Pomorje

Summary

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State of Stefan Nemanja, after the incorporation of Pomorje (c. 1180-1190)

Pomorje (Serbian Cyrillic: Поморје), also known (in plural) as the Lands of Pomorje (Serbian Cyrillic: Поморске земље), is a medieval term, used to designate several maritime regions of Upper Dalmatia and its hinterland, that at the end of the 12th century, during the reign of Stefan Nemanja (1166-1196),[1] became part of the Grand Principality of Serbia,[2] and remained part of the medieval Kingdom of Serbia, whose rulers were styled with the title: "crowned king and autocrat of all Serbian and coastal lands".[3]

The term Pomorje (or Primorje) literally means: maritime (coastal, littoral). Today, regions of medieval Pomorje belong to modern Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.

History

Pomorje included most of the coastal regions of modern-day Montenegro, southern halves of Dalmatia and Herzegovina region.[4]

Medieval Pomorje included most of the coastal regions of modern-day Montenegro, the southern regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, notably most of Herzegovina region, and a southeastern part of region Dalmatia in Croatia.[4]

Use in royal titles

The term was used in royal and religious titles both by Bosnian and Serbian monarchs and their heirs (Uroš I, styled himself "King in Christ, God faithful, King of Serbia and Maritime Lands", and Patriarchs (Saint Sava III, "Archbishop of All Serbian and Maritime Lands").

  • Desa, styled himself "Prince of Pomorje (Maritime Lands)"
  • Vladislav, styled himself "King of all the Serbian and Maritime Lands"
  • Uroš I, styled himself "King in Christ, God faithful, King of Serbia and Maritime Lands"
  • Uroš IV Dušan, "King of all the Serbian and Maritime Lands"
  • 1329 Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, styled "high and mighty lord, free ruler and master of Bosnia, Usora and Soli, Donji Kraji and many other places, and Prince of the Hum and the Seaside"
  • 1377 Tvrtko I crowned himself "King of the Serbs, Bosnia, Maritime, and Western Areas".[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 31-32.
  2. ^ Fine 1994, p. 7-9.
  3. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 39-40.
  4. ^ a b Nevill Forbes, The Balkans: A History of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey, p. 59, Digital Antiquaria, 2004, ISBN 1-58057-314-2, ISBN 978-1-58057-314-6
  5. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 81.

Sources

Primary sources
  • Ферјанчић, Божидар (1959). "Константин VII Порфирогенит". Византиски извори за историју народа Југославије. 2. Београд: Византолошки институт. pp. 1–98.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Кунчер, Драгана (2009). Gesta Regum Sclavorum. 1. Београд-Никшић: Историјски институт, Манастир Острог.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Moravcsik, Gyula, ed. (1967) [1949]. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (2nd revised ed.). Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. ISBN 9780884020219.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Pertz, Georg Heinrich, ed. (1845). Einhardi Annales. Hanover.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Scholz, Bernhard Walter, ed. (1970). Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472061860.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Шишић, Фердо, ed. (1928). Летопис Попа Дукљанина (Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja). Београд-Загреб: Српска краљевска академија.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Живковић, Тибор (2009). Gesta Regum Sclavorum. 2. Београд-Никшић: Историјски институт, Манастир Острог.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Secondary sources
  • Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781405142915.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472081497.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1994) [1987]. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472082604.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (2005). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472025600.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hupchick, Dennis P. (2002). The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. New York: Palgrave.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hupchick, Dennis P. (2017). The Bulgarian-Byzantine Wars for Early Medieval Balkan Hegemony: Silver-Lined Skulls and Blinded Armies. New York: Springer. ISBN 9783319562063.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Janković, Đorđe (2004). "The Slavs in the 6th Century North Illyricum". Гласник Српског археолошког друштва. 20: 39–61.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Јанковић, Ђорђе (2007). Српско Поморје од 7. до 10. столећа (Serbian Maritime from 7th to 10th Century) (PDF). Београд: Српско археолошко друштво.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Luttwak, Edward N. (2009). The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674035195.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Orbini, Mauro (1601). Il Regno de gli Slavi hoggi corrottamente detti Schiavoni. Pesaro: Apresso Girolamo Concordia.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Орбин, Мавро (1968). Краљевство Словена. Београд: Српска књижевна задруга.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Runciman, Steven (1988). The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign: A Study of Tenth-Century Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521357227.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295800646.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Stephenson, Paul (2003). The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521815307.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Vlasto, Alexis P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521074599.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Whittow, Mark (1996), The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025, MacMillan Press, ISBN 0-520-20496-4
  • Живковић, Тибор (2002). Јужни Словени под византијском влашћу 600-1025 (South Slavs under the Byzantine Rule 600-1025). Београд: Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Živković, Tibor (2008). Forging unity: The South Slavs between East and West 550-1150. Belgrade: The Institute of History, Čigoja štampa. ISBN 9788675585732.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Further reading

  • Ćorović, Vladimir (2001). "Istorija srpskog naroda".CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Janković, Đorđe (2007). "Serbian Maritime from 7th to 10th Century: Summary of the Monograph".CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)