. ^ Tactical Troop Transport

References edit

  1. ^ Sgarlato, Nico (April 2008). "Gli NH-90 dell'Esercito". Aeronautica & Difesa (in Italian).
  2. ^ a b c "NHIndustries to boost NH90 support as parts from Australian MRH90s return to Europe". shephardmedia.com. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  3. ^ a b Perry, Dominic. "Rotor club: Our top 10 most influential helicopters." Archived 2014-11-24 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, Flight Global, 21 November 2014.
  4. ^ "NH Industries". Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  5. ^ a b Centeno, Gabriel (2 October 2023). "Australia retires 40 NH-90 helicopters early". Aeroflap.
  6. ^ Centeno, Gabriel (5 November 2022). "Sweden wants to replace its NH90 helicopters with the UH-60 Black Hawk". Aeroflap.
  7. ^ Perry, Dominic. "NHI chief dismisses NH90 safety fears in wake of Australian decision, as dialogue with Sweden continues". Flight Global. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  8. ^ a b c d Frawley, Gerard. "NHIndustries NH 90". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Aerospace Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
  9. ^ "NAHEMA". NATO. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013.
  10. ^ a b c "NH90 Helicopter – 3rd Prototype in Flight" (Press release). Eurocopter. 27 November 1998. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013.
  11. ^ MacKenzie, Christina. "NH90 prototype takes off with fly-by-wire controls." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 5 January 2004. p. 15.
  12. ^ a b c d Hoyle, Craig. "In Focus: NH90 Caiman cuts teeth with French navy." Archived 2014-12-09 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 19 June 2013.
  13. ^ "Aircraft profile: NH Industries NH90". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  14. ^ "Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands Place $8.6 Billion Order for NH-90". Defense Daily. 9 June 2000. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  15. ^ a b c Tran, Pierre (8 April 2013). "Eurocopter: Dropping NH90 Order Would Hurt France, Firm". Defense News. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013.
  16. ^ a b "NHIndustries delivers 500th NH90 helicopter". Janes.com. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  17. ^ "News Breaks", Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1 January 2007.
  18. ^ "Spain performs its maiden flight of NH 90". Eurocopter. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  19. ^ "The Company". NH Industries. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  20. ^ "First Delivery." Archived 2016-08-26 at the Wayback Machine Rotor Online, Airbus helicopters, December 2006.
  21. ^ "First Dutch NH90 NFH delivered". Australian Aviation. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
  22. ^ a b c d Perry, Dominic. "NH Industries plans 'simplified' NH90 for future customers." Archived 2014-07-17 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 25 June 2014.
  23. ^ a b c Lert, Frédéric and Charles Forrester. "NH90 production winds down globally." Archived 2016-01-20 at the Wayback Machine IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 17 January 2016.
  24. ^ "250th NH90 helicopter delivered." Archived 2016-02-06 at the Wayback Machine Rotor hub, Shepard Media, 16 October 2015.
  25. ^ Goold, Ian. "Eurocopter cool on civil NH90". Aviation International News (AIN). Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  26. ^ "Eurocopter studies NH90 civil variant". Flight Global. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  27. ^ Bundeswehr NATO-Hubschrauber NH90: Modernster Helikopter der Welt hat viele Mängel – Politik Archived 2010-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. Bild.
  28. ^ "Bundeswehr". Tagesschau. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010.
  29. ^ Minister for Defence and Minister for Defence Materiel (28 November 2011). "Projects of Concern Update" (Press release). Department of Defence (Australia). Archived from the original on 27 January 2012.
  30. ^ "MRH90 recommencement of flying operations" (Press release). Department of Defence (Australia). 22 July 2010. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  31. ^ Perrett, Bradley (10 January 2012). "Australian NH90 Delayed Further". Aerospace Daily and Defence Report. Retrieved 11 January 2012 – via Aviation Week. [permanent dead link]
  32. ^ Gravemaker, Anno (19 March 2014). "Dutch maritime NH90s suffer corrosion". Flightglobal. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  33. ^ a b Perry, Dominic. "Dutch NH90 deliveries to resume." Archived 2014-12-16 at the Wayback Machine Flight global, 16 December 2014.
  34. ^ "RNZAF's NH90s Unreliable Money Guzzlers". scoop.co.nz
  35. ^ "Skenande kostnader för försvarets nya helikoptrar" [Rising costs for the defence's new helicopters]. Aftonbladet (in Swedish). 29 May 2018. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018.
  36. ^ Benigh, Love; Horvatovic, Iva (8 February 2018), "Forsvarets helikopter dyr att flyga", SVT (in Swedish), archived from the original on 8 February 2018.
  37. ^ "Minister struntade i expertråd vid helikopterköp". Sveriges Radio. 17 August 2011 – via sverigesradio.se.
  38. ^ "Skyhöga kostnader för att flyga hkp 14". 8 February 2018.
  39. ^ Frisk, Corporal (3 March 2018). "Of Helicopters and High Costs".
  40. ^ Times, The Brussels. "Defence ministry cuts helicopter flights in half over costs". brusselstimes.com.
  41. ^ "MRH-90 Taipan helicopter: a quick guide". aph.gov.au.
  42. ^ Perry, Dominic. "Why new NH Industries chief is upbeat, despite Swedish setback". Flight Global.
  43. ^ "NH90: A transformation plan for customer support". airbus.com. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  44. ^ a b c d "Requirements Basis." Archived 2014-12-01 at the Wayback Machine NHI Industries, Retrieved: 20 December 2014.
  45. ^ a b Moxon, Julian. design "Wired into the Future." Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 8 September 1998.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "NH 90". Products. AgustaWestland. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g "NH90." Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Airbus Helicopters, Retrieved: 9 January 2016.
  48. ^ "Designs for RTM322 variant at 'advanced stage'." Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 13 October 2003.
  49. ^ "Salvaging of the NH90 has started". Future Force (in Dutch). 28 August 2020.
  50. ^ a b c Bergmann, Kym (17 April 2023). "Taipan probably ditched because Army didn't update software". APDR.
  51. ^ "On board the NH90." Archived 2015-12-24 at the Wayback Machine Thales Group, Retrieved: 20 December 2014.
  52. ^ "First Finmeccanica – Selex ES anti-collision laser system operational on Italian Army NH90 TTH helicopter." Archived 2016-02-01 at the Wayback Machine Finmeccanica, 16 October 2015.
  53. ^ a b Perry, Dominic. "Armed NH90 troop transport helicopter could form part of Block 2 upgrade". Flight Global. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  54. ^ "France signs contract for upgraded NH90 TTH for Special Forces". airbus.com. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  55. ^ "ParlInfo - New helicopters for Army". parlinfo.aph.gov.au. Retrieved 29 September 2023.
  56. ^ "34 NH90 Additional Helicopters for Australia". NH Industries. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  57. ^ "Defence to spend $2b more on choppers". The Sydney Morning Herald. 19 June 2006. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006.
  58. ^ "Australian Government Orders 12 NH90 Helicopters". 6 February 2005. Archived from the original on 27 November 2006.
  59. ^ "Australia Gets first NH 90". NH industries. 18 December 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014.
  60. ^ a b c "Navy inducts new helicopter into fleet". The Herald Sun. Australian Associated Press. 11 July 2013.
  61. ^ "NH90 NFH Nato Frigate Helicopter". Airforce Technology. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  62. ^ "Navy commissions 808 Squadron and new helicopter". Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  63. ^ "MRH-90 Taipan helicopter: a quick guide". aph.gov.au. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  64. ^ "Why has Defence grounded its MRH 90s? - Australian Defence Magazine". australiandefence.com.au. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  65. ^ a b Defence grounds choppers after engine malfunction Archived 2010-05-21 at the Wayback Machine. ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) News
  66. ^ a b Defence grounds new chopper fleet Archived 2010-05-22 at the Wayback Machine. ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) News
  67. ^ OuinetAdmin (19 March 2007). "Turbomeca Wins Aussie Order for RTM 322 Turboshaft". Defense aerospace. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  68. ^ a b Francis, Leithen (28 July 2010). "Australia finds MRH90 engine failure due to compressor blade fracture". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013.
  69. ^ Australian auditors slam bungled NH90 procurement Archived 2014-07-29 at the Wayback Machine, Flight global, 29 July 2014
  70. ^ "MRH90 helicopter Project of Concern progress". Department of Defence. Minister for Defence & Minister for Defence Materiel. 9 May 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.
  71. ^ Perrett, Bradley. "Airbus Fixing Remaining Australian NH90 Faults." Archived 2016-10-26 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 18 September 2015.
  72. ^ a b Kerr, Julian (1 February 2016). "Air: MRH90 Taipan – reaching for 2016 milestones". Australian Defence Magazine.
  73. ^ a b c "Multi-Role Helicopter Project Data Summary Sheet". 2019–20 Major Projects Report - Department of Defence (PDF). Canberra: The Auditor-General. 2020. ISBN 978-1-76033606-6. ANAO Report No.19 2020–21.
  74. ^ "Additional Estimates – 4 March 2020 - Question 84 - MRH90 design - Senator Kitching". Department of Defence. Senate Standing Committee Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade. 21 April 2020. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020.
  75. ^ Tillett, Andrew (27 October 2020). "Army helicopter's gun failings leave special forces vulnerable". Australian Financial Review.
  76. ^ Jennings, Gareth (6 February 2019). "Australia begins SOF helo transition from Black Hawk to MRH90". Janes.
  77. ^ "Defence grounds troubled MRH-90 Taipan helicopter fleet over safety concerns". ABC News. 17 June 2021.
  78. ^ Minister for Defence Peter Dutton (10 December 2021). "Strengthening Army's helicopter capability". Department of Defence Ministers (Press release).
  79. ^ McLaughlin, Andrew (10 December 2021). "With a new Black Hawk on the way, the original is retired". Australian Defence Business Review.
  80. ^ a b Farrell, John Hunter (3 October 2023). "Australia's NH90 Helicopter Nightmare Is Finally Ending". The Drive.
  81. ^ a b Hurst, Daniel (9 November 2022). "Australia pays to maintain trouble-plagued Taipan helicopters no longer being used by navy". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  82. ^ Department of Defence (2022). Portfolio Budget Statements October 2022-23 - Defence Portfolio (PDF). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. p. 57. ISBN 9781925890587.
  83. ^ Scott Morrison; Peter Dutton; Melissa Price (9 May 2022). "Securing our national security and local defence jobs and skills". Liberal Party of Australia (Press release). Archived from the original on 9 May 2022.
  84. ^ "Govt outlines Navy helicopter fleet plans". Australian Defence Business Review. 9 May 2022.
  85. ^ "MH-60R Seahawk". navy.gov.au. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  86. ^ a b Williams, Claudia; Bevan, Matt; Fernandez, Tim; McLean, Charlie (23 March 2023). "ADF to investigate after MRH-90 Taipan helicopter ditches near Jervis Bay". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 27 July 2023.
  87. ^ Sharwood, Simon. "Military helicopter crash blamed on missing software patch". theregister.com. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  88. ^ Knott, Matthew (30 July 2023). "Troubled Taipans expected to fly again after crash: army chief". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  89. ^ a b c d Hurst, Daniel (3 August 2023). "Taipan army helicopter crash: human remains and cockpit debris found after Queensland search". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
  90. ^ a b "Four crew of Australian Army chopper missing after crash in Queensland's Whitsundays amid joint military exercise with US Marines". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 July 2023. Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  91. ^ a b "Helicopter crash puts key Australia-US war games on hold". Reuters. 29 July 2023.
  92. ^ "Australia Recovers MRH-90 Flight Data Recorder, NZ Resumes NH90 Ops". aviationweek.com. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  93. ^ Roberts, Georgia (29 September 2023). "Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan helicopters involved in Whistsundays crash retired early". ABC News.
  94. ^ a b "Army helicopter fleet update" (Press release). Australian Department of Defence. 29 September 2023.
  95. ^ Farrell, John Hunter (3 October 2023). "Australia's NH90 Helicopter Nightmare Is Finally Ending". The Drive.
  96. ^ Richard Marles; Pat Conroy (29 September 2023). "Army helicopter fleet update". Department of Defence Ministers (Press release).
  97. ^ "US Army to reprioritise UH-60M procurement to assist Australia".
  98. ^ "Nahema signs contract for 10 NH90 helicopters for Belgium". 19 July 2007. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2007.
  99. ^ "First flight of the belgian nh90". nhindustries. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  100. ^ a b c d e f g "World Air Forces 2013" (PDF). Flightglobal Insight. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2013.
  101. ^ "Belgium Receives its First NH90 NFH Naval Helicopter." Archived 2013-08-10 at the Wayback Machine Deagel, 1 August 2013.
  102. ^ "Belgium Receives Last NH90 Troop Transport Helicopter." Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 17 November 2014.
  103. ^ Jennings, Gareth (23 August 2015). "Belgium declares IOC for naval NH90 helo". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  104. ^ Fiorenza, Nicholas. "Belgian NH90 Helicopter Conducts First Rescue Mission." Archived 2015-12-30 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 31 August 2015.
  105. ^ Maes, Cédric (24 June 2020). "Defensie snoeit na amper 6 jaar al in vluchtplan van peperdure helikopters: "Hiermee vliegen is duurder dan met een F-16"". Het Laatste Nieuws (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  106. ^ "Helikopters BE". Helispot.
  107. ^ Herk, Hans van (27 February 2023). "Belgian Armed Forces NH90-TTH replacement". scramble.nl. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  108. ^ Gain, Nathan (6 September 2022). "The STAR Plan: New Capabilities in Sight for the Belgian Navy". Naval News. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  109. ^ "Finland signs the contract for 20 NH90 helicopters". NH industries. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  110. ^ a b c "NH90 NFH Nato Frigate Helicopter". Airforce Technology. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  111. ^ "Finnish Army Aviation Takes Delivery of Its First NH90". NH Industries. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  112. ^ "Finland Receives Suila’s NH90 Program Lessons Report." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Defense Industry Daily, 5 March 2008.
  113. ^ Suila, Keijo. "Finland’s Helicopter Programme." Archived 2014-07-27 at the Wayback Machine Defmin, March 2008.
  114. ^ "Finnish NH90 helicopters to receive Patria ballistic protection." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Patria, 1 September 2011.
  115. ^ Chéry, Stéphane. "Finnish NH90 helicopters demonstrate their operational capabilities: More than 150 soldiers are airlifted over a 320 km. distance in five hours." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Airbus Helicopters, 21 June 2011.
  116. ^ "Finnish NH90s creep towards 50% operational serviceability rate". Flight global. Reed Business Information. 24 January 2015. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  117. ^ Stevenson, Beth (23 January 2015), "Finnish NH90s creep towards 50% operational serviceability rate", Flightglobal, Reed Business Information, archived from the original on 28 January 2015, retrieved 26 January 2015
  118. ^ "Maavoimat vastaanotti vuosien odottelun jälkeen viimeisen NH90-kopterin". Iltalehti. 18 June 2015. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  119. ^ Simola, Anita (9 November 2015). "Puolustusministeri Niinistö: Maavoimien helikoptereiden hankkiminen oli virhe". Aamulehti. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  120. ^ "Hélicoptère Caïman Marine". French Navy. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  121. ^ a b c "Le NH90 français s'appellera Caïman". Mer et Marine. 14 June 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.
  122. ^ "France says orders 34 NH90 helicopters from NHIndustries." Archived 2015-10-19 at the Wayback Machine Reuters, 29 May 2013.
  123. ^ Svitak, Amy. "France Orders Six Additional NH90 Helicopters." Archived 2016-09-19 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 7 January 2016.
  124. ^ "French Army receive first NH90TTH helicopters". Lignes de défense. Ouest France. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  125. ^ http://www.nhindustries.com/website/en/press/THE-NH90-CAIMAN-RESCUES-19-PEOPLE-AT-NIGHT-IN-STORMY-WEATHER_138.html
  126. ^ "NH90: Eurocopter celebrates two firsts with Belgium and France". Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  127. ^ "Lorient : Le départ de la frégate Lorraine en images | Mer et Marine". 4 November 2022.
  128. ^ Lert, Frédéric. "France deploys NH90 to Mali". Jane's. Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  129. ^ a b c d e "France signs contract for upgraded NH90 TTH for Special Forces" (Press release). Airbus. 12 October 2020.
  130. ^ a b c d Mackenzie, Christina (12 October 2020). "France orders beefed-up NH90 choppers for special operations". Defense News.
  131. ^ "France prepares NH90 Special Forces variant". Air & Cosmos International. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  132. ^ a b Langfield, Mandy. "NH90 rescue report – plucked from stormy waters". AirMed&Rescue. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  133. ^ "Caimans come of age". Vertical Mag. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  134. ^ "French armed forces wave goodbye to the Alouette". Vertical Mag. 13 January 2023.
  135. ^ "Germany Receives its First Batch of NH90". NHIndustries. 13 December 2006. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014.
  136. ^ "German Navy to decide soon on its new Maritime Helicopter". Defpro. 20 March 2009. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009.
  137. ^ "Germany finalises cuts to NH90, Tiger helicopter orders". Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  138. ^ "Ausschuss stoppt de Maizières Hubschrauber-Deal". Der Spiegel. 26 June 2013.
  139. ^ Perry, Dominic. "Germany proposes 'shared' multinational NH90 helicopter fleet." Archived 2014-12-09 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 1 December 2014.
  140. ^ "NH90: Europe’s Medium Helicopter Now Available for NATO Pooling." Archived 2014-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Defense Industry Daily, 2 December 2014.
  141. ^ "Germany’s Bundeswehr Reaches the 5,000 Flight-Hour Milestone With Its NH90 Fleet." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Eurocopter, September 2012.
  142. ^ "Afghanistan: Tiger und NH90 leisten ihren Beitrag". Bundeswehr. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  143. ^ German NH90s Operational In Medevac Role, Aviation week, 25 June 2013
  144. ^ Kucera, Joshua. "Helicopter Crash Complicates Germany-Uzbekistan Base Negotiations." Archived 2014-12-02 at the Wayback Machine Eurasianet, 28 October 2014.
  145. ^ Jennings, Gareth. "Germany begins NH90 Sea Lion production, retrofits for TTH variant." Archived 2016-01-04 at the Wayback Machine IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 1 December 2015.
  146. ^ Perry, Dominic. "Germany still pushing multinational NH90 medevac fleet." Archived 2016-02-07 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 20 January 2016.
  147. ^ a b "German Navy NH90 Sea Lion performs maiden flight" (Press release). Airbus Helicopters. 8 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016.
  148. ^ a b "German Navy's NH90 Sea Lion Helicopter Achieves Maiden Flight". Defense World. 8 December 2016. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016.
  149. ^ "NH90 Sea Lion helicopter progresses towards 2019 delivery to German Navy". Naval Today. 23 November 2018. Archived from the original on 26 November 2018.
  150. ^ a b Gain, Nathan (28 October 2019). "First NH90 NTH Sea Lion delivered to German Navy". Naval News. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  151. ^ "Bundeswehr verzichtet vorerst auf neuen Marinehubschrauber". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  152. ^ "NH90 Sea Lion enters service with German Navy". Vertical Mag. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  153. ^ a b Vavasseur, Xavier (6 February 2023). "German Navy Receives 18th and final NH-90 'Sea Lion' Helicopter". Naval News.
  154. ^ Gain, Nathan (23 November 2020). "Germany cleared €2.7 Bn deal for 31 NH90 Sea Tiger ASW helicopters". Naval News.
  155. ^ Staff, Naval News (4 December 2023). "German Navy NH90 Sea Tiger performs maiden flight". Naval News.
  156. ^ "Greece Signs the Contract for 20 NH90 Helicopters Plus 14 in Option". NH Industries, 1 September 2003.
  157. ^ "Airbus Helicopters rejects bribery allegations in Greek NH-90 deal." Archived 2015-10-19 at the Wayback Machine Reuters, 23 March 2015.
  158. ^ "Προσγειώθηκε στα Μέγαρα το 11ο ελικόπτερο ΝΗ-90 TGRA της Αεροπορίας Στρατού". Via Diplomacy. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016.
  159. ^ "Γιατί έπεσε το ελικόπτερο ΧΙΟΥΙ". Militarie.
  160. ^ Herk, Hans van (18 December 2023). "New helicopters for Hellenic Air Force and Army". scramble.nl. Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  161. ^ "Four European Nations give NH-90 Production Go-ahead". NH industries. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  162. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "Picture: Italian army receives first NH90 transport helicopter." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 9 January 2008.
  163. ^ Peruzzi, Luca. "PARIS: Italy receives first naval NH90 helicopter." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 23 June 2011.
  164. ^ "Italian Army Takes Delivery of Its First NH90 TTH Helicopter in FOC Configuration." Archived 2014-12-18 at the Wayback Machine AgustaWestland, 2 May 2013.
  165. ^ "Italian Navy Receives First NH90 NFH in FOC." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine AgustaWestland, 11 November 2013.
  166. ^ "GE T700-T6E1 Powers NH90 Helicopter". GE Aerospace (geaerospace.com). Retrieved 21 October 2023.
  167. ^ a b Wilson, Gwen (6 December 2022). "Italian Army receives last NH90 TTH". HeliHub.com. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  168. ^ Niels Hillebrand. "Italian Army NH90 in Afghanistan: one year and 1000 flight hours". Milavia. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  169. ^ Kington, Tom. "Plagued by Delays, NH90 Helos Head to Afghanistan Air Base." Defense News, 4 September 2012.
  170. ^ Cenciotti, Stefano D'Urso, David (6 October 2023). "Italian Navy Receives Final NH90 Helicopter". The Aviationist. Retrieved 19 October 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  171. ^ "First Flight of Royal Netherlands Navy NH90 NFH". NHIndustries. 10 August 2007. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008.
  172. ^ "NH90 vliegt voor het eerst 's nachts met nachtzichtapparatuur". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  173. ^ AirForces Monthly December 2013 pages 48-54
  174. ^ "The Royal Netherlands Navy Takes Delivery of Its First NH90 NFH". Helis. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  175. ^ "Nieuwe NH-90 helikopter te zwaar voor fregatten". Volkskrant. Archived from the original on 13 June 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  176. ^ "Defensie schort afname NH90 helikopters op". Volkskrant. 27 June 2014. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014.
  177. ^ "Corrosion issue halts Dutch NH90 deliveries". Flight Global. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  178. ^ "Kamer: schade NH90 verhalen". NOS. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  179. ^ "The Netherlands deploys NH90 for the first time". shephardmedia.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  180. ^ "Royal Netherlands Navy NH90 NFH Helicopter first operational deployment for Somalia Mission". Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  181. ^ Salerno-Garthwaite, Andrew (5 January 2024). "Netherlands announce Mid-Life Update for NH90 helicopter fleet". Naval Technology. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  182. ^ Coleman, Jonathan (9 March 2012). "New NH90 Helicopters launched". New Zealand Government. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  183. ^ a b c Jennings, Gareth. "New Zealand receives final NH90 helo." Archived 2015-09-12 at the Wayback Machine IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 30 October 2014.
  184. ^ "NH90: Retrofit of New Zealand’s fleet completed." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Airbus Helicopters, 31 July 2014.
  185. ^ "NH90 takes over key helicopter." Archived 2015-01-28 at the Wayback Machine Sunlive, 21 December 2014.
  186. ^ Kirk, Stacey. "Gerry Brownlee: NH90 helicopters purchase 'interesting'." Stuff, 2 April 2015.
  187. ^ Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (CFE-DM) Case Study Series – Case Study No. 2 (Page 19-20)
  188. ^ "Aftershocks as tourists evacuated in quake-hit New Zealand". Straits Times. Christchurch, New Zealand. 15 November 2016. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  189. ^ "Kaikoura visit cancelled because Air Force NH90 helicopters can't fly over water" Archived 2017-04-21 at the Wayback Machine NZ Herald, 20 April 2017.
  190. ^ "Milestone Reached". Twitter. 11 November 2021.
  191. ^ "NZ sticks with troubled NH90 helicopters as Australia and Norway opt for alternatives". RNZ. 24 April 2023. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  192. ^ "Går mot en løsning for "skandalehelikoptrene" NH90 – etter 19 år". NRK. 28 July 2020.
  193. ^ "Norway takes Delivery of their First NH 90". nhindustries.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  194. ^ "Forsvarets nye superhelikopter er sju år forsinket". tv2.no. 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  195. ^ "Aftenposten". Archived from the original on 17 August 2012.
  196. ^ "Nå kommer det første norske NH90 som kan jakte på ubåter". 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 11 January 2017.
  197. ^ Perry, Dominic (2 February 2018). "Norway runs into fresh problem with NH90 helicopters". FlightGlobal. London. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018.
  198. ^ Jones, Bruce (6 February 2018). "Norwegian chief of defence recommends giving frigates priority for receiving NH90 helicopters". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018.
  199. ^ Perry, Dominic (18 September 2018). "Norway persists with NH90 helicopters for coastguard missions". FlightGlobal. London. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018.
  200. ^ Hennum, Alf Christian; Eggereide, Bård (11 September 2018). "FFI-RAPPORT Ambisjonsnivå for flying av NH90 - ugradert beslutningsgrunnlag" (PDF). Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (in Norwegian). Kjeller, Norway. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2018.
  201. ^ Perry, Dominic (9 February 2022). "Norway threatens cancellation of NH90 helicopter contract over upgrade delays | News". Flight Global.
  202. ^ "Norway terminates its contract for the NH90". regjeringen.no (Norwegian Government). 10 June 2022.
  203. ^ Jennings, Gareth (14 March 2023). "Norway to replace NH90 helicopters with MH-60R". Janes.com.
  204. ^ "Westland WS-61 Sea King SAR Helicopter Norwegian Air Force". seaforces.org. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  205. ^ Gotzhein, Christina (9 July 2007). "First NH90 Tactical Transport Helicopter for Oman Performed Maiden Flight at Airbus Helicopters in Marignane". Eurocopter. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  206. ^ Parsons, Gary. "News: Oman finally gets its first NH90s." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine AIR International, 30 June 2010.
  207. ^ Vogelaar, Rob. "Delivery of 2 NH90 to the Royal Air Force of Oman." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine aviationnews.eu, 2 July 2012.
  208. ^ "Qatar spends big on American choppers and missiles". The Washington Post. 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016.
  209. ^ a b Perry, Dominic (31 January 2018). "NH Industries confident on sealing NH90 orders from Qatar and Spain". Flight Global. London. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018.
  210. ^ Kington, Tom (15 March 2018). "Qatar signs $3.7 billion deal for NH90 helicopters". Defense News. Rome. Archived from the original on 16 March 2018.
  211. ^ Peruzzi, Luca (15 March 2018). "DIMDEX 2018: Qatar orders NHIndustries NH90 helicopters". IHS Jane's 360. Doha. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018.
  212. ^ "Qatar orders 28 NH90 military helicopters". Naval Today. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  213. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (20 August 2018). "Leonardo confirms Qatari NH90 order". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018.
  214. ^ Carlson, Stephen (20 August 2018). "Leonardo to deliver NH90 transport helicopters to Qatar". United Press International. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018.
  215. ^ Gubisch, Michael (20 August 2018). "Qatar inks NH90 order with Leonardo". Flight Global. London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018.
  216. ^ "Airbus Helicopters conducts first flight with Qatari NH90 TTH Tactical Troop Transport helicopter". airrecognition.com.
  217. ^ Staff, Naval News (8 April 2022). "Qatar accepts delivery of first two NH90 NFH naval helicopters". Naval News.
  218. ^ "King Juan Carlos I Takes to the Air in the Spanish NH90 Helicopter." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Airbus Helicopters, 17 September 2012.
  219. ^ Ministerio de Defensa (September 2011). "Evaluación de los Programas Especiales de Armamento (PEAs)" (PDF) (in Spanish). Madrid: Grupo Atenea. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  220. ^ Perry, Dominic (27 June 2012). "Eurocopter continues NH90 talks with cash-strapped nations". Flight International. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  221. ^ Perry, Dominic. "Spain takes first NH90 helicopter and enhanced Tigers." Archived 2014-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 18 December 2014.
  222. ^ "Spain Chooses GE Engines for its NH90 Helicopters". GE Aerospace (geaerospace.com). Retrieved 21 October 2023.
  223. ^ Ing, David (11 September 2018). "Spain gives green light for further helicopter orders". IHS Jane's 360. Madrid. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  224. ^ Turnbull, Grant (3 January 2019). "Spain Signs Deals To Double NH90 Fleet and Upgrade Chinooks". Aviation International News. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  225. ^ Hoyle, Craig; Albacete (20 April 2023). "How the NH90 is delivering for Spain's air force". Flight Global. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  226. ^ "Sweden Signs Contract for NH90". NH industries. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  227. ^ "Sweden chooses NH90". NH industries. 19 September 2001. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  228. ^ "Airbus Helicopters delivers the first Swedish NH90 for anti-submarine warfare". Airbus Helicopters. 17 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  229. ^ a b "Helikopter 14". Swedish Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  230. ^ "Air methods and American eurocopter business partners". Journal of Air Medical Transport. 11 (11–12): 28. November 1992. doi:10.1016/s1046-9095(05)80174-6. ISSN 1046-9095.
  231. ^ "Sverige köper Black Hawk". Aftonbladet. 9 April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  232. ^ "Sikorsky Meets Accelerated UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter Deliveries for Sweden". Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Sikorsky, 17 November 2011.
  233. ^ Pocock, Chris. "Swedes Accept First NH90 for ASW after Long Delay." Archived 2015-12-31 at the Wayback Machine AIN Online, 29 December 2015.
  234. ^ Osborne, Tony. "Sweden Takes Delivery of Long-Delayed Anti-Sub NH90." Archived 2016-09-19 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 17 December 2015.
  235. ^ Perry, Dominic (1 November 2022). "Sweden to axe NH90 fleet under revised defence equipment plan". Flightglobal.
  236. ^ "Sweden completes NH90 SAR upgrade". Janes.com. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  237. ^ Barreira, Victor (3 July 2012). "Portugal ducks out of NH90 programme". Jane's. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012.
  238. ^ Perry, Dominic. "Portugal looks to cancel NH90 helicopter order." Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 27 July 2012.
  239. ^ de Briganti, Giovanni (25 July 2006). "Saudi Arabia Launches Huge Arms Buying Spree; France to Net Most Orders". Defense Aerospace. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2006.
  240. ^ "France Loses Out as Saudis Sign $2.2 Billion Deal for Russian Helos". Defense aerospace. 2 November 2007. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013.
  241. ^ "Egypt towards buying NH90 NFH?". Air & Cosmos (in French). 24 July 2015. p. 2. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015 – via Press reader.
  242. ^ "Egypt is About to Procure an NH90 NFH Maritime Helicopter for its New FREMM Multi-Mission Frigate". Navy recognition. 26 June 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015.
  243. ^ Dubois, Thierry. "Egypt, France In Discussions Over NH90 Helicopter Buy." Archived 2016-01-24 at the Wayback Machine AIN Online, 5 October 2015.
  244. ^ "AW149 helicopter nets crucial export order from Egypt". Flight Global. 25 April 2019. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019.
  245. ^ "Projet de loi de finances pour 2014 : Défense : équipement des forces et excellence technologique des industries de défense" (in French). Senate of France. 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  246. ^ "NHI showcases 'hybrid' MTT variant of NH90 helo for maritime ops". Janes.com. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  247. ^ a b "Utilizzo della nomenclatura 'Mission Design Series' (MDS) Nelle Pubblicazioni Tecniche (PPTT) di competenza della DAAA" (PDF). Ministero Della Defesa. June 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  248. ^ "Entschieden: Sea Tiger wird neuer Marine-Bordhubschrauber -". 2 August 2019.
  249. ^ a b Försvarsmakten Helikopter 14
  250. ^ a b "NH90 First Delivery For Sweden". NH Industries. 20 June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012.
  251. ^ "Saab Avionics receives SEK 122 million order for EW-system to Sweden's new NH90-Helicopter". Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  252. ^ "Spanish Army Takes Receipt of First NH90s" (Press release). Airbus Helicopters. 14 September 2016. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  253. ^ "Consegnato alla Marina il primo elicottero MH-90". Analisi Difesa. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  254. ^ Jennings, Gareth (6 February 2019). "NHI showcases 'hybrid' MTT variant of NH90 helo for maritime ops". Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 6 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  255. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "World Air Forces 2024". Flight Global. flightglobal.com. 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  256. ^ "Norway terminates its contract for the NH90". Regjeringen (Norwegian Government). 10 June 2022.
  257. ^ "Norway to replace NH90 helicopters with MH-60R".
  258. ^ "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety WikiBase > ASN Aviation Safety Database results". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  259. ^ Frawley, Gerard. "NH Industries NH 90". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Fyshwick, Act: Aerospace Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
  260. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig. Illinois university. Retrieved 16 April 2019.

External links edit

  • NHIndustries
  • NH90, Leonardo company
  • NH90, Airbus
  • NH90, Royal New Zealand Air Force
  • "NH90: Europe's Medium Helicopter Contender". Defense industry daily
  • "Eurocopter rejects criticism of NH90 helicopter by 'secret report'". Defpro
  • MH90-NG, German NH90 NFH variant