Pentagonal trapezohedron


Pentagonal trapezohedron
Pentagonal trapezohedron
Type trapezohedra
Conway dA5
Coxeter diagram
Faces 10 kites
Edges 20
Vertices 12
Face configuration V5.3.3.3
Symmetry group D5d, [2+,10], (2*5), order 20
Rotation group D5, [2,5]+, (225), order 10
Dual polyhedron pentagonal antiprism
Properties convex, face-transitive

In geometry, a pentagonal trapezohedron is the third in an infinite series of face-transitive polyhedra which are dual polyhedra to the antiprisms. It has ten faces (i.e., it is a decahedron) which are congruent kites.

It can be decomposed into two pentagonal pyramids and a pentagonal antiprism in the middle. It can also be decomposed into two pentagonal pyramids and a dodecahedron in the middle.

10-sided dice

Ten ten-sided dice

The pentagonal trapezohedron was patented for use as a gaming die (i.e. "game apparatus") in 1906.[1] These dice are used for role-playing games that use percentile-based skills; however, a twenty-sided die can be labeled with the numbers 0-9 twice to use for percentages instead.

Subsequent patents on ten-sided dice have made minor refinements to the basic design by rounding or truncating the edges. This enables the die to tumble so that the outcome is less predictable. One such refinement became notorious at the 1980 Gen Con[2] when the patent was incorrectly thought to cover ten-sided dice in general.

Ten-sided dice are commonly numbered from 0 to 9, as this allows two to be rolled in order to easily obtain a percentile result. Where one die represents the 'tens', the other represents 'units' therefore a result of 7 on the former and 0 on the latter would be combined to produce 70. A result of double-zero is commonly interpreted as 100. Some ten-sided dice (often called 'Percentile Dice') are sold in sets of two where one is numbered from 0 to 9 and the other from 00 to 90 in increments of 10, thus making it impossible to misinterpret which one is the tens and which the units die. Ten-sided dice may also be marked 1 to 10 when a random number in this range is desirable.

Spherical tiling


The pentagonal trapezohedron also exists as a spherical tiling, with 2 vertices on the poles, and alternating vertices equally spaced above and below the equator.


See also

Family of n-gonal trapezohedra
Trapezohedron name Digonal trapezohedron
Trigonal trapezohedron Tetragonal trapezohedron Pentagonal trapezohedron Hexagonal trapezohedron ... Apeirogonal trapezohedron
Polyhedron image           ...
Spherical tiling image           Plane tiling image  
Face configuration V2.3.3.3 V3.3.3.3 V4.3.3.3 V5.3.3.3 V6.3.3.3 ... V∞.3.3.3


  1. ^ U.S. patent 809,293
  2. ^ "Greg Peterson about Gen Con 1980: The big news of the year was that someone had 'invented' the ten-sided die". Archived from the original on 2016-08-14.


  • Generalized formula of uniform polyhedron (trapezohedron) having 2n congruent right kite faces from
  • Weisstein, Eric W. "Trapezohedron". MathWorld.
  • Virtual Reality Polyhedra The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra