and largest city
|Official languages||Arabic[nb 1]|
|Recognised languages||English and French|
|Local language||Lebanese Arabic[nb 2]|
|Government||Unitary confessionalist parliamentary republic|
|1 September 1920|
|23 May 1926|
• Independence declared
|22 November 1943|
• French mandate ended
|24 October 1945|
• Withdrawal of French forces
|31 December 1946|
|1976 - 2005|
|30 April 2005|
|10,452 km2 (4,036 sq mi) (161st)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
|560/km2 (1,450.4/sq mi) (21st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$59 billion (82nd)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.757|
high · 80th
|Currency||Lebanese pound (LBP)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
|Driving side||right side of the road|
|ISO 3166 code||LB|
Lebanon (/ˈlɛbənɒn/ (listen); Arabic: لبنان, romanized: Lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: [lɪbˈnɛːn]; French: Liban), officially known as the Lebanese Republic[nb 3] (Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية, romanized: al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: [elˈʒʊmhuːɾɪjje lˈlɪbnɛːnɪjje]; French: République libanaise), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2 (4,036 sq. mi.), it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.[nb 4]
The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. 1550–539 BC). In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.
The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence. Foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years.
Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking. Because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, and its capital, Beirut, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf. Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League (1945), the Non-Aligned Movement (1961), Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (1969) and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie (1973).
Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn (𓂋𓏠𓈖𓈖𓈉), where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן.
Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit (as opposed to the mountain range) was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (Arabic: متصرفية جبل لبنان; Turkish: Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı), continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon (Arabic: دولة لبنان الكبير Dawlat Lubnān al-Kabīr; French: État du Grand Liban) in 1920, and eventually in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon (Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah) upon its independence in 1943.
The borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician (Canaanite) city-states. As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Sasanid Persian empires.
After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires. The crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and finally to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, and gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and armed conflict (1948 Arab–Israeli War, Lebanese Civil War 1975–1990, 2005 Cedar Revolution, 2006 Lebanon War, 2007 Lebanon conflict, 2006–08 Lebanese protests, 2008 conflict in Lebanon, and since 2011 Syrian Civil War spillover).
Evidence dating back to an early settlement in Lebanon was found in Byblos, considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The evidence dates back to earlier than 5000 BC. Archaeologists discovered remnants of prehistoric huts with crushed limestone floors, primitive weapons, and burial jars left by the Neolithic and Chalcolithic fishing communities who lived on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea over 7,000 years ago.
Lebanon was a part of northern Canaan, and consequently became the homeland of Canaanite descendants – the Phoenicians, a seafaring people who spread across the Mediterranean in the first millennium BC . The most prominent Phoenician cities were Byblos, Sidon and Tyre, while their most famous colonies were Carthage in present-day Tunisia and Cádiz in present-day Spain. The Canaanite-Phoenicians are credited with the invention of the Phoenician alphabet. The cities of Phoenicia were incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. The Phoenician city-states were later incorporated into the empire of Alexander the Great following the Siege of Tyre in 332 BC.
Maronites, Druze, and the Crusades
The region that is now Lebanon, as with the rest of Syria and much of Anatolia, became a major center of Christianity in the Roman Empire during the early spread of the religion. During the late 4th and early 5th century, a hermit named Maron established a monastic tradition focused on the importance of monotheism and asceticism, near the Mediterranean mountain range known as Mount Lebanon. The monks who followed Maron spread his teachings among Lebanese in the region. These Christians came to be known as Maronites and moved into the mountains to avoid religious persecution by Roman authorities. During the frequent Roman-Persian Wars that lasted for many centuries, the Sassanid Persians occupied what is now Lebanon from 619 till 629.
During the 7th century the Muslim Arabs conquered Syria establishing a new regime to replace the Byzantines. Though Islam and the Arabic language were officially dominant under this new regime, the general populace nonetheless only gradually converted from Christianity and the Syriac language. The Maronite community in particular managed to maintain a large degree of autonomy despite the succession of rulers over Lebanon and Syria.
During the 11th century the Druze faith emerged from a branch of Shia Islam. The new faith gained followers in the southern portion of Mount Lebanon. The northern portion of Mount Lebanon was ruled by Druze feudal families to the early 14th century which was then brought to an end by the Mamluk invasion. The Maronite population increased gradually in Northern Mount Lebanon and the Druze have remained in Southern Mount Lebanon until the modern era. In the south of Lebanon, (Jabal Amel), Baalbek and the Beqaa Valley was ruled by Shia feudal families under the Mamluks and the Ottoman Empire. Major cities on the coast, Acre, Beirut, and others, were directly administered by the Muslim Caliphs and the people became more fully absorbed by the Arab culture.
Following the fall of Roman Anatolia to the Muslim Turks, the Byzantines put out a call to the Pope in Rome for assistance in the 11th century. The result was a series of wars known as the Crusades launched by the Franks in Western Europe to reclaim the former Byzantine Christian territories in the Eastern Mediterranean, especially Syria and Palestine (the Levant). The First Crusade succeeded in temporarily establishing the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli as Roman Catholic Christian states along the coast. These crusader states made a lasting impact on the region, though their control was limited, and the region returned to full Muslim control after two centuries following the conquest by the Mamluks.
One of the most lasting effects of the Crusades in this region was the contact between the Franks (i.e. the French) and the Maronites. Unlike most other Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, who swore allegiance to Constantinople or other local patriarchs, the Maronites proclaimed allegiance to the Pope in Rome. As such the Franks saw them as Roman Catholic brethren. These initial contacts led to centuries of support for the Maronites from France and Italy, even after the fall of the Crusader states in the region.
Ottoman Lebanon and French Mandate
During this period Lebanon was divided into several provinces: Northern and Southern Mount Lebanon, Tripoli, Baalbek and Beqaa Valley and Jabal Amel. In southern Mount Lebanon in 1590, Fakhr-al-Din II became the successor to Korkmaz. He soon established his authority as paramount prince of the Druze in the Shouf area of Mount Lebanon. Eventually, Fakhr-al-Din II was appointed Sanjakbey (Governor) of several Ottoman sub-provinces, with responsibility for tax-gathering. He extended his control over a substantial part of Mount Lebanon and its coastal area, even building a fort as far inland as Palmyra. This over-reaching eventually became too much for Ottoman Sultan Murad IV, who sent a punitive expedition to capture him in 1633. He was taken to Istanbul, kept in prison for two years and then executed along with one of his sons in April 1635. Surviving members of Fakhr al-Din's family ruled a reduced area under closer Ottoman control until the end of the 17th century.
On the death of the last Maan emir, various members of the Shihab clan ruled Mount Lebanon until 1830. Approximately 10,000 Christians were killed by the Druzes during inter-communal violence in 1860. Shortly afterwards, the Emirate of Mount Lebanon, which lasted about 400 years, was replaced by the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, as a result of a European-Ottoman treaty called the Règlement Organique. The Baalbek and Beqaa Valley and Jabal Amel was ruled intermittently by various Shia feudal families, especially the Al Ali Alsagheer in Jabal Amel that remained in power until 1865 when Ottomans took direct ruling of the region. Youssef Bey Karam, a Lebanese nationalist played an influential role in Lebanon's independence during this era.
In 1920, following World War I, the area of the Mutasarrifate, plus some surrounding areas which were predominantly Shia and Sunni, became a part of the state of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon. Around 100,000 people in Beirut and Mount Lebanon died of starvation during World War I. In the first half of 1920, Lebanese territory was claimed as part of the Arab Kingdom of Syria, but shortly the Franco-Syrian War resulted in Arab defeat and capitulation of the Hashemites.
On 1 September 1920, France reestablished Greater Lebanon after the Moutasarrifiya rule removed several regions belonging to the Principality of Lebanon and gave them to Syria. Lebanon was a largely Christian country (mainly Maronite territory with some Greek Orthodox enclaves) but it also included areas containing many Muslims and Druze. On 1 September 1926, France formed the Lebanese Republic. A constitution was adopted on 25 May 1926 establishing a democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government.
Independence from France
Lebanon gained a measure of independence while France was occupied by Germany. General Henri Dentz, the Vichy High Commissioner for Syria and Lebanon, played a major role in the independence of the nation. The Vichy authorities in 1941 allowed Germany to move aircraft and supplies through Syria to Iraq where they were used against British forces. The United Kingdom, fearing that Nazi Germany would gain full control of Lebanon and Syria by pressure on the weak Vichy government, sent its army into Syria and Lebanon.
After the fighting ended in Lebanon, General Charles de Gaulle visited the area. Under political pressure from both inside and outside Lebanon, de Gaulle recognized the independence of Lebanon. On 26 November 1941 General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government. Elections were held in 1943 and on 8 November 1943 the new Lebanese government unilaterally abolished the mandate. The French reacted by imprisoning the new government. In the face of international pressure, the French released the government officials on 22 November 1943. The allies occupied the region until the end of World War II.
Following the end of World War II in Europe the French mandate may be said to have been terminated without any formal action on the part of the League of Nations or its successor the United Nations. The mandate was ended by the declaration of the mandatory power, and of the new states themselves, of their independence, followed by a process of piecemeal unconditional recognition by other powers, culminating in formal admission to the United Nations. Article 78 of the UN Charter ended the status of tutelage for any member state: "The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality." So when the UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, after ratification of the United Nations Charter by the five permanent members, as both Syria and Lebanon were founding member states, the French mandate for both was legally terminated on that date and full independence attained. The last French troops withdrew in December 1946.
Lebanon's unwritten National Pact of 1943 required that its president be Maronite Christian, its speaker of the parliament to be a Shiite Muslim, its prime minister be Sunni Muslim, and the Deputy Speaker of Parliament and the Deputy Prime Minister be Greek Orthodox.
Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade.
In May 1948, Lebanon supported neighbouring Arab countries in a war against Israel. While some irregular forces crossed the border and carried out minor skirmishes against Israel, it was without the support of the Lebanese government, and Lebanese troops did not officially invade. Lebanon agreed to support the forces with covering artillery fire, armored cars, volunteers and logistical support. On 5–6 June 1948, the Lebanese army – led by the then Minister of National Defence, Emir Majid Arslan – captured Al-Malkiyya. This was Lebanon's only success in the war.
100,000 Palestinians fled to Lebanon because of the war. Israel did not permit their return after the cease-fire. As of 2017 between 174,000 and 450,000 Palestinian refugees live in Lebanon with about half in refugee camps (although these are often decades old and resemble neighborhoods). Palestinians often cannot obtain Lebanese citizenship or even Lebanese identity cards so many are legally barred from owning property or performing certain occupations (including law, medicine, and engineering). According to Human Rights Watch, Palestinian refugees in Lebanon live in "appalling social and economic conditions."
In 1958, during the last months of President Camille Chamoun's term, an insurrection broke out, instigated by Lebanese Muslims who wanted to make Lebanon a member of the United Arab Republic. Chamoun requested assistance, and 5,000 United States Marines were briefly dispatched to Beirut on 15 July. After the crisis, a new government was formed, led by the popular former general Fuad Chehab.
With the defeat of the PLO in Jordan, many Palestinian militants relocated to Lebanon, increasing their armed campaign against Israel. The relocation of Palestinian bases also led to increasing sectarian tensions between Palestinians versus the Maronites and other Lebanese factions.
Civil war and Syrian occupation
In 1975, following increasing sectarian tensions, a full-scale civil war broke out in Lebanon. The Lebanese Civil War pitted a coalition of Christian groups against the joint forces of the PLO, left-wing Druze and Muslim militias. In June 1976 Lebanese President Elias Sarkis asked for the Syrian Army to intervene on the side of the Christians and help restore peace. In October 1976 the Arab League agreed to establish a predominantly Syrian Arab Deterrent Force, which was charged with restoring calm.
In 1982, the PLO attacks from Lebanon on Israel led to an Israeli invasion. A multinational force of American, French and Italian contingents (joined in 1983 by a British contingent) were deployed in Beirut after the Israeli siege of the city, to supervise the evacuation of the PLO. It returned in September 1982 after the assassination of Bashir Gemayel and subsequent fighting. During this time a number of massacres occurred, such as in Sabra and Shatila, and in several refugee camps. The multinational force was withdrawn in the spring of 1984, following a devastating bombing attack during the previous year.
In September 1988, the Parliament failed to elect a successor to President Gemayel as a result of differences between the Christians, Muslims, and Syrians. The Arab League Summit of May 1989 led to the formation of a Saudi–Moroccan–Algerian committee to solve the crisis. On 16 September 1989 the committee issued a peace plan which was accepted by all. A ceasefire was established, the ports and airports were re-opened and refugees began to return.
In the same month, the Lebanese Parliament agreed to the Taif Agreement, which included an outline timetable for Syrian withdrawal from Lebanon and a formula for the de-confessionalisation of the Lebanese political system. The war ended at the end of 1990 after sixteen years; it had caused massive loss of human life and property, and devastated the country's economy. It is estimated that 150,000 people were killed and another 200,000 wounded. Nearly a million civilians were displaced by the war, and some never returned. Parts of Lebanon were left in ruins. The Taif Agreement has still not been implemented in full and Lebanon's political system continues to be divided along sectarian lines.
Syrian withdrawal and aftermath
The internal political situation in Lebanon significantly changed in the early 2000s. After the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon and the death of Hafez Al-Assad in 2000, the Syrian military presence faced criticism and resistance from the Lebanese population.
On 14 February 2005, former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated in a car bomb explosion. Leaders of the March 14 Alliance accused Syria of the attack, while Syrian officials and the March 8 Alliance claimed that the Mossad was behind the assassination. The Hariri assassination marked the beginning of a series of assassinations that resulted in the death of many prominent Lebanese figures.[nb 5]
The assassination triggered the Cedar Revolution, a series of demonstrations which demanded the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and the establishment of an international commission to investigate the assassination. Under pressure from the West, Syria began withdrawing, and by 26 April 2005 all Syrian soldiers had returned to Syria.
UNSC Resolution 1595 called for an investigation into the assassination. The UN International Independent Investigation Commission published preliminary findings on 20 October 2005 in the Mehlis report, which cited indications that the assassination was organized by Syrian and Lebanese intelligence services.
On 12 July 2006, Hezbollah launched a series of rocket attacks and raids into Israeli territory, where they killed three Israeli soldiers and captured two others. Israel responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon, and a ground invasion of southern Lebanon, resulting in the 2006 Lebanon War. The conflict was officially ended by the UNSC Resolution 1701 on 14 August 2006, which ordered a ceasefire. Some 1,191 Lebanese and 160 Israelis were killed in the conflict. Beirut's southern suburb was heavily damaged by Israeli airstrikes.
In 2007, the Nahr al-Bared refugee camp became the center of the 2007 Lebanon conflict between the Lebanese Army and Fatah al-Islam. At least 169 soldiers, 287 insurgents and 47 civilians were killed in the battle. Funds for the reconstruction of the area have been slow to materialize.
Between 2006 and 2008, a series of protests led by groups opposed to the pro-Western Prime Minister Fouad Siniora demanded the creation of a national unity government, over which the mostly Shia opposition groups would have veto power. When Émile Lahoud's presidential term ended in October 2007, the opposition refused to vote for a successor unless a power-sharing deal was reached, leaving Lebanon without a president.
On 9 May 2008, Hezbollah and Amal forces, sparked by a government declaration that Hezbollah's communications network was illegal, seized western Beirut, leading to the 2008 conflict in Lebanon. The Lebanese government denounced the violence as a coup attempt. At least 62 people died in the resulting clashes between pro-government and opposition militias. On 21 May 2008, the signing of the Doha Agreement ended the fighting. As part of the accord, which ended 18 months of political paralysis, Michel Suleiman became president and a national unity government was established, granting a veto to the opposition. The agreement was a victory for opposition forces, as the government caved in to all their main demands.
In early January 2011, the national unity government collapsed due to growing tensions stemming from the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, which was expected to indict Hezbollah members for the Hariri assassination. The parliament elected Najib Mikati, the candidate for the Hezbollah-led March 8 Alliance, Prime Minister of Lebanon, making him responsible for forming a new government. Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah insists that Israel was responsible for the assassination of Hariri. A report leaked by the Al-Akhbar newspaper in November 2010 stated that Hezbollah has drafted plans for a takeover of the country in the event that the Special Tribunal for Lebanon issues an indictment against its members.
In 2012, the Syrian civil war threatened to spill over in Lebanon, causing more incidents of sectarian violence and armed clashes between Sunnis and Alawites in Tripoli. According to UNHCR, the number of Syrian refugees in Lebanon increased from around 250,000 in early 2013 to 1,000,000 in late 2014. In 2013, The Lebanese Forces Party, the Kataeb Party and the Free Patriotic Movement voiced concerns that the country's sectarian based political system is being undermined by the influx of Syrian refugees. On 6 May 2015, UNHCR suspended registration of Syrian refugees at the request of the Lebanese government. In February 2016, the Lebanese government signed the Lebanon Compact, granting a minimum of €400 million of support for refugees and vulnerable Lebanese citizens. As of October 2016, the government estimates that the country hosts 1.5 million Syrians.
The country's surface area is 10,452 square kilometres (4,036 sq mi) of which 10,230 square kilometres (3,950 sq mi) is land. Lebanon has a coastline and border of 225 kilometres (140 mi) on the Mediterranean sea to the west, a 375 kilometres (233 mi) border shared with Syria to the north and east and a 79 kilometres (49 mi) long border with Israel to the south. The border with the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights is disputed by Lebanon in a small area called Shebaa Farms.
The narrow and discontinuous coastal plain stretches from the Syrian border in the north where it widens to form the Akkar plain to Ras al-Naqoura at the border with Israel in the south. The fertile coastal plain is formed of marine sediments and river deposited alluvium alternating with sandy bays and rocky beaches. The Lebanon mountains rise steeply parallel to the Mediterranean coast and form a ridge of limestone and sandstone that runs for most of the country's length. The mountain range varies in width between 10 km (6 mi) and 56 km (35 mi); it is carved by narrow and deep gorges. The Lebanon mountains peak at 3,088 metres (10,131 ft) above sea level in Qurnat as Sawda' in North Lebanon and gradually slope to the south before rising again to a height of 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) in Mount Sannine. The Beqaa valley sits between the Lebanon mountains in the west and the Anti-Lebanon range in the east; it's a part of the Great Rift Valley system. The valley is 180 km (112 mi) long and 10 to 26 km (6 to 16 mi) wide, its fertile soil is formed by alluvial deposits. The Anti-Lebanon range runs parallel to the Lebanon mountains, its highest peak is in Mount Hermon at 2,814 metres (9,232 ft).
The mountains of Lebanon are drained by seasonal torrents and rivers foremost of which is the 145 kilometres (90 mi) long Leontes that rises in the Beqaa Valley to the west of Baalbek and empties into the Mediterranean Sea north of Tyre. Lebanon has 16 rivers all of which are non navigable; 13 rivers originate from Mount Lebanon and run through the steep gorges and into the Mediterranean Sea, the other three arise in the Beqaa Valley.
Lebanon has a moderate Mediterranean climate. In coastal areas, winters are generally cool and rainy whilst summers are hot and humid. In more elevated areas, temperatures usually drop below freezing during the winter with heavy snow cover that remains until early summer on the higher mountaintops. Although most of Lebanon receives a relatively large amount of rainfall, when measured annually in comparison to its arid surroundings, certain areas in north-eastern Lebanon receive little because of rain shadow created by the high peaks of the western mountain range.
In ancient times, Lebanon was covered by large forests of cedar trees, the national emblem of the country. Millennia of deforestation have altered the hydrology in Mount Lebanon and changed the regional climate adversely. Today, forests cover 13.4% of the Lebanese land area; they are under constant threat from wildfires caused by the long dry summer season.
As a result of longstanding exploitation, few old cedar trees remain in pockets of forests in Lebanon, but there is an active program to conserve and regenerate the forests. The Lebanese approach has emphasized natural regeneration over planting by creating the right conditions for germination and growth. The Lebanese state has created several nature reserves that contain cedars, including the Shouf Biosphere Reserve, the Jaj Cedar Reserve, the Tannourine Reserve, the Ammouaa and Karm Shbat Reserves in the Akkar district, and the Forest of the Cedars of God near Bsharri.
In 2010, the Environment Ministry set a 10-year plan to increase the national forest coverage by 20%, which is equivalent to the planting of two million new trees each year. The plan, which was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and implemented by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), through the Lebanon Reforestation Initiative (LRI), was inaugurated in 2011 by planting cedar, pine, wild almond, juniper, fir, oak and other seedlings, in ten regions around Lebanon. Today, forests cover 13.6% of Lebanon, and other wooded lands represent a further 11%. Since 2011, more than 600,000 trees, including cedars and other native species, have been planted throughout Lebanon as part of the Lebanon Reforestation Initiative (LRI).
Beirut and Mount Lebanon have been facing a severe garbage crisis. After the closure of the Bourj Hammoud dump in 1997, the al-Naameh dumpsite was opened by the government in 1998. The al-Naameh dumpsite was planned to contain 2 million tons of waste for a limited period of six years at the most. It was designed to be a temporary solution, while the government would have devised a long-term plan. Sixteen years later al-Naameh was still open and exceeded its capacity by 13 million tons. In July 2015 the residents of the area, already protesting in the recent years, forced the closure of the dumpsite.The inefficiency of the government, as well as the corruption inside of the waste management company Sukleen in charge of managing the garbage in Lebanon, have resulted in piles of garbage blocking streets in Mount Lebanon and Beirut.
In December 2015, the Lebanese government signed an agreement with Chinook Industrial Mining, part owned by Chinook Sciences, to export over 100,000 tons of untreated waste from Beirut and the surrounding area. The waste had accumulated in temporary locations following the government closure of the county's largest land fill site five months earlier. The contract was jointly signed with Howa International which has offices in Holland and Germany. The contract is reported to cost $212 per ton. The waste, which is compacted and infectious, would have to be sorted and was estimated to be enough to fill 2,000 containers. Initial reports that the waste was to be exported to Sierra Leone have been denied by diplomats.
In February 2016, the government withdrew from negotiations after it was revealed that documents relating to the export of the trash to Russia were forgeries. On 19 March 2016, the Cabinet reopened the Naameh landfill for 60 days in line with a plan it passed few days earlier to end the trash crisis. The plan also stipulates the establishment of landfills in Bourj Hammoud and Costa Brava, east and south of Beirut respectively. Sukleen trucks began removing piled garbage from Karantina and heading to Naameh. Environment Minister Mohammad Machnouk announced during a chat with activists that more than 8,000 tons of garbage had been collected so far as part of the government's trash plan in only 24 hours. The plan's execution is still ongoing. In 2017, Human Rights Watch found that Lebanon's garbage crisis, and open burning of waste in particular, was posing a health risk to residents and violating the state's obligations under international law.
In September 2018, Lebanon's parliament passed a law that banned open dumping and burning of waste. Despite penalties set in case of violations, Lebanese municipalities have been openly burning the waste, putting the lives of people in danger. In October 2018, Human Rights Watch researchers witnessed the open burning of dumps in al-Qantara and Qabrikha.
Government and politics
Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy that includes confessionalism, in which high-ranking offices are reserved for members of specific religious groups. The President, for example, has to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim, the Speaker of the Parliament a Shi’a Muslim, the Deputy Prime Minister and the Deputy Speaker of Parliament Eastern Orthodox. This system is intended to deter sectarian conflict and to represent fairly the demographic distribution of the 18 recognized religious groups in government.
Until 1975, Freedom House considered Lebanon to be one of only two (together with Israel) politically free countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. The country lost this status with the outbreak of the Civil War, and has not regained it since. Lebanon was rated "Partly Free" in 2013. Even so, the United States still considers Lebanon to be one of the most democratic nations in the Arab world.
Until 2005, Palestinians were forbidden to work in over 70 jobs because they did not have Lebanese citizenship. After liberalization laws were passed in 2007, the number of banned jobs dropped to around 20. In 2010, Palestinians were granted the same rights to work as other foreigners in the country.
Lebanon's national legislature is the unicameral Parliament of Lebanon. Its 128 seats are divided equally between Christians and Muslims, proportionately between the 18 different denominations and proportionately between its 26 regions. Prior to 1990, the ratio stood at 6:5 in favor of Christians; however, the Taif Agreement, which put an end to the 1975–1990 civil war, adjusted the ratio to grant equal representation to followers of the two religions.
The Parliament is elected for a four-year term by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation.
The executive branch consists of the President, the head of state, and the Prime Minister, the head of government. The parliament elects the president for a non-renewable six-year term by a two-third majority. The president appoints the Prime Minister, following consultations with the parliament. The president and the prime minister form a cabinet, which must also adhere to the sectarian distribution set out by confessionalism.
In an unprecedented move, the Lebanese parliament has extended its own term twice amid protests, the last being on 5 November 2014, an act which comes in direct contradiction with democracy and article #42 of the Lebanese constitution as no elections have taken place.
There are 18 officially recognized religious groups in Lebanon, each with its own family law legislation and set of religious courts.
The Lebanese legal system is based on the French system, and is a civil law country, with the exception for matters related to personal status (succession, marriage, divorce, adoption, etc.), which are governed by a separate set of laws designed for each sectarian community. For instance, the Islamic personal status laws are inspired by the Sharia law. For Muslims, these tribunals deal with questions of marriage, divorce, custody, and inheritance and wills. For non-Muslims, personal status jurisdiction is split: the law of inheritance and wills falls under national civil jurisdiction, while Christian and Jewish religious courts are competent for marriage, divorce, and custody. Catholics can additionally appeal before the Vatican Rota court.
The most notable set of codified laws is the Code des Obligations et des Contrats promulgated in 1932 and equivalent to the French Civil Code. Capital punishment is still de facto used to sanction certain crimes, but no longer enforced.
The Lebanese court system consists of three levels: courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation. The Constitutional Council rules on constitutionality of laws and electoral frauds. There also is a system of religious courts having jurisdiction over personal status matters within their own communities, with rules on matters such as marriage and inheritance.
Lebanon concluded negotiations on an association agreement with the European Union in late 2001, and both sides initialed the accord in January 2002. It is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Lebanon also has bilateral trade agreements with several Arab states and is working toward accession to the World Trade Organization.
Lebanon enjoys good relations with virtually all of the other Arab countries (despite historic tensions with Libya, the Palestinians, Syria and Iraq), and hosted an Arab League Summit in March 2002 for the first time in more than 35 years. Lebanon is a member of the Francophone countries and hosted the Francophone Summit in October 2002 as well as the Jeux de la Francophonie in 2009.
The Lebanese Armed Forces' primary missions include defending Lebanon and its citizens against external aggression, maintaining internal stability and security, confronting threats against the country's vital interests, engaging in social development activities, and undertaking relief operations in coordination with public and humanitarian institutions.
Discrimination against LGBT people in Lebanon is widespread. According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 80% of Lebanese respondents believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.
Lebanon is divided into eight governorates (mohaafazaat, Arabic: محافظات; singular mohafazah, Arabic: محافظة) which are further subdivided into twenty-six districts (aqdya—singular: qadaa). The districts themselves are also divided into several municipalities, each enclosing a group of cities or villages. The governorates and their respective districts are listed below:
- Beirut Governorate
- The Beirut Governorate is not divided into districts and is limited to the city of Beirut
- Akkar Governorate
- Baalbek-Hermel Governorate
- Beqaa Governorate
- Mount Lebanon Governorate (Jabal Lubnan/Jabal Lebnen)
- Nabatieh Governorate (Jabal Amel)
- North Governorate (ash-Shamal/shmel)
- South Governorate (al-Janoub/Jnub)
Lebanon's constitution states that 'the economic system is free and ensures private initiative and the right to private property'. Lebanon's economy follows a laissez-faire model. Most of the economy is dollarized, and the country has no restrictions on the movement of capital across its borders. The Lebanese government's intervention in foreign trade is minimal.
The Lebanese economy went through a significant expansion after the war of 2006, with growth averaging 9.1% between 2007 and 2010. After 2011 the local economy was affected by the Syrian civil war, growing by a yearly average of 1.7% on the 2011-2016 period and by 1.5% in 2017. In 2018, the size of the GDP was estimated to be $54.1 billion.
Lebanon has a very high level of public debt and large external financing needs. The 2010 public debt exceeded 150.7% of GDP, ranking fourth highest in the world as a percentage of GDP, though down from 154.8% in 2009. At the end 2008, finance minister Mohamad Chatah stated that the debt was going to reach $47 billion in that year and would increase to $49 billion if privatization of two telecoms companies did not occur. The Daily Star wrote that exorbitant debt levels have "slowed down the economy and reduced the government's spending on essential development projects".
The urban population in Lebanon is noted for its commercial enterprise. Emigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world. Remittances from Lebanese abroad total $8.2 billion and account for one fifth of the country's economy. Lebanon has the largest proportion of skilled labor among Arab States.
The Investment Development Authority of Lebanon was established with the aim of promoting investment in Lebanon. In 2001, Investment Law No.360 was enacted to reinforce the organisation's mission.
The agricultural sector employs 12% of the total workforce. Agriculture contributed to 5.9% of the country's GDP in 2011. Lebanon's proportion of cultivable land is the highest in the Arab world, Major produce includes apples, peaches, oranges, and lemons.
The commodities market in Lebanon includes substantial gold coin production, however according to International Air Transport Association (IATA) standards, they must be declared upon exportation to any foreign country.
Oil has recently been discovered inland and in the seabed between Lebanon, Cyprus, Israel and Egypt and talks are underway between Cyprus and Egypt to reach an agreement regarding the exploration of these resources. The seabed separating Lebanon and Cyprus is believed to hold significant quantities of crude oil and natural gas.
Industry in Lebanon is mainly limited to small businesses that reassemble and package imported parts. In 2004, industry ranked second in workforce, with 26% of the Lebanese working population, and second in GDP contribution, with 21% of Lebanon's GDP.
Nearly 65% of the Lebanese workforce attain employment in the services sector. The GDP contribution, accordingly, amounts to roughly 67.3% of the annual Lebanese GDP. However, dependence on the tourism and banking sectors leaves the economy vulnerable to political instability.
On 10 May 2013 the Lebanese minister of energy and water clarified that seismic images of the Lebanese's sea bed are undergoing detailed explanation of their contents and that up till now, approximately 10% have been covered. Preliminary inspection of the results showed, with more than 50% probability, that 10% of Lebanon's exclusive economic zone contained up to 660 million barrels of oil and up to 30×1012 cu ft of gas.
The Syrian crisis has significantly affected Lebanese economic and financial situation. The demographic pressure imposed by the Syrian refugees now living in Lebanon has led to competition in the labour market. As a direct consequence unemployment has doubled in three years, reaching 20% in 2014. A loss of 14% of wages regarding the salary of less-skilled workers has also been registered. The financial constraints were also felt: the poverty rate increased with 170.000 Lebanese falling under the poverty threshold. In the period between 2012 and 2014, the public spending increased by $1 billion and losses amounted to $7.5 billion. Expenditures related only to the Syrian refugees were estimated by the Central Bank of Lebanon as $4.5 billion every year.
In the 1950s, GDP growth was the second highest in the world. Despite not having oil reserves, Lebanon, as the banking center of the Middle East and one of the trading centers, had a high national income.
The 1975–1990 civil war heavily damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a West Asian entrepôt and banking hub. The subsequent period of relative peace enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers, with family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid as the main sources of foreign exchange.
Until July 2006, Lebanon enjoyed considerable stability, Beirut's reconstruction was almost complete, and increasing numbers of tourists poured into the nation's resorts. The economy witnessed growth, with bank assets reaching over 75 billion US dollars, Market capitalization was also at an all-time high, estimated at $10.9 billion at the end of the second quarter of 2006. The month-long 2006 war severely damaged Lebanon's fragile economy, especially the tourism sector. According to a preliminary report published by the Lebanese Ministry of Finance on 30 August 2006, a major economic decline was expected as a result of the fighting.
Over the course of 2008 Lebanon rebuilt its infrastructure mainly in the real estate and tourism sectors, resulting in a comparatively robust post war economy. Major contributors to the reconstruction of Lebanon include Saudi Arabia (with US$1.5 billion pledged), the European Union (with about $1 billion) and a few other Persian Gulf countries with contributions of up to $800 million.
The tourism industry accounts for about 10% of GDP. Lebanon managed to attract around 1,333,000 tourists in 2008, thus placing it as rank 79 out of 191 countries. In 2009, The New York Times ranked Beirut the No. 1 travel destination worldwide due to its nightlife and hospitality. In January 2010, the Ministry of Tourism announced that 1,851,081 tourists had visited Lebanon in 2009, a 39% increase from 2008. In 2009, Lebanon hosted the largest number of tourists to date, eclipsing the previous record set before the Lebanese Civil War. Tourist arrivals reached two million in 2010, but fell by 37% for the first 10 months of 2012, a decline caused by the war in neighbouring Syria.
Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Japan are the three most popular origin countries of foreign tourists to Lebanon. The recent influx of Japanese tourists has caused the recent rise in popularity of Japanese Cuisine in Lebanon.
The population of Lebanon was estimated to be 6,006,668 in 2016; however, no official census has been conducted since 1932 due to the sensitive confessional political balance between Lebanon's various religious groups. Identifying all Lebanese as ethnically Arab is a widely employed example of panethnicity since in reality, the Lebanese "are descended from many different peoples who are either indigenous, or have occupied, invaded, or settled this corner of the world", making Lebanon, "a mosaic of closely interrelated cultures". While at first glance, this ethnic, linguistic, religious and denominational diversity might seem to cause civil and political unrest, "for much of Lebanon’s history this multitudinous diversity of religious communities has coexisted with little conflict".
The fertility rate fell from 5.00 in 1971 to 1.75 in 2004. Fertility rates vary considerably among the different religious groups: in 2004, it was 2.10 for Shiites, 1.76 Sunnis and 1.61 for Maronites.
Lebanon has witnessed a series of migration waves: over 1,800,000 people emigrated from the country in the 1975–2011 period. Millions of people of Lebanese descent are spread throughout the world, mostly Christians, especially in Latin America. Brazil has the largest expatriate population. (See Lebanese Brazilians). Large numbers of Lebanese migrated to West Africa, particularly to the Ivory Coast (home to over 100,000 Lebanese) and Senegal (roughly 30,000 Lebanese). Australia is home to over 270,000 Lebanese (1999 est.). In Canada, there is also a large Lebanese diaspora of approximately 250,000–700,000 people having Lebanese descent. (see Lebanese Canadians). Another region with a significant diaspora is the Persian Gulf, where the countries of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar (around 25,000 people), Saudi Arabia and UAE act as host countries to many Lebanese.
As of 2012[update], Lebanon was host to over 1,600,000 refugees and asylum seekers: 449,957 from Palestine, 3,515 from Iraq, over 1,100,000 from Syria, and 4,000 from Sudan. According to the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia of the United Nations, among the Syrian refugees, 71% live in poverty. The latest estimates by the United Nations put the number of Syrian refugees at more than 1,250,000.
In the last three decades, lengthy and destructive armed conflicts have ravaged the country. The majority of Lebanese have been affected by armed conflict; those with direct personal experience include 75% of the population, and most others report suffering a range of hardships. In total, almost the entire population (96%) has been affected in some way – either personally or because of the wider consequences of armed conflict.
Largest cities or towns in Lebanon
Lebanon is the most religiously diverse country in the Middle East. As of 2014[update] the CIA World Factbook estimates the following: Muslim 54% (27% Sunni Islam, 27% Shia Islam), Christian 40.5% (includes 21% Maronite Catholic, 8% Greek Orthodox, 5% Melkite Catholic, 1% Protestant, 5.5% other Christian), Druze 5.6%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, Hindus and Mormons. A study conducted by the Lebanese Information Center and based on voter registration numbers shows that by 2011 the Christian population was stable compared to that of previous years, making up 34.35% of the population; Muslims, the Druze included, were 65.47% of the population. The World Values Survey of 2014 put the percentage of atheists in Lebanon at 3.3%.
It is believed that there has been a decline in the ratio of Christians to Muslims over the past 60 years, due to higher emigration rates of Christians, and a higher birth rate in the Muslim population. When the last census was held in 1932, Christians made up 53% of Lebanon's population. In 1956, it was estimated that the population was 54% Christian and 44% Muslim.
A demographic study conducted by the research firm Statistics Lebanon found that approximately 27% of the population was Sunni, 27% Shia, 21% Maronite, 8% Greek Orthodox, 5% Druze, 5% Melkite, and 1% Protestant, with the remaining 6% mostly belonging to smaller non-native to Lebanon Christian denominations.
Because the relative size of confessional groups remains a sensitive issue, a national census has not been conducted since 1932. There are 18 state-recognized religious sects – four Muslim, 12 Christian, one Druze, and one Jewish.
The Greek Orthodox, the second largest Christian community in Lebanon, primarily live in Koura, Beirut, Rachaya, Matn, Aley, Akkar, in the countryside around Tripoli, Hasbaya and Marjeyoun. They are a minority of 10% in Zahle.
The Greek Catholics live mainly in Beirut, on the eastern slopes of the Lebanon mountains and in Zahle which is predominantly Greek Catholic.
In the Christian village of Hadat, there have been a municipal ban on Muslims from buying or renting property. It has been claimed that it is due to the underlying fear of mixing with one another's salvation since for three decades, the village of Hadat has been primarily Christian.
Article 11 of Lebanon's Constitution states that "Arabic is the official national language. A law determines the cases in which the French language is to be used". The majority of Lebanese people speak Lebanese Arabic, which is grouped in a larger category called Levantine Arabic, while Modern Standard Arabic is mostly used in magazines, newspapers, and formal broadcast media. Lebanese Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. Almost 40% of Lebanese are considered francophone, and another 15% "partial francophone", and 70% of Lebanon's secondary schools use French as a second language of instruction. By comparison, English is used as a secondary language in 30% of Lebanon's secondary schools. The use of French is a legacy of France's historic ties to the region, including its League of Nations mandate over Lebanon following World War I; as of 2005[update], some 20% of the population used French on a daily basis. The use of Arabic by Lebanon's educated youth is declining, as they usually prefer to speak in French and, to a lesser extent, English, which are seen as more fashionable.
English is increasingly used in science and business interactions. Lebanese citizens of Armenian, Greek, or Assyrian descent often speak their ancestral languages with varying degrees of fluency. As of 2009[update], there were around 150,000 Armenians in Lebanon, or around 5% of the population.
The culture of Lebanon reflects the legacy of various civilizations spanning thousands of years. Originally home to the Canaanite- Phoenicians, and then subsequently conquered and occupied by the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Arabs, the Fatimids, the Crusaders, the Ottoman Turks and most recently the French, Lebanese culture has over the millennia evolved by borrowing from all of these groups. Lebanon's diverse population, composed of different ethnic and religious groups, has further contributed to the country's festivals, musical styles and literature as well as cuisine. Despite the ethnic, linguistic, religious and denominational diversity of the Lebanese, they "share an almost common culture". Lebanese Arabic is universally spoken while food, music, and literature are deep-rooted "in wider Mediterranean and Arab Levantine norms".
In visual arts, Moustafa Farroukh was one of Lebanon's most prominent painters of the 20th century. Formally trained in Rome and Paris, he exhibited in venues from Paris to New York to Beirut over his career. Many more contemporary artists are currently active, such as Walid Raad, a contemporary media artist currently residing in New York.
In the field of photography, the Arab Image Foundation has a collection of over 400,000 photographs from Lebanon and the Middle East. The photographs can be viewed in a research center and various events and publications have been produced in Lebanon and worldwide to promote the collection.
In literature, Khalil Gibran is the third best-selling poet of all time, behind Shakespeare and Laozi. He is particularly known for his book The Prophet (1923), which has been translated into more than twenty different languages and is the second best selling book in the 20th century behind the Bible.
Mikha'il Na'ima is widely recognized as one of the most important figures in modern Arabic letters and one of the most important spiritual writers of the 20th century.
While traditional folk music remains popular in Lebanon, modern music reconciling Western and traditional Arabic styles, pop, and fusion are rapidly advancing in popularity. Lebanese artists like Fairuz, Wadih El Safi or Sabah are widely known and appreciated in Lebanon and in the Arab world. Lebanese singer Lydia Canaan is listed in the catalog of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum's Library and Archives in Cleveland, Ohio, USA as the first rock star of the Middle East. Radio stations feature a variety of music, including traditional Lebanese, classical Arabic, Armenian and modern French, English, American, and Latin tunes.
Media and cinema
The cinema of Lebanon, according to film critic and historian, Roy Armes, was the only cinema in the Arabic-speaking region, other than Egypt's, that could amount to a national cinema. Cinema in Lebanon has been in existence since the 1920s, and the country has produced over 500 films.
The media of Lebanon is not only a regional center of production but also the most liberal and free in the Arab world. According to Press freedom's Reporters Without Borders, "the media have more freedom in Lebanon than in any other Arab country". Despite its small population and geographic size, Lebanon plays an influential role in the production of information in the Arab world and is "at the core of a regional media network with global implications".
Holidays and festivals
Lebanon celebrates national and both Christian and Muslim holidays. Christian holidays are celebrated following both the Gregorian Calendar and Julian Calendar. Greek Orthodox (with the exception of Easter), Catholics, Protestants, and Melkite Christians follow the Gregorian Calendar and thus celebrate Christmas on 25 December. Armenian Apostolic Christians celebrate Christmas on 6 January, as they follow the Julian Calendar. Muslim holidays are followed based on the Islamic lunar calendar. Muslim holidays that are celebrated include Eid al-Fitr (the three-day feast at the end of the Ramadan month), Eid al-Adha (The Feast of the Sacrifice) which is celebrated during the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and also celebrates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son to God, the Birth of the Prophet Muhammad, and Ashura (the Shiite Day of Mourning). Lebanon's National Holidays include Workers Day, Independence day, and Martyrs Day.
Music festivals, often hosted at historical sites, are a customary element of Lebanese culture. Among the most famous are Baalbeck International Festival, Byblos International Festival, Beiteddine International Festival, Jounieh International Festival, Broumana Festival, Batroun International Festival, Ehmej Festival, Dhour Chwer Festival and Tyr Festival. These festivals are promoted by Lebanon's Ministry of Tourism. Lebanon hosts about 15 concerts from international performers each year, ranking 1st for nightlife in the Middle East, and 6th worldwide.
The Lebanese national dishes are the kibbe, a meat pie made from finely minced lamb and burghul (cracked wheat), and the tabbouleh, a salad made from parsley, tomatoes, and burghul. The national beverage is arak, a strong anise-flavored liquor made from fermented grape juice. It is usually drunk with water and ice, which turns the clear liquid milky-white, and usually accompanies food. Arak is a strong spirit similar to the Greek ouzo and the Turkish raki.
Lebanese restaurant meals begin with a wide array of mezze - small savoury dishes, such as dips, salads, and pastries. The mezze are typically followed by a selection of grilled meat or fish. In general, meals are finished with Arabic coffee and fresh fruit, though sometimes a selection of traditional sweets will be offered as well.
Beirut and its environs contain many restaurants of various national origins. At the same time, wine is growing in popularity and a number of vineyards currently exist in the Bekaa valley and elsewhere. Beer is also highly popular and Lebanon produces a number of local beers, of which almaza is perhaps the most popular.
Lebanon has six ski resorts. Because of Lebanon's unique geography, it is possible to go skiing in the morning and swimming in the Mediterranean Sea in the afternoon. At the competitive level, basketball and football are among Lebanon's most popular sports. Canoeing, cycling, rafting, climbing, swimming, sailing and caving are among the other common leisure sports in Lebanon. The Beirut Marathon is held every fall, drawing top runners from Lebanon and abroad.
Rugby league is a relatively new but growing sport in Lebanon. The Lebanon national rugby league team participated in the 2000 Rugby League World Cup, and narrowly missed qualification for the 2008 and 2013 tournaments. Lebanon also took part in the 2009 European Cup where, after narrowly failing to qualify for the final, the team defeated Ireland to finish 3rd in the tournament. Hazem El Masri, who was born in Tripoli, will always be considered to be the greatest Lebanese to ever play the game. He immigrated to Sydney, Australia from Lebanon in 1988. He became the greatest point-scorer in National Rugby League history in 2009 by scoring himself 2418 points while playing for Australian club, Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs where he also holds the record for most first grade appearances for the club with 317 games and most tries for the club with 159 tries. At international level, He also hold the records as top-try scorer with 12 tries and top-point scorer with 136 points for the Lebanese national team.
Lebanon participates in Basketball. The Lebanese National Team qualified for the FIBA World Championship 3 times in a row. Dominant Basketball teams in Lebanon are Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut, who are the current Arab and Asian champions, Club Sagesse who were able to earn the Asian and Arab championships before. Fadi El Khatib is the most decorated player in the Lebanese National Basketball League.
Football is also one of the more popular sports in the country with the Lebanese Premier League, whose most successful clubs are the Al-Ansar Club and the Nejmeh SC, with notable players being Roda Antar and Youssef Mohamad, the first Arab to captain a European premier league team.
In recent years, Lebanon has hosted the AFC Asian Cup and the Pan Arab Games. Lebanon hosted the 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie from 27 September to 6 October, and have participated in every Olympic Games since its independence, winning a total of four medals.
Water sports have also shown to be very active in the past years, in Lebanon. Since 2012 and with the emergence of the Lebanon Water Festival NGO, more emphasis has been placed on those sports, and Lebanon has been pushed forward as a water sport destination internationally. They host different contests and water show sports that encourage their fans to participate and win big.
Listed by the World Economic Forum's 2013 Global Information Technology Report, Lebanon has been ranked globally as the fourth best country for math and science education, and as the tenth best overall for quality of education. In quality of management schools, the country was ranked 13th worldwide.
The United Nations assigned Lebanon an education index of 0.871 in 2008. The index, which is determined by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio, ranked the country 88th out of the 177 countries participating.
All Lebanese schools are required to follow a prescribed curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education. Some of the 1400 private schools offer IB programs, and may also add more courses to their curriculum with approval from the Ministry of Education. The first eight years of education are, by law, compulsory.
Lebanon has forty-one nationally accredited universities, several of which are internationally recognized. The American University of Beirut (AUB) and the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) were the first Anglophone and the first Francophone universities to open in Lebanon, respectively. Universities in Lebanon, both public and private, largely operate in French or English.
The top-ranking universities in the country are the American University of Beirut (#237 worldwide, #2 in the Middle East as of 2019), Lebanese American University (#580s worldwide as of 2019), Université Saint Joseph de Beyrouth (#500 worldwide as of 2019), Université Libanaise (#3,826 worldwide) and Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (#600s worldwide as of 2019).
In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 7.03% of the country's GDP. In 2009, there were 31.29 physicians and 19.71 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. The life expectancy at birth was 72.59 years in 2011, or 70.48 years for males and 74.80 years for females.
By the end of the civil war, only one third of the country's public hospitals were operational, each with an average of only 20 beds. By 2009 the country had 28 public hospitals, with a total of 2,550 beds. At public hospitals, hospitalized uninsured patients pay 5% of the bill, in comparison with 15% in private hospitals, with the Ministry of Public Health reimbursing the remainder. The Ministry of Public Health contracts with 138 private hospitals and 25 public hospitals.
In 2011, there were 236,643 subsidized admissions to hospitals; 164,244 in private hospitals, and 72,399 in public hospitals. More patients visit private hospitals than public hospitals, because the private beds supply is higher.
Recently, there has been an increase in foodborne illnesses which has put an emphasis on the importance of the safety of the food chain in Lebanon. This raised the illues public awareness. More restaurants are seeking information and compliance with International Organization for Standardization.
- Article 11 of the Constitution of Lebanon states: "Arabic is the official national language. A law shall determine the cases in which the French language can be used." See: French language in Lebanon
- Also called Lebanese, it is the daily spoken language of the vast majority of the local population, with a romanized written form used in informal communications. It is significantly influenced by Aramaic, Syriac, as well as other languages.
- Republic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies. The phrase Lebanese Republic is a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names, no longer in use. Lebanese Arabic is the most common language spoken by the citizens of Lebanon.
- Excluding the partially-recognized State of Palestine. Cyprus, Brunei, Bahrain, Singapore, and the Maldives, whilst all smaller than Lebanon and considered parts of Asia, are entirely on islands, and therefore off the Asian continental mass.
- 2005: Bassel Fleihan, Lebanese legislator and Minister of Economy and Commerce; Samir Kassir, Columnist and Democratic Left Movement leader; George Hawi, former head of Lebanese Communist Party; Gibran Tueni, Editor in Chief of "An Nahar" newspaper. 2006: Pierre Gemayel, Minister of Industry. 2007: Walid Eido, MP; Antoine Ghanim, MP.
- "The Lebanese Constitution" (PDF). Presidency of Lebanon. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- "Lebanon". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "Human Development Reports". Hdr.undp.org. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Driving in Lebanon". adcidl.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Lebanon". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- McGowen, Afaf Sabeh (1989). "Historical Setting". In Collelo, Thomas (ed.). Lebanon: A Country Study. Area Handbook Series (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: The Division. OCLC 18907889. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
- Chehaitly, Karmah (16 June 2015). "Lebanon: a small country with a lot going on - Solvay Student Review". Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "The smallest countries in the world by area". www.countries-ofthe-world.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5.
Archaeological excavations at Byblos (Jbeil) indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.
- "Background Note: Lebanon". U.S. Department of State. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "BBC News - Lebanon country profile". 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Background Note: Lebanon". U.S. Department of State. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Moubayed, Sami (5 September 2007). "Lebanon douses a terrorist fire". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- Johnson, Anna (2006). "Lebanon: Tourism Depends on Stability". Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
- "Lebanon". Canadian International Development Agency. Government of Canada. 28 May 2009. Archived from the original (Governmental) on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- Room, Adrian (2005). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,621 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites (2nd ed.). McFarland. pp. 214–216. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. (2004). The Oxford guide to people and places of the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-19-517610-0.
- Ross, Kelley L. "The Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian". The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series. Friesian School. Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Bienkowski, Piotr; Millard, Alan Ralph (2000). Dictionary of the ancient Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-8122-3557-9.
- "Archaeological Virtual Tours: Byblos". Destinationlebanon.gov.lb. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
- "Lebanon in Ancient Times". About.com. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Sorenson, David S. (12 November 2009). Global Security Watch—Lebanon: A Reference Handbook: A Reference Handbook. ISBN 9780313365799. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Dalrymple, William (1997). From the Holy Mountain: A Journey Among the Christians of the Middle East. Vintage Books (Random House). p. 305. ISBN 9780307948922. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Page, Melvin Eugene; Sonnenburg, Penny M. (2003). Colonialism. ISBN 9781576073353. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Hillenbrand, Carole (2000). The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Psychology Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-57958-354-5. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Hakim, Carol (2013). The Origins of the Lebanese National Idea, 1840–1920. University of California Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-520-27341-2. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Firro, Kais (8 February 2003). Inventing Lebanon: Nationalism and the State Under the Mandate. I.B.Tauris. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-86064-857-1. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Tetz Rooke (2013). "Writing the Boundary: "Khitat al-Shăm" by Muhammad Kurd ʹAli". In Hiroyuki (ed.). Concept Of Territory In Islamic Thought. Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-136-18453-6.
His [(Thongchai Winichakul’s)] study shows that the modern map in some cases predicted the nation instead of just recording it; rather than describing existing borders it created the reality it was assumed to depict. The power of the map over the mind was great:"[H]ow could a nation resist being found if a nineteenth-century map had predicted it?" In the Middle East, Lebanon seems to offer a corresponding example. When the idea of a Greater Lebanon in 1908 was put forward in a book by Bulus Nujaym, a Lebanese Maronite writing under the pseudonym of M. Jouplain, he suggested that the natural boundaries of Lebanon were exactly the same as drawn in the 1861 and 1863 staff maps of the French military expedition to Syria, maps that added territories on the northern, eastern and southern borders, plus the city of Beirut, to the Mutasarrifiyya of Mount Lebanon. In this case, too, the prior existence of a European military map seems to have created a fact on the ground.
- Gorton, T.J. (25 April 2013). Renaissance Emir. Quartet Books. pp. 160–161. ISBN 9780704372979.
- Gorton, T.J. (25 April 2013). Renaissance Emir. Quartet Books. pp. 195–210. ISBN 9780704372979.
- "Lebanon". Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1987. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "Youssef KARAM, I b. May 1823 d. 7 Apr 1889: Ehden Family Tree". www.ehdenfamilytree.org. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Saadi, Abdul-Ilah (12 February 2008). "Dreaming of Greater Syria". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Beggiani, Chorbishop Seely. "Aspects of Maronite History (Part Eleven) The twentieth century in Western Asia". Stmaron.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Glossary: Cross-Channel invasion". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
- Mandates, Dependencies and Trusteeship, by H. Duncan Hall, Carnegie Endowment, 1948, pages 265–266
- "History of the United Nations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012.
- Harb, Imad (March 2006). "Lebanon's Confessionalism: Problems and Prospects". USIPeace Briefing. United States Institute of Peace. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
- "Background Note: Lebanon". Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. U.S. Department of State. January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- Morris 2008, p. 524.
- Morris 2008, p. 259.
- Morris 2008, p. 260.
- "Lebanon Exiled and suffering: Palestinian refugees in Lebanon". Amnesty International. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- al-Issawi, Omar (4 August 2009). "Lebanon's Palestinian refugees". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
- Andrew Lee Butters  Archived 26 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine "Palestinians in Lebanon: A Forgotten People", 25 February 2009, Time Magazine.
- Toaldo, Mattia (2013). The Origins of the US War on Terror: Lebanon, Libya and American intervention in the Middle East. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 978-0415685016. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Country Profile: Lebanon". British Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013.
- Fisk, Robert (28 November 2001). "Sabra and Chatila Massacres After 19 years, The Truth at Last?". CounterPunch. Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- The War of the Camps, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 191–194
- Wood, Josh (12 July 2012). "After 2 Decades, Scars of Lebanon's Civil War Block Path to Dialogue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "Lebanon: Haven for foreign militants". UN IRIN news. 17 May 2007. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Salem, Paul (1 November 2006). "The Future of Lebanon". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Mroue, Bassem (13 March 2011). "Lebanese mark uprising against Syria's domination". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Ross, Oakland (9 October 2007). "Language of murder makes itself understood". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
Like a wound that just won't heal, a large expanse patch of fresh asphalt still mottles the grey surface of Rue Minet el-Hosn, where the street veers west around St. George Bay. The patch marks the exact spot where a massive truck bomb exploded 14 February 2005, killing prime minister Rafik Hariri and 22 others and gouging a deep crater in the road.
- "Recent background on Syria's presence in Lebanon". CBC News Indepth. 30 January 2007. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Reactions to Former Lebanese PM Al-Hariri's Assassination". Middle East Media Research Institute. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Syria begins Lebanon withdrawal". BBC News. 12 March 2005. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
- "Last Syrian troops leave Lebanon". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Press Release SC/8353" (Press release). United Nations – Security Council. 7 April 2005. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- Hoge, Warren (20 October 2005). "Syria Involved in Killing Lebanon's Ex-Premier, U.N. Report Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- Mehlis, Detlev (19 October 2005). "Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1595". United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
It is the Commission's view that the assassination of 14 February 2005 was carried out by a group with an extensive organization and considerable resources and capabilities. [...] Building on the findings of the Commission and Lebanese investigations to date and on the basis of the material and documentary evidence collected, and the leads pursued until now, there is converging evidence pointing at both Lebanese and Syrian involvement in this terrorist act.
- United Nations Security Council Document 662. Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1595 (2005) S/2005/662 (2005) Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- "Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1595". United Nations. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Myre, Greg; Erlanger, Steven (12 July 2006). "Clashes spread to Lebanon as Hezbollah raids Israel – Africa & Middle East – International Herald Tribune". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "Security Council calls for end to hostilities between Hizbollah, Israel". UN – Security Council, Department of Public Information. 11 August 2006. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- "Lebanon Under Siege". 27 September 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "Israel-Hizbullah conflict: Victims of rocket attacks and IDF casualties July–Aug 2006". Mfa.gov.il. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "Israeli warplanes hit Beirut suburb". CNN. 13 July 2006. Archived from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- "Life set to get harder for Nahr al-Bared refugees". UN IRIN newsg. 5 November 2008. Archived from the original on 22 September 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Ruff, Abdul (1 June 2008). "Lebanon back to Normalcy?". Global Politician. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- "Beirut street clashes turn deadly". France 24. 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
- Martínez, Beatriz; Francesco Volpicella (September 2008). "Walking the tight wire – Conversations on the May 2008 Lebanese crisis". Transnational Institute. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- Worth, Robert; Nada Bakri (16 May 2008). "Feuding Political Camps in Lebanon Agree to Talk to End Impasse". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- Abdallah, Hussein (22 May 2008). "Lebanese rivals set to elect president after historic accord". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- "Hezbollah and allies topple Lebanese unity government". BBC. 12 January 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- Bakri, Nada (12 January 2011). "Resignations Deepen Crisis for Lebanon". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- "Hezbollah chief: Israel killed Hariri". CNN. 9 August 2010. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Hezbollah Threatens an 'Explosion' in Beirut Over Tribunal". Stratfor. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013.
- "Lebanese Daily: Hizbullah Drills Takeover of Lebanon". Middle East Media Research Institute. 3 November 2010. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Cave, Damien (23 August 2012). "Syrian War Plays Out Along a Street in Lebanon". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "Syria Regional Refugee Response – Lebanon". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- Kverme, Kai (14 February 2013). "The Refugee Factor". SADA. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Janmyr, Maja (16 March 2018). "UNHCR and the Syrian refugee response: negotiating status and registration in Lebanon". The International Journal of Human Rights. 22 (3): 393–419. doi:10.1080/13642987.2017.1371140. ISSN 1364-2987.
- Tsourapas, Gerasimos (4 May 2019). "The Syrian Refugee Crisis and Foreign Policy Decision-Making in Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey". Journal of Global Security Studies. doi:10.1093/jogss/ogz016. ISSN 2057-3170.
- "Document - Lebanon Crisis Response Plan (LCRP) 2017-2020 - full version". Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Egyptian Journal of Geology – Volume 42, Issue 1 – Page 263, 1998
- Etheredge, Laura S (2011). Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan – Middle East: region in transition. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 85–159. ISBN 978-1-61530-414-1.
- Philps, Alan (19 June 2000). "Israel's Withdrawal from Lebanon Given UN's Endorsement". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- ECODIT (October 2005). "National action plan for the reduction of pollution into the mediterranean sea from land based sources" (PDF). Lebanese ministry of the environment. Retrieved 31 January 2012.[permanent dead link]
- (Bonechi et al.) (2004) Golden Book Lebanon, p. 3, Florence, Italy: Casa Editrice Bonechi. ISBN 88-476-1489-9
- "Lebanon – Climate". Country Studies US. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Lebanon Cedar – Cedrus libani". Blue Planet Biomes. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Greipsson, Sigurdur Ph.D. Restoration Ecology, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Kennesaw State University, 2011, page 279
- The world bank (2012). "Lebanon | Data". Data indicators by country. The World Bank. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Alami, Mona (30 July 2009). "Global Warming Makes Mischief Worse". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Talhouk, S. N. & Zurayk, S. 2003. Conifer conservation in Lebanon. Acta Hort. 615: 411–414.
- Semaan, M. & Haber, R. 2003. In situ conservation on Cedrus libani in Lebanon. Acta Hort. 615: 415–417.
- Khaldoun Baz (10 August 2011). "Cedars of Lebanon Nature Reserve". Shoufcedar.org. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "Lebanon begins landmark reforestation campaign". The Daily Star. 26 November 2011. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Forest and landscape restoration in Lebanon". Sundance Institute. 29 April 2016. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "Restoring Lebanon's cedar forests". Share America. 10 January 2017. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- chronicle.fanack.com. "Republic of Rubbish". fanack.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
-  Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Exportation plan was Lebanon's only option. Envitonment Minister
-  Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Sukleen defends itself against corruption allegations.
-  Archived 10 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Lebanon trash not fit to produce fuel – Export firm
-  Archived 9 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Environmentalists – Keep trash here.
- "Sierra Leone denies agreement to accept Lebanon waste". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. 10 January 2016. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- The Daily Star (Lebanon) 16 February 2016.
- "Trash arrives at Naameh under Army escort". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Esperance Ghanem (21 March 2016). "Will short-term solution help Lebanon solve trash crisis?". Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- USA. "Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Lebanon: No Action to Enforce New Waste Law". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2002: Lebanon". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 31 March 2003. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Lebanon's Confessionalism: Problems and Prospects". United States Institute of Peace. 22 March 2009. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Marie-Joëlle Zahar. "Chapter 9 Power sharing in Lebanon: Foreign protectors, domestic peace, and democratic failure". Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Lijphart, Arend (1969). "Consociational Democracy". World Politics. 21 (2): 207–225. doi:10.2307/2009820. JSTOR 2009820.
- Lijphart, Arend. Multiethnic democracy, in S. Lipset (ed.), "The Encyclopedia of Democracy". London, Routledge, 1995, Volume III, pp. 853–865 ISBN 0871878887.
- "Freedom in the World, Country Ratings by Region, 1972–2013". Freedom House. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Bakri, Nada (17 August 2010). "Lebanon Gives Palestinians New Work Rights". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "Eager Lebanese race to polls to cast their ballots". AlArabbia. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Democratic Governance, Elections, Lebanon". UNDP. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Oliver Holmes (5 November 2014). "Lebanese parliament extends own term till 2017 amid protests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "Lebanese Constitution" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2015.
- "Results of 2nd round of Lebanon presidential election: Michel Aoun – 83 (winner); blank votes – 36; others/cancelled – 8". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
-  Archived 11 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Daily Star (Lebanon) 11 January 2016
- "Will Lebanon's new electoral law end the stalemate?". Al Jazeera. 15 June 2017. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Lebanon's New Cabinet: Up to the Challenge?". Naharnet. Archived from the original on 6 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Women In Personal Status Laws" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- El Samad, Firas. "The Lebanese Legal System and Research". Nyulawglobal.org. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Chibli Mallat. "The Lebanese Legal System" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. "Arab Political Systems: Baseline Information and Reforms – Lebanon". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "Lebanese Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 78)" (PDF). 10 February 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Stinson, Jefferey (1 August 2006). "Lebanese forces may play bigger role in war". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
- "LAF Mission". Lebanese Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 8 August 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2009.
- Lanteaume, Sylvie (4 August 2009). "US military aid at stake in Lebanon elections". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
- Schenker, David (3 October 2008). "The Future of U.S. Military Aid to Lebanon". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- USA. "Lebanon: Deaths, Alleged Torture of Syrians in Army Custody". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- USA. "Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- USA. "Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Annual Report 2017-The Situation of Human Rights in Lebanon" (PDF). alefliban.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Lebanon: Further investigation needed into deaths of Syrian refugees in military custody". Amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Lebanon: No Justification for LGBT Crackdown". Human Rights Watch. 11 February 2019.
- "Human rights group urges Lebanon to abolish anti-LGBT law". PBS. 1 April 2019.
- "The Global Divide on Homosexuality." Pew Research Center. 4 June 2013.
- "The World Factbook for Lebanon, Administrative Divisions". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
- "Doing Business in Lebanon". Export.gov. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "GDP growth(annual %)". Worldbank. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- "The World Factbook- Lebanon". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Bayoumy, Yara (2 January 2009). "RPT-UPDATE 1-Lebanon public debt at $89 bln end-2008-minister". Reuters. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
- "IMF: Lebanon's debt alarming". The Daily Star. Center for Democracy and the Rule of Law. 20 May 2004. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
- "Header: People, 4th paragraph". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Background Note: Lebanon" (PDF). washingtoninstitute.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Lebanon – Facts and Figures". Iom.int. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Facts on Lebanon's economy". Reuters. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- United Nations Population Fund. Archived copy at the Portuguese Web Archive (21 July 2009).
- "Investment Law No.360". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Jean Hayek et al, 1999. The Structure, Properties, and Main Foundations of the Lebanese Economy. In The Scientific Series in Geography, Grade 11, 110–114. Beirut: Dar Habib.
- "Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, U.S.A. 1986–1988". Countrystudies.us. 13 June 1978. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "IATA - Lebanon Customs, Currency & Airport Tax regulations details". www.iatatravelcentre.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "The Next Big Lebanon-Israel Flare-Up: Gas". Time. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Lebanon 'immune' to financial crisis". BBC News. 5 December 2008. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- Cooper, Kathryn (5 October 2008). "Where on earth can you make a decent return?". The Sunday Times. London. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "باسيل: حلم النفط صار واقعا وأنجزنا كل الخطوات الأساسية في فترة قياسية" [Basil: Oil dream became a reality and we did all the basic steps in record time]. Lebanonfiles.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Fanack. "Lebanon: Syrian Refugees Cost the Economy $4.5 Billion Every Year". Fanack.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 231. ISBN 9781107507180.
- "CIA World Factbook 2001" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Deconstructing Beirut's Reconstruction: 1990–2000". Center for the Study of the Built Environment. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2006.
- "Lebanon Economic Report: 2nd quarter, 2006" (PDF). Bank Audi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Impact of the July Offensive on the Public Finances in 2006" (PDF). Lebanese Ministry of Finance. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Joseph S. Mayton (28 September 2007). "Saudi Arabia Key Contributor To Lebanon's Reconstruction". Cyprus News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Donors pledge more than $940 million for Lebanon". Reliefweb.int. 31 August 2006. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Reviews with the Jordanian King the Situation in Lebanon..." Ain-Al-Yaqeen. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Lebanon's tourists: Can they be lured back?". The Economist. 11 January 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- "Tourist arrivals statistics – Countries Compared". NationMaster. Archived from the original on 30 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Zach Wise; Miki Meek (11 January 2009). "The 44 Places to Go in 2009 – Interactive Graphic". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- "Ministry of Tourism :: Destination Lebanon". Lebanon-tourism.gov.lb. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Lebanon Says 2009 Was Best on Record for Tourism". ABC News. Associated Press. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Qiblawi, Tamara (16 July 2011). "Hospitality revenues plunge 40 percent in 2011". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "Lebanese Cuisine With a Japanese Twist". Embassy of Japan in Lebanon. 12 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Lebanon : Overview Minority Rights Group International". World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Jamie Stokes (June 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East: L to Z. Infobase Publishing. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "The Lebanese Demographic Reality" (PDF). Lebanese Information Center Lebanon. 14 January 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- "Senior Seminar: Transnational Migration and Diasporic Communities". Hamline University. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "The world's successful diasporas". Management Today. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Marina Sarruf. "Brazil Has More Lebanese than Lebanon". Archived from the original on 13 October 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Tenacity and risk – the Lebanese in West Africa". BBC News. 10 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Ivory Coast – The Levantine Community". Countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Schwarz, Naomi. "Lebanese Immigrants Boost West African Commerce". Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Price, Charles. "Australian Population: Ethnic Origins" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Qatar´s population by nationality". Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "Iraqi refugees in Jordan, Lebanon & Syria | European Resettlement Network". www.resettlement.eu. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "Registered Syrian refugees in surrounding states triple in three months". UNHCR – United Nations Refugee Agency. 2 October 2012. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Lebanon, Opinion survey 2009" (PDF). ICRC and Ipsos. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Based on data published by Lebanon Demographic". Archived from the original on 22 January 2013.
- Dralonge, Richard N. (2008). Economics and Geopolitics of the Middle East. New York: Nova Science Publishers. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-60456-076-3.
Lebanon, with a population of 3.8 million, has the most religiously diverse society in the Middle East, comprising 17 recognized religious sects.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
- "Study shows stable Christian population in Lebanon". The Daily Star. 7 February 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "WVS Database". World Values Survey. Institute for Comparative Survey Research. March 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Lebanon". International Religious Freedom Report 2010. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- «El santo padre sigue de visita en el Líbano» Archived 27 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine Euronews .
- «El Papa viaja mañana al Líbano en medio de la tensión que vive la zona» Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine La Razón. Consultado el 15 de septiembre de 2012.
- McGowen, Afaf Sabeh (1989). "Glossary". In Collelo, Thomas (ed.). Lebanon: A Country Study. Area Handbook Series (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: The Division. OCLC 18907889. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "Lebanese town bans Muslims from buying, renting property".
- "The Lebanese town that has banned Muslim settlers". The National. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
- Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL.M. "Article 11 of the Lebanese Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Jean-Benoît Nadeau, Julie Barlow (2008). The Story of French. Macmillan. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-312-34184-8. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- "Lebanon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
- "Campaign to save the Arabic language in Lebanon". BBC. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "Arabic – a dying language?". France 24. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- Jean-Benoît Nadeau, Julie Barlow (2006). Plus ça change. Robson. p. 483. ISBN 978-1-86105-917-8. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- Hodeib, Mirella (19 January 2007). "English assumes greater importance in Lebanese linguistic universe". Daily Star (Lebanon). Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- Antelava, Natalia (16 April 2009). "Armenians jump Lebanon's divide". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Stokes, Jamie. Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Facts On File, 2009, p. 406 ISBN 0816071586
- "Moustafa Farroukh". Kaftoun.com. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- "Media Art Net | Ra'ad, Walid: Biography". Medienkunstnetz.de. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Acocella, Joan (31 December 2007). "Prophet Motive". Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019 – via www.newyorker.com.
- "Called by life". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Sheehan, Sean; Latif Zawiah (30 August 2007). "Arts". Lebanon. Cultures of the World (2 ed.). Marshall Cavendish Children's Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7614-2081-1. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Library and Archives Subject File (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum Records--Curatorial Affairs Division Records) - Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum - Library and Archives - Catalog". catalog.rockhall.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- O'Connor, Tom. "Lydia Canaan One Step Closer to Rock n' Roll Hall of Fame" Archived 29 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Star, Beirut, 27 April 2016.
- Salhani, Justin. "Lydia Canaan: The Mideast’s First Rock Star" Archived 5 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Star, Beirut, 17 November 2014.
- Livingstone, David. "A Beautiful Life; Or, How a Local Girl Ended Up With a Recording Contract in the UK and Who Has Ambitions in the U.S." Archived 23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Campus, No. 8, p. 2, Beirut, February 1997.
- Ajouz, Wafik. "From Broumana to the Top Ten: Lydia Canaan, Lebanon's 'Angel' on the Road to Stardom" Archived 19 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Cedar Wings, No. 28, p. 2, Beirut, July–August 1995.
- Aschkar, Youmna. "New Hit For Lydia Canaan" Archived 19 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Eco News, No. 77, p. 2, Beirut, 20 January 1997.
- McKenzie, Robert. Comparing Media from Around the World, Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2006, p. 372 ISBN 0-205-40242-9
- Kamalipour, Yahya; Rampal Kuldip (15 November 2001). "Between Globalization and Localization". Media, sex, violence, and drugs in the global village. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-7425-0061-7. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- Roy Armes (23 August 2010). Arab filmmakers of the Middle East: a dictionary. Indiana University Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-253-35518-8. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Knowledge Intensive Industries: Four Case Studies of Creative Industries in Arab Countries" (PDF). World Bank. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Migliorino, Nicola (2008). (Re)constructing Armenia in Lebanon and Syria: ethno-cultural diversity and the state in the aftermath of a refugee crisis. Berghahn Books. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-84545-352-7. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Lebanon profile – Overview". BBC News. 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Dale F. Eickelman; Jon W. Anderson (1 July 2003). New media in the Muslim world: the emerging public sphere. Indiana University Press. pp. 63–65. ISBN 978-0-253-34252-2. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Sheehan, Sean; Latif (30 August 2007). "Leisure". Lebanon. Cultures of the World. 13. Zawiah. Marshall Cavendish Children's Books. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-7614-2081-1.
- Carter, Terry; Dunston Lara (1 August 2004). "Getting Started". Syria & Lebanon. Guidebook Series. Humphreys Andrew (2 ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-86450-333-3.
- "Lebanon Summer & Winter Festivals". Lebanese Ministry of Tourism. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Aikman, David (14 August 2009). The Mirage of Peace: Understanding the Never-Ending Conflict in the Middle East. Gospel Light Publications. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8307-4605-7. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "About BMA | Marathon". Beirutmarathon.org. 19 October 2003. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Hadfield, Dave (24 October 2000). "Lebanese rugby league team in storm over funny substances – Rugby League – More Sports". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Samoa beats Lebanon to be last team in league world cup". The Courier-Mail. 14 November 2007. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Lebanon's Rugby World Cup bid ends with draw | Sports, Rugby". The Daily Star. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "2009 Rugby League European Cup Flashback". Rugby League Planet. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Hazem El Masri". www.rugbyleagueproject.org. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- "Team Lebanon Profile - 2011 FIBA Asia Championship | FIBA.COM". London2012.fiba.com. 23 August 2011. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Team Lebanon Profile – 2010 FIBA World Championship". Fiba.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "FIBA Asia – Thrilla in Manila Part II: Riyadi down Mahram again, this time in final video". Fiba.Com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Asian Nations Cup 2000". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "2nd Pan Arab Games". goalzz.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Football – Competition : Pan Arab Games 1997". Footballdatabase.eu. 27 July 1997. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Nine days of sport and culture in Beirut". FRANCE 24. 27 September 2009. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Athletes | Heroes". International Olympic Committee. 26 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Lebanon Water Festival". lebanonwaterfestival.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Past Festivals « Lebanon Water Festival". lebanonwaterfestival.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "The Global Information Technology Report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- "Human development indicators Lebanon". United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports. Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- "Aid groups scramble to fix buildings; fill backpacks before school bell rings". Samidoun. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Business Information". Lebanon Opportunities. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Decrees". Lebanese Directory of Higher Education. 11 December 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Country Report: Lebanon". Retrieved 14 December 2006. eIFL.net Regional Workshop (2005)[dead link]
- "125 years of history – A timeline". Université Saint-Joseph. 6 July 2006. Archived from the original on 6 July 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Yalla! Students". 18 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Health". SESRIC. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Demography". SESRIC. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Health Reform In Lebanon: Key Achievements at a glance" (PDF). Ministry of Public Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2013.
- "Statistical Bulletin 2011" (PDF). Ministry of Public Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2013.
- "From kebabs to fattoush – keeping Lebanon's food safe". WHO. WHO. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Morris, Benny (April 2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12696-9.
- Arkadiusz, Plonka. L’idée de langue libanaise d’après Sa‘īd ‘Aql, Paris, Geuthner, 2004 (French) ISBN 2-7053-3739-3
- Firzli, Nicola Y. Al-Baath wa-Lubnân [Arabic only] ("The Baath and Lebanon"). Beirut: Dar-al-Tali'a Books, 1973
- Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Nation Books, 2002.
- Glass, Charles, "Tribes with Flags: A Dangerous Passage Through the Chaos of the Middle East", Atlantic Monthly Press (New York) and Picador (London), 1990 ISBN 0-436-18130-4
- Gorton, TJ and Feghali Gorton, AG. Lebanon: through Writers' Eyes. London: Eland Books, 2009.
- Hitti Philip K. History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine, Vol. 2 (2002) (ISBN 1-931956-61-8)
- Norton, Augustus R. Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1987.
- Sobelman, Daniel. New Rules of the Game: Israel and Hizbollah After the Withdrawal From Lebanon, Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel-Aviv University, 2004.
- Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Salibi, Kamal. A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
- Schlicht, Alfred. The role of Foreign Powers in the History of Syria and Lebanon 1799–1861 in: Journal of Asian History 14 (1982)
- Georges Corm, Le Liban contemporain. Histoire et société (La découverte, 2003 et 2005)
- Lebanon الجمهورية اللبنانية
- Lebanon Lebanon – Country Profile
- "Lebanon". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Lebanon web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado Boulder Libraries
- Lebanon profiles of people and institutions provided by the Arab Decision project
- Lebanon at Curlie
- Wikimedia Atlas of Lebanon