Electron affinity (data page)

Summary

This page deals with the electron affinity as a property of isolated atoms or molecules (i.e. in the gas phase). Solid state electron affinities are not listed here.

Elements

Electron affinity can be defined in two equivalent ways. First, as the energy that is released by adding an electron to an isolated gaseous atom. The second (reverse) definition is that electron affinity is the energy required to remove an electron from a singly charged gaseous negative ion. The latter can be regarded as the ionization energy of the –1 ion or the zeroeth ionization energy.[1] Either convention can be used.[2]

Negative electron affinities can be used in those cases where electron capture requires energy, i.e. when capture can occur only if the impinging electron has a kinetic energy large enough to excite a resonance of the atom-plus-electron system. Conversely electron removal from the anion formed in this way releases energy, which is carried out by the freed electron as kinetic energy. Negative ions formed in these cases are always unstable. They may have lifetimes of the order of microseconds to milliseconds, and invariably autodetach after some time.

Z Element Name Electron affinity (eV) Electron affinity (kJ/mol) References
1 1H Hydrogen 0.754 195(19) 72.769(2) [3]
1 2H Deuterium 0.754 67(4) 72.814(4) [4]
2 He Helium -0.5(2) -48(20) estimated (est.)[5]
3 Li Lithium 0.618 049(22) 59.632 6(21) [6]
4 Be Beryllium -0.5(2) -48(20) est.[5]
5 B Boron 0.279 723(25) 26.989(3) [7]
6 12C Carbon 1.262 122 6(11) 121.776 3(1) [8]
6 13C Carbon 1.262 113 6(12) 121.775 5(2) [8]
7 N Nitrogen -0.07 -6.8 [5]
8 16O Oxygen 1.461 113 6(9) 140.976 0(2) [9]
8 17O Oxygen 1.461 108 (4) 140.975 5(3) [10]
8 18O Oxygen 1.461 105(3) 140.975 2(3) [10]
9 F Fluorine 3.401 189 8(24) 328.164 9(3) [11][12]
10 Ne Neon -1.2(2) -116(19) est.[5]
11 Na Sodium 0.547 926(25) 52.867(3) [13]
12 Mg Magnesium -0.4(2) -40(19) est.[5]
13 Al Aluminium 0.432 83(5) 41.762(5) [14]
14 Si Silicon 1.389 521 2(8) 134.068 4(1) [9]
15 P Phosphorus 0.746 609(11) 72.037(1) [15]
16 32S Sulfur 2.077 104 2(6) 200.410 1(1) [9]
16 34S Sulfur 2.077 104 5(12) 200.410 1(2) [16]
17 Cl Chlorine 3.612 725(28) 348.575(3) [17]
18 Ar Argon -1.0(2) -96(20) est.[5]
19 K Potassium 0.501 459(13) 48.383(2) [18]
20 Ca Calcium 0.024 55(10) 2.37(1) [19]
21 Sc Scandium 0.188(20) 18(2) [20]
22 Ti Titanium 0.075 54(5) 7.289(5) [21]
23 V Vanadium 0.527 66(20) 50.911(20) [22]
24 Cr Chromium 0.675 84(12) 65.21(2) [23]
25 Mn Manganese -0.5(2) -50(19) est.[5]
26 Fe Iron 0.153 236(35) 14.785(4) [24]
27 Co Cobalt 0.662 26(5) 63.898(5) [25]
28 Ni Nickel 1.157 16(12) 111.65(2) [26]
29 Cu Copper 1.235 78(4) 119.235(4) [23]
30 Zn Zinc -0.6(2) -58(20) est.[5]
31 Ga Gallium 0.301 20(11) 29.061(12) [27]
32 Ge Germanium 1.232 676 4(13) 118.935 2(2) [28]
33 As Arsenic 0.804 8(2) 77.65(2) [29]
34 Se Selenium 2.020 604 7(12) 194.958 7(2) [30]
35 Br Bromine 3.363 588(3) 324.536 9(3) [11]
36 Kr Krypton -1.0(2) -96(20) est.[5]
37 Rb Rubidium 0.485 916(21) 46.884(3) [31]
38 Sr Strontium 0.052 06(6) 5.023(6) [32]
39 Y Yttrium 0.307(12) 29.6(12) [20]
40 Zr Zirconium 0.433 28(9) 41.806(9) [33]
41 Nb Niobium 0.917 40(7) 88.516(7) [34]
42 Mo Molybdenum 0.747 3(3) 72.10(3) [23]
43 Tc Technetium 0.55(20) 53(20) est.[35]
44 Ru Ruthenium 1.046 38(25) 100.96(3) [36]
45 Rh Rhodium 1.142 89(20) 110.27(2) [26]
46 Pd Palladium 0.562 14(12) 54.24(2) [26]
47 Ag Silver 1.304 47(3) 125.862(3) [23]
48 Cd Cadmium -0.7(2) -68(20) est.[5]
49 In Indium 0.383 92(6) 37.043(6) [37]
50 Sn Tin 1.112 070(2) 107.298 4(3) [38]
51 Sb Antimony 1.047 401(19) 101.059(2) [39]
52 Te Tellurium 1.970 875(7) 190.161(1) [40]
53 127I Iodine 3.059 046 5(37) 295.153 1(4) [41]
53 128I Iodine 3.059 052(38) 295.154(4) [42]
54 Xe Xenon -0.8(2) -77(20) est.[5]
55 Cs Caesium 0.471 630(25) 45.505(3) [13][43]
56 Ba Barium 0.144 62(6) 13.954(6) [44]
57 La Lanthanum 0.557 546(20) 53.795(2) [45]
58 Ce Cerium 0.57(2) 55(2) [46]
59 Pr Praseodymium 0.109 23(46) 10.539(45) [47]
60 Nd Neodymium 0.097 49(33) 9.406(32) [47]
61 Pm Promethium 0.129 12.45 [48]
62 Sm Samarium 0.162 15.63 [48]
63 Eu Europium 0.116(13) 11.2(13) [49]
64 Gd Gadolinium 0.137 13.22 [48]
65 Tb Terbium 0.131 31(80) 12.670(77) [47]
66 Dy Dysprosium 0.352 33.96 min. value[35]
67 Ho Holmium 0.338 32.61 [48]
68 Er Erbium 0.312 30.10 [48]
69 Tm Thulium 1.029(22) 99(3) [50]
70 Yb Ytterbium -0.02 -1.93 est.[35]
71 Lu Lutetium 0.238 8(7) 23.04(7) [51]
72 Hf Hafnium 0.178 0(7) 17.18(7) [52]
73 Ta Tantalum 0.323(12) 31(2) [53]
74 W Tungsten 0.816 26(8) 78.76(1) [54]
75 Re Rhenium 0.060 396(64) 5.827 3(62) [55]
76 Os Osmium 1.077 80(13) 103.99(2) [56]
77 Ir Iridium 1.564 057(12) 150.908 6(12) [57]
78 Pt Platinum 2.125 10(5) 205.041(5) [58]
79 Au Gold 2.308 610(25) 222.747(3) [59]
80 Hg Mercury -0.5(2) -48(20) est.[5]
81 Tl Thallium 0.320 053(19) 30.880 4(19) [60]
82 Pb Lead 0.356 721(2) 34.418 3(3) [61]
83 Bi Bismuth 0.942 362(13) 90.924(2) [62]
84 Po Polonium 1.40(7) 136(7) calc.[63]
85 At Astatine 2.415 78(7) 233.087(8) [64]
86 Rn Radon -0.7(2) -68(20) est.[5]
87 Fr Francium 0.486 46.89 est.[65][35]
88 Ra Radium 0.10 9.648 5 est.[66][35]
89 Ac Actinium 0.35 33.77 est.[35]
90 Th Thorium 0.607 69(6) 58.633(6) [67]
91 Pa Protactinium 0.55 53.03 est.[68]
92 U Uranium 0.314 97(9) 30.390(9) [69]
93 Np Neptunium 0.48 45.85 est.[68]
94 Pu Plutonium -0.50 -48.33 est.[68]
95 Am Americium 0.10 9.93 est.[68]
96 Cm Curium 0.28 27.17 est.[68]
97 Bk Berkelium -1.72 -165.24 est.[68]
98 Cf Californium -1.01 -97.31 est.[68]
99 Es Einsteinium -0.30 -28.60 est.[68]
100 Fm Fermium 0.35 33.96 est.[68]
101 Md Mendelevium 0.98 93.91 est.[68]
102 No Nobelium -2.33 -223.22 est.[68]
103 Lr Lawrencium -0.31 -30.04 est.[68]
111 Rg Roentgenium 1.565 151.0 calc.[70]
113 Nh Nihonium 0.69 66.6 calc.[71]
115 Mc Moscovium 0.366 35.3 calc.[71]
116 Lv Livermorium 0.776 74.9 calc.[71]
117 Ts Tennessine 1.719 165.9 calc.[71]
118 Og Oganesson 0.056(10) 5.403 18 calc.[72]
119 Uue Ununennium 0.662 63.87 calc.[65]
120 Ubn Unbinilium 0.021 2.03 calc.[73]
121 Ubu Unbiunium 0.57 55 calc.[35]

Molecules

The electron affinities Eea of some molecules are given in the table below, from the lightest to the heaviest. Many more have been listed by Rienstra-Kiracofe et al. (2002). The electron affinities of the radicals OH and SH are the most precisely known of all molecular electron affinities.

Molecule Name Eea (eV) Eea (kJ/mol) References
Diatomics
16OH Hydroxyl 1.827 6488(11) 176.3413(2) Goldfarb et al. (2005)
16OD 1.825 53(4) 176.137(5) Schulz et al. (1982)
C2 Dicarbon 3.269(6) 315.4(6) Ervin & Lineberger (1991)
BO Boron oxide 2.508(8) 242.0(8) Wenthold et al. (1997)
NO Nitric oxide 0.026(5) 2.5(5) Travers, Cowles & Ellison (1989)
O2 Dioxygen 0.450(2) 43.42(20) Schiedt & Weinkauf (1995)
32SH Sulfhydryl 2.314 7283(17) 223.3373(2) Chaibi et al. (2006)
F2 Difluorine 3.08(10) 297(10) Janousek & Brauman (1979)
Cl2 Dichlorine 2.35(8) 227(8) Janousek & Brauman (1979)
Br2 Dibromine 2.53(8) 244(8) Janousek & Brauman (1979)
I2 Diiodine 2.524(5) 243.5(5) Zanni et al. (1997)
IBr Iodine bromide 2.512(3) 242.4(4) Sheps, Miller & Lineberger (2009)
LiCl Lithium chloride 0.593(10) 57.2(10) Miller et al. (1986)
FeO Iron(II) oxide 1.4950(5) 144.25(6) Kim, Weichman & Neumark (2015)
Triatomics
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide 2.273(5) 219.3(5) Ervin, Ho & Lineberger (1988)
O3 Ozone 2.1028(25) 202.89(25) Novick et al. (1979)
SO2 Sulfur dioxide 1.107(8) 106.8(8) Nimlos & Ellison (1986)
Larger polyatomics
CH2CHO Vinyloxy 1.8248(+2-6) 176.07(+3-7) Rienstra-Kiracofe et al. (2002) after Mead et al. (1984)
C6H6 Benzene -0.70(14) −68(14) Ruoff et al. (1995)
C6H4O2 p-Benzoquinone 1.860(5) 179.5(6) Schiedt & Weinkauf (1999)
BF3 Boron trifluoride 2.65(10) 256(10) Page & Goode (1969)
HNO3 Nitric acid 0.57(15) 55(14) Janousek & Brauman (1979)
CH3NO2 Nitromethane 0.172(6) 16.6(6) Adams et al. (2009)
POCl3 Phosphoryl chloride 1.41(20) 136(20) Mathur et al. (1976)
SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride 1.03(5) 99.4(49) Troe, Miller & Viggiano (2012)
C2(CN)4 Tetracyanoethylene 3.17(20) 306(20) Chowdhury & Kebarle (1986)
WF6 Tungsten hexafluoride 3.5(1) 338(10) George & Beauchamp (1979)
UF6 Uranium hexafluoride 5.06(20) 488(20) NIST chemistry webbook after Borshchevskii et al. (1988)
C60 Buckminsterfullerene 2.6835(6) 258.92(6) Huang et al. (2014)

Second and third electron affinity

Z Element Name Electron affinity (eV) Electron affinity (kJ/mol) References
7 N Nitrogen -6.98 -673 [74]
7 N2- Nitrogen -11.09 -1070 [74]
8 O Oxygen -7.71 -744 [74]
15 P Phosphorus -4.85 -468 [74]
15 P2- Phosphorus -9.18 -886 [74]

Bibliography

  • Janousek, Bruce K.; Brauman, John I. (1979), "Electron affinities", in Bowers, M. T. (ed.), Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, 2, New York: Academic Press, p. 53.
  • Rienstra-Kiracofe, J.C.; Tschumper, G.S.; Schaefer, H.F.; Nandi, S.; Ellison, G.B. (2002), "Atomic and molecular electron affinities: Photoelectron experiments and theoretical computations", Chem. Rev., 102 (1), pp. 231–282, doi:10.1021/cr990044u, PMID 11782134.
  • Updated values can be found in the NIST chemistry webbook for around three dozen elements and close to 400 compounds.

Specific molecules

  • Adams, C.L.; Schneider, H.; Ervin, K.M.; Weber, J.M. (2009), "Low-energy photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of nitromethane anions: Electron affinity, vibrational features, anisotropies, and the dipole-bound state", J. Chem. Phys., 130 (7): 074307, Bibcode:2009JChPh.130g4307A, doi:10.1063/1.3076892, PMID 19239294
  • Borshchevskii, A.Ya.; Boltalina, O.V.; Sorokin, I.D.; Sidorov, L.N. (1988), "Thermochemical quantities for gas-phase iron, uranium, and molybdenum fluorides, and their negative ions", J. Chem. Thermodyn., 20 (5): 523, doi:10.1016/0021-9614(88)90080-8
  • Chaibi, W.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Blondel, C. (2006), "High precision measurement of the 32SH electron affinity by laser detachment microscopy", J. Mol. Spectrosc., 239 (1): 11, Bibcode:2006JMoSp.239...11C, doi:10.1016/j.jms.2006.05.012
  • Chowdhury, S.; Kebarle, P. (1986), "Electron affinities of di- and tetracyanoethylene and cyanobenzenes based on measurements of gas-phase electron-transfer equilibria", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 108 (18): 5453, doi:10.1021/ja00278a014
  • Ervin, K.M.; Ho, J.; Lineberger, W.C. (1988), "Ultraviolet photoelectron spectrum of nitrite anion", J. Phys. Chem., 92 (19): 5405, doi:10.1021/j100330a017
  • Ervin, K.M.; Lineberger, W.C. (1991), "Photoelectron spectra of C
    2
    and C2H", J. Phys. Chem., 95 (3): 1167, doi:10.1021/j100156a026
  • George, P.M.; Beauchamp, J.L. (1979), "The electron and fluoride affinities of tungsten hexafluoride by ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy", Chem. Phys., 36 (3): 345, Bibcode:1979CP.....36..345G, doi:10.1016/0301-0104(79)85018-1
  • Goldfarb, F.; Drag, C.; Chaibi, W.; Kröger, S.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C. (2005), "Photodetachment microscopy of the P, Q, and R branches of the OH(v=0) to OH(v=0) detachment threshold", J. Chem. Phys., 122 (1): 014308, Bibcode:2005JChPh.122a4308G, doi:10.1063/1.1824904, PMID 15638660
  • Huang, Dao-Ling; Dau, Phuong Diem; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Lai-Sheng (2014), "High-resolution photoelectron imaging of cold C
    60
    anions and accurate determination of the electron affinity of C60", J. Chem. Phys., 140 (22): 224315, Bibcode:2014JChPh.140v4315H, doi:10.1063/1.4881421, PMID 24929396, S2CID 1061364
  • Kim, J.B.; Weichman, M.L.; Neumark, D.M. (2015), "Low-lying states of FeO and FeO by slow photoelectron spectroscopy", Mol. Phys., 113 (15–16): 2105, Bibcode:2015MolPh.113.2105K, doi:10.1080/00268976.2015.1005706
  • Mathur, B.P.; Rothe, E.W.; Tang, S.Y.; Reck, G.P. (1976), "Negative ions from phosphorus halides due to cesium charge exchange", J. Chem. Phys., 65 (2): 565, Bibcode:1976JChPh..65..565M, doi:10.1063/1.433109
  • Mead, R.D.; Lykke, K.R.; Lineberger, W.C.; Marks, J.; Brauman, J.I. (1984), "Spectroscopy and dynamics of the dipole-bound state of acetaldehyde enolate", J. Chem. Phys., 81 (11): 4883, Bibcode:1984JChPh..81.4883M, doi:10.1063/1.447515
  • Miller, T.M.; Leopold, D.G.; Murray, K.K.; Lineberger, W.C. (1986), "Electron affinities of the alkali halides and the structure of their negative ions", J. Chem. Phys., 85 (5): 2368, Bibcode:1986JChPh..85.2368M, doi:10.1063/1.451091
  • Nimlos, Mark R.; Ellison, G. Barney (1986), "Photoelectron spectroscopy of sulfur-containing anions (SO
    2
    , S
    3
    , and S2O)", J. Phys. Chem., 90 (12): 2574, doi:10.1021/j100403a007
  • Novick, S.E.; Engelking, P.C.; Jones, P.L.; Futrell, J.H.; Lineberger, W.C. (1979), "Laser photoelectron, photodetachment, and photodestruction spectra of O
    3
    ", J. Chem. Phys., 70 (6): 2652, Bibcode:1979JChPh..70.2652N, doi:10.1063/1.437842
  • Page, F. M.; Goode, G. C. (1969), Negative ions and the magnetron, John Wiley & Sons[75]
  • Ruoff, R.S.; Kadish, K.M.; Boulas, P.; Chen, E.C.M. (1995), "Relationship between the Electron Affinities and Half-Wave Reduction Potentials of Fullerenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Metal Complexes", J. Phys. Chem., 99 (21): 8843, doi:10.1021/j100021a060
  • Schiedt, J.; Weinkauf, R. (1995), "Spin-orbit coupling in the O
    2
    anion", Z. Naturforsch. A, 50 (11): 1041, Bibcode:1995ZNatA..50.1041S, doi:10.1515/zna-1995-1110
  • Schiedt, J.; Weinkauf, R. (1999), "Resonant photodetachment via shape and Feshbach resonances: p-benzoquinone anions as a model system", J. Chem. Phys., 110 (1): 304, Bibcode:1999JChPh.110..304S, doi:10.1063/1.478066
  • Schulz, P.A.; Mead, R.D.; Jones, P.L.; Lineberger, W.C. (1982), "OH and OD threshold photodetachment", J. Chem. Phys., 77 (3): 1153, Bibcode:1982JChPh..77.1153S, doi:10.1063/1.443980
  • Sheps, L.; Miller, E.M.; Lineberger, W.C. (2009), "Photoelectron spectroscopy of small IBr(CO2)n(n=0–3) cluster anions", J. Chem. Phys., 131 (1): 064304, Bibcode:2009JChPh.131a4304G, doi:10.1063/1.3157185, hdl:20.500.11850/209930, PMID 19586102
  • Travers, M.J.; Cowles, D.C.; Ellison, G.B. (1989), "Reinvestigation of the electron affinities of O2 and NO", Chem. Phys. Lett., 164 (5): 449, Bibcode:1989CPL...164..449T, doi:10.1016/0009-2614(89)85237-6
  • Troe, J.; Miller, T.M.; Viggiano, A.A. (2012), "Communication:Revised electron affinity of SF6 from kinetic data", J. Chem. Phys., 136 (2): 121102, Bibcode:2012JChPh.136b1102G, doi:10.1063/1.3698170, PMID 22462826
  • Wenthold, P.G.; Kim, J.B.; Jonas, K.-L.; Lineberger, W.C. (1997), "An Experimental and Computational Study of the Electron Affinity of Boron Oxide", J. Phys. Chem. A, 101 (24): 4472, Bibcode:1997JPCA..101.4472W, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.497.1352, doi:10.1021/jp970645u
  • Zanni, M.T.; Taylor, T.R.; Greenblatt, B.J.; Soep, B.; Neumark, D.M. (1997), "Characterization of the I
    2
    anion ground state using conventional and femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy", J. Chem. Phys., 107 (19): 7613, Bibcode:1997JChPh.107.7613Z, doi:10.1063/1.475110

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See also