Turkish Armed Forces

Summary

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. Turkish Armed Forces consist of the General Staff, the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Forces. The current Chief of the General staff is General Yaşar Güler. The Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, the Chief of the General Staff acts as the Commander-in-Chief on behalf of the President, who represents the Supreme Military Command of the TAF on behalf of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.[8] Coordinating the military relations of the TAF with other NATO member states and friendly states is the responsibility of the General Staff.

Turkish Armed Forces
Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri
Seal of the Turkish Armed Forces.png
Emblem of the Turkish Armed Forces
Founded3 May 1920[a]
Service branches Turkish Land Forces
Turkish Naval Forces
Turkish Air Force
HeadquartersBakanlıklar, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
Websitewww.tsk.tr/HomeEng
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Minister of National Defence Hulusi Akar
Chief of the General Staff General Yaşar Güler
Personnel
Military age21–41[2]
Conscription6 months
Active personnel425,000[3]
Reserve personnel200,000[3]
Expenditures
BudgetUS$18.8  billion[4]
Percent of GDP2.1%[5]
Industry
Domestic suppliers
Foreign suppliers
Annual imports$1.1 billion (2022)[6]
Annual exports$2.0 billion (2022)[7]
Related articles
History
RanksMilitary ranks of Turkey

The history of the Turkish Armed Forces began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalism, the official state ideology, especially of its emphasis on secularism. After becoming a member of NATO in 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its armed forces. The Turkish Army sent 14,936 troops to fight in the Korean War alongside South Korea and NATO. Towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated. The Turkish Armed Forces participate in an EU Battlegroup under the control of the European Council, the Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup. The TAF also contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army corps initiative of the EU and NATO.

The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing military force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, and the thirteenth in the world, with an estimated strength of 775,000 military and paramilitary personnel in 2022.[3]

Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.[9] A total of 50 U.S. B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, the most of the five countries.[10]

HistoryEdit

War of IndependenceEdit

After the end of World War I, following the occupation of Anatolia by Entente Powers, many Ottoman military personnel escaped from Rumelia to Anatolia in order to join the new Turkish National Movement (TNM). During the War of Independence, on 3 May 1920, Birinci Ferik Mustafa Fevzi Pasha (Çakmak) was appointed the Minister of National Defence, and Mirliva İsmet Pasha (İnönü) was appointed the Minister of the Chief of General Staff of the government of the Grand National Assembly (GNA).[11] But on 3 August 1921, the GNA fired İsmet Pasha from the post of Minister of National Defence because of his failure at the Battle of Afyonkarahisar–Eskişehir and on 5 August, just before the Battle of Sakarya, appointed the chairman of the GNA Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk) as commander-in-chief of the Army of the GNA. The TNM won the War of Independence after İzmir was retrieved in 1922 as a result of Greco-Turkish Wars (1919–1922).

 
The Turkish battlecruiser Yavuz off Istanbul, Turkey, 5–9 April 19, 1946.

First Kurdish rebellionsEdit

There were several rebellions southeastern Turkey in the 1920s and 1930s, the most important of which were the 1925 Sheikh Said rebellion and the 1937 Dersim rebellion. All were suppressed by the TAF, sometimes involving large-scale mobilisations of up to 50,000 troops. Associated atrocities against civilians include the Zilan massacre.

World War IIEdit

Turkey remained neutral until the final stages of World War II. In the initial stage of World War II, Turkey signed a treaty of mutual assistance with Great Britain and France.[12] But after the fall of France, the Turkish government tried to maintain an equal distance with both the Allies and the Axis. Following Nazi Germany's occupation of the Balkans, upon which the Axis-controlled territory in Thrace and the eastern islands of the Aegean Sea bordered Turkey, the Turkish government signed a Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression with Germany on 18 June 1941.

After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the Turkish government sent a military delegation of observers under Lieutenant General Ali Fuat Erden to Germany and the Eastern Front.[13] Following the German retreat from the Caucasus, the Turkish government then moved closer to the Allies and Winston Churchill secretly met with İsmet İnönü at the Adana Conference in Yenice Train Station in southern Turkey on 30 January 1943, with the intent of persuading Turkey to join the war on the side of the Allies. A few days before the start of Operation Zitadelle in July 1943, the Turkish government sent a military delegation under General Cemil Cahit Toydemir to Russia and observed the exercises of the 503rd Heavy Panzer Battalion and its equipment.[14] But after the failure of Operation Zitadelle, the Turkish government participated in the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943, where Franklin D. Roosevelt, Churchill and İnönü reached an agreement on issues regarding Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies. On 23 February 1945, Turkey joined the Allies by declaring war against Germany and Japan, after it was announced at the Yalta Conference that only the states which were formally at war with Germany and Japan by 1 March 1945 would be admitted to the United Nations.[15]

Korean WarEdit

 
Turkish soldier's observing front during the Korean war

Turkey participated in the Korean War as a member state of the United Nations and sent the Turkish Brigade, which suffered 731 losses in combat, to South Korea. On 18 February 1952, Turkey became a member of NATO.[16] The South Korean government donated a war memorial for the Turkish soldiers who fought and died in Korea. The Korean pagoda is in Ankara and it was donated in 1973 for the 50th anniversary of the Turkish Republic.

Invasion in CyprusEdit

On 20 July 1974, the TAF launched an amphibious and airborne assault operation on Cyprus, in response to the 1974 Cypriot coup d'état which had been staged by EOKA-B and the Cypriot National Guard against president Makarios III with the intention of annexing the island to Greece; but the military intervention ended up with Turkey occupying a considerable area on the northern part of Cyprus and helping to establish a local government of Turkish Cypriots there, which has thus far been recognized only by Turkey. The intervention came after more than a decade of intercommunal violence (1963–1974) between the island's Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, resulting from the constitutional breakdown of 1963. Turkey invoked its role as a guarantor under the Treaty of Guarantee in justification for the military intervention.[17] Turkish forces landed on the island in two waves, invading and occupying 37% of the island's territory in the northeast for the Turkish Cypriots, who had been isolated in small enclaves across the island prior to the military intervention.[18][19][20]

In the aftermath, the Turkish Cypriots declared a separate political entity in the form of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in 1975; and in 1983 made a unilateral declaration of independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey to this day. The United Nations continues to recognize the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus according to the terms of its independence in 1960. The conflict continues to overshadow Turkish relations with Greece and with the European Union. In 2004, during the referendum for the Annan Plan for Cyprus (a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute) 76% of the Greek Cypriots rejected the proposal, while 65% of the Turkish Cypriots accepted it.

Kurdish–Turkish conflictEdit

The TAF are in a protracted campaign against the PKK (recognized as a terrorist organization by the United States, the European Union and NATO)[21][22][23][24][25] which has involved frequent forays into neighbouring Iraq and Syria. Abdullah Öcalan, the leader of the PKK was arrested in 1999 in Nairobi and taken to Turkey. In 2015, the PKK cancelled their 2013 ceasefire after tension due to various events.[26]

War in Bosnia and KosovoEdit

Turkey contributed troops in several NATO-led peace forces in Bosnia and Kosovo. Currently there are 402 Turkish troops in Kosovo Force.

War in AfghanistanEdit

After the 2003 Istanbul Bombings were linked to Al-Qaeda, Turkey deployed troops to Afghanistan to fight Taliban forces and Al-Qaeda operatives, with the hopes of dismantling both groups. Turkey's responsibilities include providing security in Kabul (it currently leads Regional Command Capital), as well as in Wardak Province, where it leads PRT Maidan Shahr. Turkey was once the third largest contingent within the International Security Assistance Force. Turkey's troops are not engaged in combat operations and Ankara has long resisted pressure from Washington to offer more combat troops. According to the Washington Post, in December 2009, after US President Barack Obama announced he would deploy 30,000 more U.S. soldiers, and that Washington wants others to follow suit, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reacted with the message that Turkey would not contribute additional troops to Afghanistan. "Turkey has already done what it can do by boosting its contingent of soldiers there to 1,750 from around 700 without being asked", said Erdoğan, who stressed that Turkey would continue its training of Afghan security forces.

Turkey withdrew their troops from Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul (2021).[27][28][29]

Humanitarian reliefEdit

The TAF have performed "Disaster Relief Operations," as in the 1999 İzmit earthquake in the Marmara Region of Turkey. Apart from contributing to NATO, the Turkish Navy also contributes to the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group, which was created in early 2001 by Turkey, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine for search and rescue and other humanitarian operations in the Black Sea.

 
"Military Security Zone No Trespassing" written, a sign used in military troops in Turkey.

TodayEdit

According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), in 2020 the Turkish Armed Forces had an active strength of around 355,200 active personnel consisting of 260,200 armed forces, 45,000 naval forces, and 50,000 air forces. In addition, it was estimated that there were 378,700 reserve personnel and 156,800 paramilitary personnel (Turkish Gendarmerie and Turkish Coast Guard), giving a combined active and reserve strength of around 890,500 personnel.[30] In 2020, the defence budget amounted to 76.3 billion liras.[31] The Law on the Court of Accounts was supposed to initiate external ex-post audits of armed forces' expenditure and pave the way for audits of extra budgetary resources earmarked for the defence sector, including the Defence Industry Support Fund.[32] However, the Ministry of Defense has not provided the necessary information,[33] so the armed forces expenditure is not being properly checked.

In 1998, Turkey announced a programme of modernisation worth US$160 billion over a twenty-year period in various projects including tanks, fighter jets, helicopters, submarines, warships and assault rifles.[34] Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) programme.[35] The final goal of Turkey is to produce new-generation indigenous military equipment and to become increasingly self-sufficient in terms of military technologies.

HAVELSAN of Turkey and Boeing of the United States are in the process of developing a next-generation, high-altitude ballistic missile defence shield. Turkey has chosen the Chinese defense firm CPMIEC to co-produce a $4 billion long-range air and missile system.

Date General/Admiral Officer Total
(incl. civilian)
General staff figures
21 November 2011[36] 365 39,975 666,576
2 October 2013[37] 347 39,451 647,583
2 May 2014[38] 343 38,971 623,101
2 January 2017[39] 203 26,278 398,513
 
Turkish soldiers guards at the Anıtkabir Mausoleum.

General staffEdit

The General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces is the general staff of the Turkish Armed Forces. Chief of the General Staff reports to Minister of National Defence. General staff is responsible for:

  • Preparing the Armed Forces and its personnel for military operations.
  • Gathering military intelligence
  • Organization and training of the Armed Forces
  • Management of the logistic services

The Chief of the General Staff is also, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the name of the President, in wartime.

Also, the General Staff is in command of the Special Forces, which is not aligned to any force command within the TAF. The Special Forces get their orders directly from the General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces.[40]

Land ForcesEdit

 
Selimiye Barracks (1828) in Istanbul is the headquarters of the First Army of the Turkish Land Forces.

The Turkish Land Forces, or Turkish Army, can trace its origins in the remnants of Ottoman forces during the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues formed the Grand National Assembly (GNA) in Ankara on 23 April 1920, the XV Corps under the command of Kâzım Karabekir was the only corps which had any combat value.[41] On 8 November 1920, the GNA decided to establish a standing army (Düzenli ordu) instead of irregular troops (the Kuva-yi Milliye, Kuva-yi Seyyare, etc.)[42] The army of the government of the GNA won the Turkish War of Independence in 1922.

 
The Turkish submarine Preveze surfaces following the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) submarine escape and rescue exercise Sorbet Royal.

Naval ForcesEdit

The Turkish Naval Forces, or Turkish Navy, constitutes the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Turkish Navy maintains several Marines and Special Operations units. The Amphibious Marines Brigade (Amfibi Deniz Piyade Tugayı) based in Foça near İzmir consists of 4,500 men, three amphibious battalions, an MBT battalion, an artillery battalion, a support battalion and other company-sized units.[43] The Su Altı Taarruz (S.A.T. – Underwater Attack) is dedicated to missions including the acquisition of military intelligence, amphibious assault, counter-terrorism and VIP protection; while the Su Altı Savunma (S.A.S. – Underwater Defense) is dedicated to coastal defense operations (such as clearing mines or unexploded torpedoes) and disabling enemy vessels or weapons with underwater operations; as well as counter-terrorism and VIP protection missions.[43]

Air ForceEdit

 
A Boeing 737 AEW&C Peace Eagle (foreground) and the tailfin of a Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker (background) of the Turkish Air Force at the Çiğli Air Base in Izmir

The Turkish Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. It is primarily responsible for the protection and sovereignty of Turkish airspace but also provides air-power to the other service branches. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.[44] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.[45]

The Air Force took part in the Operation Deliberate Force of 1995 and Operation Allied Force of 1999, and later participated in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, employing two squadrons (one in the Ghedi fighter wing, and after 2000 one in the Aviano fighter wing.)[46] They returned to Turkey in 2001. In 2006, 4 Turkish F-16 fighter jets were deployed for NATO's Baltic Air Policing operation.

Military bases and soldiers stationed abroadEdit

As of February 2021, Turkey has at least over 60,000+ [needs update] military personnel stationed outside its territory.[47] The only military base stationed permanently abroad, regardless of the organizations that are members of Turkey, which has been temporarily holding troops several times abroad due to its responsibilities arising from many international political members, particularly NATO membership, is the Cyprus Turkish Peace Force Command. The military bases of the Turkish Armed Forces in Qatar, Syria,[48] Somalia[49] and Bashiqa, among an unknown amount of other bases internationally, are currently active. It was announced in 2017 that Turkey would start working on establishing a research base in Antarctica.[50]

According to a study conducted in England, Turkey has the largest deployment of international troops after the United States,[51] with an estimated strength of at least 60,000+ military personnel stationed outside of the borders of Turkey. This means that 1 in 6 of the active military troops of Turkey (which is estimated to be 355,200 in 2020)[30] are deployed outside of the borders of the country.[47]

The Republic of Turkey currently has a military presence in 14 countries spanning 3 continents;

 
Map of Turkish soldiers stationed abroad as of April 2022

Role of the military in Turkish politicsEdit

After the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk prohibited the political activities of officers in active service with the Military Penal Code numbered 1632 and dated 22 May 1930 (Askeri Ceza Kanunu).[80] However, after the coups d'état in 1960, the Millî Birlik Komitesi (National Unity Committee) established the Inner Service Act of the Turkish Armed Forces (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri İç Hizmet Kanunu) on 4 January 1961 to legitimize their military interventions in politics. In subsequent coups d'état and coup d'état attempts, they showed reasons to justify their political activities especially with the article 35 and 85 of this act.[81]

The Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalist ideology, the official state ideology, especially of the secular aspects of Kemalism[citation needed]. The TAF still maintains an important degree of influence over the decision making process regarding issues related to Turkish national security, albeit decreased in the past decades, via the National Security Council.

The military had a record of intervening in politics, removing elected governments four times in the past. Indeed, it assumed power for several periods in the latter half of the 20th century. It executed three coups d'état: in 1960 (27 May coup), in 1971 (12 March coup), and in 1980 (12 September coup). Following the 1960 coup d'état, the military executed the first democratically elected prime minister in Turkey, Adnan Menderes, in 1961.[82] Most recently, it maneuvered the removal of an Islamist prime minister, Necmettin Erbakan, in 1997 (known as the 28 February memorandum).[83] Contrary to outsider expectations, the Turkish populace was not uniformly averse to coups; many welcomed the ejection of governments they perceived as unconstitutional.[84]

On 27 April 2007, in advance of the 4 November 2007 presidential election, and in reaction to the politics of Abdullah Gül, who has a past record of involvement in Islamist political movements and banned Islamist parties such as the Welfare Party, the army issued a statement of its interests. It said that the army is a party to "arguments" regarding secularism; that Islamism ran counter to the secular nature of Turkey, and to the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The Army's statement ended with a clear warning that the TAF stood ready to intervene if the secular nature of the Turkish Constitution is compromised, stating that "the Turkish Armed Forces maintain their sound determination to carry out their duties stemming from laws to protect the unchangeable characteristics of the Republic of Turkey. Their loyalty to this determination is absolute."[85]

Over a hundred people, including several generals, have been detained or questioned since July 2008 with respect to the so-called organisation Ergenekon, an alleged clandestine, ultra-nationalist organization with ties to members of the country's military and security forces. The group is accused of terrorism in Turkey. These accusing claims are reported, even while the trials are going on, mostly in the counter-secular and Islamist media organs[citation needed].

On 22 February 2010 more than 40 officers were arrested and then formally charged with attempting to overthrow the government with respect to the so-called "Sledgehammer" plot. They include four admirals, a general and two colonels, some of them retired, including former commanders of the Turkish navy and air force (three days later, the former commanders of the navy and air force were released). Partially as a result, the Washington Post reported in April 2010 that the military's power had decreased.[86]

On the eve of the Supreme Military Council of August 2011, the Chief of the General Staff, along with the Army, Navy, and Air Force commanders, requested their retirement, in protest of the mass arrests which they perceived as a deliberate and planned attack against the Kemalist and secular-minded officers of the Turkish Armed Forces by the Islamists in Turkey, who began to control key positions in the Turkish government, judiciary and police.[87][88][89] The swift replacement of the force commanders in the Supreme Military Council meeting affirmed the government's control over the appointment of top-level commanders. However, promotions continue to be determined by the General Staff with limited civilian control. The European Commission, in its 2011 regular yearly report on Turkey's progress towards EU accession, stated that "further reforms on the composition and powers of the Supreme Military Council, particularly on the legal basis of promotions, still need to materialise."[90] The service branch commanders continue to report to the Prime Minister instead of the Defence Minister.

In July 2016, a few rogue factions of the Turkish Armed Forces attempted to take over the government, but Erdogan supporters and other loyal military units stopped the coup attempt.[91] Many lives were lost and hundreds were injured. The parliament house and some other buildings in Ankara and Istanbul were damaged. Thousands of military personnel have been arrested and the structure of the armed forces has been overhauled.[91]

Medals and awardsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ As the Army of the Grand National Assembly.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "TSK Official History Information". Turkish Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  2. ^ The Military Balance 2020 (2020 ed.). London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies. 14 February 2020. pp. 153–156. ISBN 9780367466398.
  3. ^ a b c "2022 Turkey Military Strength". www.globalfirepower.com. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  4. ^ Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (24 April 2022). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2021" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 25 April 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  5. ^ Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (24 April 2022). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2021" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 25 April 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  6. ^ "Türkiye'nin ihracatı arttı ithalatı azaldı". TRT News. Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  7. ^ [1] Archived 6 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine Savunma sanayisi ihracat rekorlarıyla eşik atladı
  8. ^ Federal Research Division, Turkey: A Country Study, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4191-9126-8, p. 337.
  9. ^ "Der Spiegel: Foreign Minister Wants US Nukes out of Germany (10 April 2009)". Der Spiegel. 30 March 2009. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  10. ^ "Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance | Arms Control Association". www.armscontrol.org. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  11. ^ Harp Akademileri Komutanlığı, Harp Akademilerinin 120 Yılı, İstanbul, 1968, p. 26, 46.
  12. ^ See Murat Metin Hakki, "Surviving the Pressure of the Superpowers: An Analysis of Turkish Neutrality During the Second World War Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine", Chronicon 3 (1999–2007) 44 – 62, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, ISSN 1393-5259
  13. ^ Hüseyin Hüsnü Emir Erkilet, Şark cephesinde gördüklerim, Hilmi Kitabevi, 1943.
  14. ^ Johannes Glasneck, Inge Kircheisen, Türkei und Afghanistan, Dt. V. d. Wissenschaften, 1968, p. 139. Archived 2 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Mustafa Aydın, SAM, "Turkish Foreign Policy: Framework and Analysis", Center for Strategic Research, 2004, p. 47.
  16. ^ For some of the NATO command structure discussions re entry of Turkey, see Sean Maloney, Securing Command of the Sea, Masters' thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1992
  17. ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  18. ^ Welz, Gisela (2006). Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-253-21851-9.
  19. ^ Carpenter, Ted Galen (2000). NATO's Empty Victory: A Postmortem on the Balkan War. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute. p. 36. ISBN 1-882577-85-X.
  20. ^ Carpenter, Ted Galen (2002). Peace and Freedom: Foreign Policy for a Constitutional Republic. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute. p. 187. ISBN 1-930865-34-1.
  21. ^ "People's Daily Online – NATO chief declares PKK terrorist group". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  22. ^ "The EU's list of terrorist groups". Archived from the original on 1 December 2011.
  23. ^ "Council Decision 2011/70/CFSP of 31 January 2011 updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism – Official Journal L 028, 02/02/2011 P. 0057 – 0059". Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  24. ^ "NATO chief declares PKK terrorist group". Xinhua. 20 December 2005. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  25. ^ European Union List of Terrorist Organisations Archived 22 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Council of the european union, updated Council Decision 2011/70/CFSP of 31 January 2011
  26. ^ "KCK ateşkesin bittiğini açıkladı: Bundan sonra tüm barajlar gerillanın hedefinde olacaktır". t24.com.tr (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  27. ^ "Turkey begins withdrawing military forces from Afghanistan". Daily Sabah. 25 August 2021.
  28. ^ "Turkish military begins Afghanistan evacuations".
  29. ^ "Turkey evacuating from Afghanistan, could provide support at Kabul airport". Reuters. 25 August 2021.
  30. ^ a b IISS 2020, pp. 164–168
  31. ^ "SIPRI Publications". Milexdata.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Lack of comprehensive audits casts shadow over security spending". Zaman. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013.
  34. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.22 (2005)
  35. ^ US Department of Defense (11 July 2002). "DoD, Turkey sign Joint Strike Fighter Agreement". US Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 23 December 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
  36. ^ "Asker sayısı ilk kez açıklandı". Ntvmsnbc. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  37. ^ "TSK personel sayısını açıkladı". Ntvmsnbc. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  38. ^ "TSK personel sayısını açıkladı". Ntvmsnbc. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  39. ^ "TSK'da kaç personel var?". www.trthaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  40. ^ Onlar TSK'nın bel kemiği – Sabah – HaberPlus – Gündem – 09 Aralık 2013 Archived 6 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Sabah (26 October 2011). Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  41. ^ Sina Akşin, Essays in Ottoman-Turkish Political History, Isis Press, 2000, p. 44.
  42. ^ Suat İlhan, Atatürk ve Askerlik: Düşünce ve Uygulamaları, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi, 1990, p. 88. Archived 10 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)
  43. ^ a b Ray Bonds, David Miller, Illustrated Directory of Special Forces, Zenith Imprint, 2003, p. 99. Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ "Yankee Bombs Go Home: Foreign Minister Wants US Nukes out of Germany". Der Spiegel. 10 April 2009. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  45. ^ "NRDC: U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe • Hans M. Kristensen / Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  46. ^ "1980-today in the official website of the Turkish Air Force". Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  47. ^ a b "Her yedi askerden biri sınırların ötesinde: TSK'nın yurtdışındaki gücü 50 bini aştı".
  48. ^ "'Al-Sharq Al-Awsat' Report Specifies Locations of Foreign Military Bases in Syria, Says Syria Is Turning into Brittle Federation That Can Fall Apart at Any Moment". MEMRI – The Middle East Media Research Institute. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  49. ^ Tufan Aktas (13 October 2016). "Details emerge of Turkish military base in Somalia". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  50. ^ "Turkey plans to set up first research base in Antarctica". Daily Sabah. 10 February 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  51. ^ "Mehmetçik 3 kıta 12 ülkede görev yapıyor".
  52. ^ a b c "Türkiye'nin Yurt Dışındaki Üsleri ve Askeri Varlığı". 9 May 2021.
  53. ^ Larrabee, F. Stephen; Lesser, Ian O. (2003). Turkish foreign policy in an age of uncertainty. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation. pp. 94. ISBN 9780833034045. albania.
  54. ^ "Turkey to establish military base in Azerbaijan – EURASIA". Hürriyet Daily News – LEADING NEWS SOURCE FOR TURKEY AND THE REGION.
  55. ^ "Russia and Turkey open monitoring centre for Nagorno-Karabakh". Reuters. 30 January 2021.
  56. ^ a b c "Türkiye'nin Libya ve Irak Dahil 9 Ülkede Askeri Varlığı Var". Amerika'nin Sesi | Voice of America - Turkish (in Turkish). Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  57. ^ a b c Gazetesi, Evrensel. "Türkiye'nin hangi ülkede, kaç askeri var, hangi gerekçelerle bulunuyor?". Evrensel.net (in Turkish). Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  58. ^ "Iraq says pact with Turkey best way to tackle PKK". Reuters. 9 October 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  59. ^ "اتفاق أمني عراقي تركي لملاحقة حزب العمال الكردستاني". www.aljazeera.net (in Arabic). Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  60. ^ "FLAŞ - Türkiye'den Duhok'a tank ve silah takviyesi". www.rudaw.net. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  61. ^ "What is Turkey doing in Iraq?". Hürriyet Daily News.
  62. ^ "[Map] PKK camps and Turkish military points in Northern Iraq" – via www.rudaw.net.
  63. ^ "Turkey to establish new military base in Iraqi Kurdistan - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East".
  64. ^ "Ankara seeks to limit PKK movement with new Duhok military base: Minister".
  65. ^ "Excursus: Turkey's Military Engagement Abroad".
  66. ^ a b c d e "Her yedi askerden biri sınırların ötesinde: TSK'nın yurtdışındaki gücü 50 bini aştı".
  67. ^ United Nations Peacekeeping. "Troop and police contributors | United Nations Peacekeeping". Peacekeeping.un.org. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  68. ^ "Türkiye'nin hangi ülkelerde askeri üssü var?". euronews (in Turkish). 17 January 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  69. ^ "COM KFOR MEETS TURKISH CHIEF OF THE ARMY". jfcnaples.nato.int. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  70. ^ "Lübnan'daki Türk askerinin görev süresi uzatıldı". www.trthaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  71. ^ "The fall of al-Watiya base ushers an era of permanent Turkish presence in western Libya". The Arab Weekly. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  72. ^ "Turkey Opens First Mideast Military Base in Qatar".
  73. ^ "Seeing shared threats, Turkey sets up military base in Qatar". Reuters. 28 April 2016.
  74. ^ "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Janes.com.
  75. ^ "Erdogan: Turkey-Qatar military base serves regional 'stability'". Al Jazeera. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  76. ^ "Turkey tightens siege on Afrin". Al-Monitor. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  77. ^ "Mapping the rise of Turkey's military reach". YouTube.
  78. ^ "Dissecting Syria's military bases". INSAMER English. 23 March 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  79. ^ "Turkey to remain on Sudan's Suakin Island for civilian purposes | Daily Sabah". Daily Sabah. 26 April 2019.
  80. ^ Askeri Ceza Kanunu Archived 15 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Turkey, 22 May 1930.
  81. ^ Fikret Bila, "Çare ihtilal değil, komutanın konuşması" Archived 19 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Milliyet, 4 October 2007.
  82. ^ Tuysuz, Gul; Tavernise, Sabrina (29 July 2011). "Top Generals Quit in Group, Stunning Turks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  83. ^ "The World Factbook – Turkey". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  84. ^ Lt. Col. Patrick F. Gillis (3 May 2004). "U.S.-Turkish Relations: The Road to Improving a Troubled Strategic Partnership" (PDF). U.S. Army War College. p. 4. In all of these 'coups' the majority of the Turkish public accepted the military's actions because they felt they were necessary for the well-being of the state and because the military did not seek to impose permanent military governance
  85. ^ "Excerpts of Turkish army statement". BBC News. 28 April 2007. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  86. ^ Zacharia, Janine (11 April 2010). "In Turkey, military's power over secular democracy slips". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  87. ^ "Turkey: Military chiefs resign en masse – BBC News". BBC News. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  88. ^ "Top Generals Quit in Group, Stunning Turks". The New York Times. 30 July 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  89. ^ Letsch, Constanze (30 July 2011). "Turkey military chiefs resign over Sledgehammer 'coup plot' arrests". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  90. ^ "page 14" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2011.
  91. ^ a b "Turkey's opposition parties take unified stance against coup attempt". Daily Sabah. 16 July 2016.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

  • Turkish Armed Forces (English)
  • Bosphorus Naval News (turkishnavy.net)