3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||157.30 g/mol|
|Appearance||violet crystals |
|Density||3.0 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
|Melting point||> 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) (decomposes)|
|R-3, No. 148|
|P280, P305, P310, P338, P351|
|Safety data sheet (SDS)||Vanadium(III) Chloride|
|vanadium trifluoride, vanadium tribromide|
|titanium trichloride, chromium(III) chloride, niobium trichloride, tantalum trichloride|
|vanadium dichloride, vanadium tetrachloride|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
(what is ?)
VCl3 has the common BiI3 structure, a motif that features hexagonally closest-packed chloride framework with vanadium ions occupying the octahedral holes. VBr3 and VI3 adopt the same structure, but VF3 features a structure more closely related to ReO3. VCl3 is paramagnetic and has two unpaired electrons.
Heating of VCl3 decomposes with volatilization of VCl4, leaving VCl2. Upon heating under H2 at 675 °C (but less than 700 °C), VCl3 reduces to greenish VCl2.
VCl3 forms colorful adducts and derivatives with a broad scale of ligands. VCl3 dissolves in water to give the hexahydrate, but the formula is deceptive. The salt is described by the formula [VCl2(H2O)4]Cl.2H2O. In other words, two of the water molecules are not bound to the vanadium, whose structure resembles the corresponding Fe(III) derivative. Removal of the two bound chloride ligands from [VCl2(H2O)4]+ in aqueous solution gives the green ion [V(H2O)6]3+.
With tetrahydrofuran, VCl3 forms the red/pink complex VCl3(THF)3. Vanadium(III) chloride reacts with acetonitrile to give the green adduct VCl3(MeCN)3. When treated with KCN, VCl3 converts to [V(CN)7]4− (early metals commonly adopt coordination numbers greater than 6 with compact ligands). Complementarily, larger metals can form complexes with rather bulky ligands. This aspect is illustrated by the isolation of VCl3(NMe3)2, containing two bulky NMe3 ligands.