This article lists political parties in Australia.

The Australian federal parliament has a number of distinctive features including compulsory voting, with full-preference instant-runoff voting in single-member seats to elect the lower house, the Australian House of Representatives, and the use of the single transferable vote to elect the upper house, the Australian Senate.

Australia has a mild two-party system, with two dominant political groupings in the Australian political system, the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal/National Coalition. Federally, 6 of the 150 members of the lower house (Members of Parliament, or MPs) are not members of major parties, as are 15 of the 76 members of the upper house (senators).

Other parties tend to perform better in the upper houses of the various federal and state parliament since these typically use a form of proportional representation.

Federal parties

Federal parliamentary parties

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MPs Senators
The Coalition
Liberal Party of Australia Liberal Scott Morrison Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
44 / 150
26 / 76
National Party of Australia National Michael McCormack Conservatism
Agrarianism
10 / 150
2 / 76
Liberal National Party
(Queensland)
[a]
LNP Deb Frecklington Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
23 / 150
6 / 76
Country Liberal Party
(Northern Territory)
[b]
Country Liberals Gary Higgins Liberal conservatism
0 / 150
1 / 76
Australian Labor Party Labor, ALP Anthony Albanese Social democracy
Neoliberalism[1][2]
68 / 150
26 / 76
Australian Greens Greens Richard Di Natale Green politics
1 / 150
9 / 76
Centre Alliance CA None Centrism
Social liberalism
1 / 150
2 / 76
Katter's Australian Party KAP Bob Katter Australian nationalism
Economic nationalism
1 / 150
0 / 76
Pauline Hanson's One Nation One Nation, PHON Pauline Hanson Australian nationalism
Right-wing populism
0 / 150
2 / 76
Jacqui Lambie Network JLN Jacqui Lambie Australian nationalism
Tasmanian regionalism
0 / 150
1 / 76

Two political groups dominate the Australian political spectrum, forming a de facto two-party system. One is the Australian Labor Party (ALP), a centre-left party which is formally linked to the Australian labour movement. Formed in 1893, it has been a major party federally since 1901, and has been one of the two major parties since the 1910 federal election. The ALP is in government in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory.

The other group is a conservative grouping of parties that are in coalition at the federal level, as well as in New South Wales, but compete in Western Australia and South Australia. The main party in this group is the centre-right Liberal Party. The Liberal Party is the modern form of a conservative grouping that has existed since the fusion of the Protectionist Party and Free Trade Party into the Commonwealth Liberal Party in 1909. Although this group has changed its nomenclature, there has been a general continuity of MPs and structure between different forms of the party. Its modern form was founded by Robert Menzies in 1944. The party's philosophy is generally liberal conservatism.

Every elected prime minister of Australia since 1910 has been a member of either the Labor Party, the Liberal Party, or one of the Liberal Party's previous incarnations (the Commonwealth Liberal Party, the Nationalist Party of Australia, or the United Australia Party).

The Liberal Party is joined by the National Party, a party that seeks to represent rural interests, especially agricultural ones. The Nationals contest a limited number of seats and do not generally directly compete with the Liberal Party. Its ideology is generally more socially conservative than that of the Liberal Party. In 1987, the National Party made an abortive run for the office of prime minister in its own right, in the Joh for Canberra campaign. However, it has generally not aspired to become the majority party in the coalition, and it is generally understood that the prime minister of Australia will be a member of either the Labor or Liberal parties. On two occasions (involving Earle Page in 1939, and John McEwen from December 1967 to January 1968), the deputy prime minister, the leader of the National Party (then known as the Country Party), became the prime minister temporarily, upon the death of the incumbent prime minister. Arthur Fadden was the only other Country Party, prime minister. He assumed office in August 1941 after the resignation of Robert Menzies and served as prime minister until October of that year.

The Liberal and National parties have merged in Queensland and the Northern Territory, although the resultant parties are different. The Liberal National Party of Queensland, formed in 2008, is a branch of the Liberal Party, but it is affiliated with the Nationals and members elected to federal parliament may sit as either Liberals or Nationals. The Country Liberal Party was formed in 1978 when the Northern Territory gained responsible government. It is a separate member of the federal coalition, but it is affiliated with the two major members and its president has voting rights in the National Party. The name refers to the older name of the National Party.

Federally, these parties are collectively known as the Coalition. The Coalition has existed continually (between the Nationals and their predecessors, and the Liberals and their predecessors) since 1923, with minor breaks in 1940, 1973, and 1987.

Historically, support for either the Coalition or the Labor Party was often viewed as being based on social class, with the upper and middle classes supporting the Coalition and the working class supporting Labor. This has been a less important factor since the 1970s and 1980s when the Labor Party gained a significant bloc of middle-class support and the Coalition gained a significant bloc of working-class support.[3]

The two-party duopoly has been relatively stable, with the two groupings (Labor and Coalition) gaining at least 70% of the primary vote in every election since 1910 (including the votes of autonomous state parties). Third parties have only rarely received more than 10% of the vote for the Australian House of Representatives in a federal election, such as the Australian Democrats in the 1990 election and the Australian Greens in 2010, and 2016.

Federal non-parliamentary parties

Parties listed in alphabetical order as of 28 June 2019:[4][5]

Name Leader Ideology
Animal Justice Party Bruce Poon Animal welfare
Australia First Party (NSW) Incorporated James Saleam White nationalism
Ultranationalism
Australian Affordable Housing Party Andrew Potts Affordable housing
Australian Better Families Leith Erikson Men's rights
Australian Christians Ray Moran Social conservatism
Christian right
Australian Country Party Robert Danieli Social conservatism
Economic nationalism
Australian Democrats Elisa Resce Social liberalism
Agrarianism
Australian People's Party Gabriel Harfouche Australian nationalism
Economic nationalism
Australian Progressives Robert Knight Progressivism
Australian Workers Party Mark Ptolemy Modern Monetary Theory
Social democracy
Child Protection Party Tony Tonkin Child protection advocacy
Christian Democratic Party (Fred Nile Group) Fred Nile National conservatism
Christian right
Citizens Electoral Council of Australia Craig Isherwood LaRouche Movement
Democratic Labour Party (DLP) Rosemary Lorrima Social conservatism
Christian democracy
Distributism
Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party Fraser Anning National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Health Australia Party Andrew Patterson Vaccination choice
Naturopathy
Help End Marijuana Prohibition (HEMP) Party Michael Balderstone Cannabis legalisation
Independents For Climate Action Now Jim Tait Climate change action
Big tent
Involuntary Medication Objectors (Vaccination/Fluoride) Party Michael O'Neill[6] Vaccination choice
Anti-fluoridation
Liberal Democratic Party Duncan Spender Libertarianism
Classical liberalism
Love Australia or Leave Kim Vuga Anti-immigration
Anti-Islam
Non-Custodial Parents Party (Equal Parenting) Andrew Thompson Fathers' rights
Online Direct Democracy Berge Der Sarkissian Digital direct democracy
Pirate Party Australia Simon Frew Pirate politics
E-democracy
Reason Australia Fiona Patten Civil libertarianism
Progressivism
Republican Party of Australia Kerry Bromson Republicanism
Big tent
Science Party Andrea Leong Techno-progressivism
Technocentrism
Secular Party of Australia John Perkins Secular humanism
Secular liberalism
Seniors United Party of Australia Chris Osborne Pensioners' interests
Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party Robert Brown Conservatism
Gun rights
Socialist Alliance Collective leadership Socialism
Anti-capitalism
Socialist Equality Party Nick Beams Orthodox Trotskyism
Anti-capitalism
#Sustainable Australia William Bourke Lower immigration
Anti-overdevelopment
Tim Storer Independent SA Party Tim Storer Centrism
Social liberalism
The Australian Mental Health Party Ben Mullings Mental health advocacy
The Great Australian Party Rod Culleton Constitutional conspiracy
Populism
The Small Business Party Angela Vithoulkas Small business advocacy
Neoliberalism
The Together Party Social democracy
The Women's Party Divvi De Vendre Representation parity
Liberal feminism
United Australia Party Clive Palmer Right-wing populism
Australian nationalism
Victorian Socialists Collective leadership Democratic socialism
Anti-capitalism
Voluntary Euthanasia Party Kerry Bromson Legalised euthanasia
VOTEFLUX.ORG | Upgrade Democracy! Nathan Spataro Digital direct democracy
Western Australia Party Julie Matheson WA regionalism
Populism
Yellow Vest Australia Debbie Robinson Anti-Islam
Right-wing populism

State parties

New South Wales

Divisions of the federal parties:[7]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MLAs MLCs Federal division
The Coalition
Liberal Party of Australia (NSW Division) Liberals Gladys Berejiklian Liberal conservatism
35 / 93
11 / 42
Yes
National Party of Australia – NSW National John Barilaro Conservatism
Agrarianism
13 / 93
6 / 42
Yes
Australian Labor Party (NSW Branch) Labor, ALP Penny Sharpe (interim) Social democracy
36 / 93
14 / 42
Yes
Greens NSW Greens Collective leadership Green politics
3 / 93
3 / 42
Yes
Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party SFF Robert Brown Conservatism
Gun rights
3 / 93
2 / 42
Yes
Animal Justice Party Animal Justice Mark Pearson Animal rights
0 / 93
2 / 42
Yes
Pauline Hanson's One Nation One Nation, PHON Mark Latham Australian nationalism
Right-wing populism
0 / 93
2 / 42
Yes
Christian Democratic Party (Fred Nile Group) CDP Paul Green National conservatism
Christian right
0 / 93
1 / 42
Yes
Liberal Democratic Party Liberal Democrats Libertarianism
Classical liberalism
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes
Keep Sydney Open KSO Anti-lockout laws
0 / 93
0 / 42
No
Country Labor Party Country Labor Social democracy
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes
Voluntary Euthanasia Party (NSW) Voluntary Euthanasia Shayne Higson Legalised euthanasia
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes
Flux Party (NSW) Flux Nathan Spataro Direct democracy
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes
Socialist Alliance Collective leadership Socialism
Anti-capitalism
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes
Building Australia Party Building Australia Building industry advocacy
0 / 93
0 / 42
No
Australian Conservatives (NSW) Conservatives Conservatism
Social conservatism
0 / 93
0 / 42
No
Sustainable Australia (NSW) Lower immigration
Anti-overdevelopment
Green liberalism
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes
The Small Business Party Small Business Small business advocacy
0 / 93
0 / 42
Yes

Victoria

As of the Victorian Electoral Commission:[8]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MLAs MLCs Federal division
Australian Labor Party (Victorian Branch) Labor, ALP Daniel Andrews Social democracy
55 / 88
18 / 40
Yes
The Coalition
Liberal Party of Australia (Victorian Division) Liberal Michael O'Brien Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
21 / 88
10 / 40
Yes
National Party of Australia – Victoria National Peter Walsh Conservatism
Agrarianism
6 / 88
1 / 40
Yes
Australian Greens Victoria Greens Samantha Ratnam Green politics
3 / 88
1 / 40
Yes
Derryn Hinch's Justice Party Justice Stuart Grimley Justice reform
Anti-paedophilia
0 / 88
2 / 40
Yes
Liberal Democratic Party Liberal Democrats Libertarianism Classical liberalism
0 / 88
2 / 40
Yes
Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party (Victoria) SFF Conservatism
Gun rights
0 / 88
1 / 40
Yes
Fiona Patten's Reason Party Reason Fiona Patten Civil libertarianism
0 / 88
1 / 40
Yes
Sustainable Australia Lower immigration
Anti-overdevelopment
Green liberalism
0 / 88
1 / 40
Yes
Animal Justice Party Animal Justice Animal rights
0 / 88
1 / 40
Yes
Transport Matters Party Transport Matters Taxi industry advocacy
0 / 88
1 / 40
No
Victorian Socialists Socialists Collective leadership Democratic socialism
Anti-capitalism
0 / 88
0 / 40
Yes
Democratic Labour Party DLP Social conservatism
Christian democracy
0 / 88
0 / 40
Yes
Socialist Alliance (Victoria) Collective leadership Socialism
Anti-capitalism
0 / 88
0 / 40
Yes
Voluntary Euthanasia Party (Victoria) Voluntary Euthanasia Legalised euthanasia
0 / 88
0 / 40
Yes
Pauline Hanson's One Nation One Nation,
PHON
Australian nationalism
Right-wing populism
0 / 88
0 / 40
Yes

Queensland

As of the Queensland Electoral Commission:[9]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MPs Federal division
Australian Labor Party (Queensland Branch) Labor, ALP Annastacia Palaszczuk Social democracy
48 / 93
Yes
Liberal National Party of Queensland LNP Deb Frecklington Liberal conservatism
39 / 93
Yes
Katter's Australian Party KAP Robbie Katter Australian nationalism
Economic nationalism
3 / 93
Yes
Pauline Hanson's One Nation One Nation Steve Dickson Right-wing populism
Anti-immigration
1 / 93
Yes
Queensland Greens Greens Michael Berkman Green politics
1 / 93
Yes
Flux Party Queensland Flux Nathan Spataro Direct democracy
0 / 93
Yes
Civil Liberties, Consumer Rights, No-Tolls No-Tolls Jeffrey Hodges Public ownership
0 / 93
No
Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party (QLD) SFF Conservatism
Gun rights
0 / 93
Yes

Western Australia

As of the Western Australian Electoral Commission:[10]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MLAs MLCs Federal division
Australian Labor Party (WA Branch) Labor, ALP Mark McGowan Social democracy
40 / 59
14 / 36
Yes
Liberal Party of Australia (WA Division) Liberal Mike Nahan Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
14 / 59
9 / 36
Yes
National Party of Australia (WA) Nationals Mia Davies Conservatism
Agrarianism
5 / 59
4 / 36
Yes
Greens WA Greens Green politics
0 / 59
4 / 36
Yes
Pauline Hanson's One Nation One Nation, PHON Colin Tincknell Australian nationalism
Right-wing populism
0 / 59
3 / 36
Yes
Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party (WA) Inc SFF Conservatism
Gun rights
0 / 59
1 / 36
Yes
Liberal Democratic Party Liberal Democrats Libertarianism Classical liberalism
0 / 59
1 / 36
Yes
Australian Christians (WA) Christians Conservatism
Christian right
0 / 59
0 / 36
Yes
Animal Justice Party Animal Justice Animal rights
0 / 59
0 / 36
Yes
Socialist Alliance WA Collective leadership Socialism
Anti-capitalism
0 / 59
0 / 36
Yes
Flux Party WA Flux Nathan Spataro Direct democracy
0 / 59
0 / 36
Yes
Daylight Saving Party Daylight Savings Wilson Tucker Daylight savings advocacy
0 / 59
0 / 36
No
Fluoride Free WA Fluoride Free Anne Porter Anti-fluoridation
0 / 59
0 / 36
No
Western Australia Party WAP Julie Matheson Regionalism
Centrism
0 / 59
0 / 36
Yes
Small Business Party John Golawski Small business advocacy
0 / 59
0 / 36
No

South Australia

List of parties:[11]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MHAs MLCs Federal division
Liberal Party of Australia (SA Division) Liberals Steven Marshall Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
25 / 47
9 / 22
Yes
Australian Labor Party (SA Branch) Labor, ALP Peter Malinauskas Social democracy
19 / 47
8 / 22
Yes
Greens SA Greens Mark Parnell Green politics
0 / 47
2 / 22
Yes
Nick Xenophon's SA-BEST SA-BEST Nick Xenophon Centrism
Social liberalism
0 / 47
2 / 22
Yes
Advance SA John Darley Centrism
0 / 47
1 / 22
No
National Party of Australia (SA) National Conservatism
Agrarianism
0 / 47
0 / 22
Yes
Liberal Democratic Party Liberal Democrats Libertarianism
Classical liberalism
0 / 47
0 / 22
Yes
Animal Justice Party Animal Justice Animal rights
0 / 47
0 / 22
Yes
Dignity Party Dignity Kelly Vincent Equal rights
0 / 47
0 / 22
No
Danig Party Danig
0 / 47
0 / 22
No
Stop Population Growth Now Bob Couch Anti-immigration
0 / 47
0 / 22
No
Child Protection Party Child Protection Tony Tonkin
0 / 47
0 / 22
Yes

Tasmania

As of the Tasmanian Electoral Commission:[12]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MHAs MLCs Federal division
Liberal Party of Australia (Tasmanian Division) Liberals Will Hodgman Liberal conservatism
13 / 25
2 / 15
Yes
Australian Labor Party (Tasmanian Branch) Labor Rebecca White Social democracy
10 / 25
4 / 15
Yes
Tasmanian Greens Greens Cassy O'Connor Green politics
2 / 25
0 / 15
Yes
Jacqui Lambie Network JLN Jacqui Lambie Populism
Regionalism
0 / 25
0 / 15
Yes
Shooters and Fishers Party Tasmania SFF Conservatism
Gun rights
0 / 25
0 / 15
Yes
Socialist Alliance Collective leadership Socialism
Anti-capitalism
0 / 25
0 / 15
Yes
Australian Christians Christians Conservatism
Christian right
0 / 25
0 / 15
Yes
Tasmanians 4 Tasmania T4T Populism
Protectionism
0 / 25
0 / 15
No
Animal Justice Party Animal Justice Animal rights
0 / 25
0 / 15
Yes
Pauline Hanson's One Nation One Nation, PHON Australian nationalism
Right-wing populism
0 / 25
0 / 15
Yes

Australian Capital Territory

As listed with the ACT Electoral Commission.[13]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MPs Federal division
Australian Labor Party (ACT Branch) Labor, ALP Andrew Barr Social democracy
12 / 25
Yes
Liberal Party of Australia (ACT Branch) Liberals Alistair Coe Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
11 / 25
Yes
ACT Greens Greens Shane Rattenbury Green politics
2 / 25
Yes
Liberal Democratic Party Liberal Democrats Libertarianism Classical liberalism
0 / 25
Yes
Animal Justice Party Animal Justice Animal rights
0 / 25
Yes
Flux Party (ACT) Flux Nathan Spataro Direct democracy
0 / 25
Yes
Sustainable Australia (ACT) Lower immigration
Anti-overdevelopment
Green liberalism[14]
0 / 25
Yes
The Community Alliance Party (ACT)
0 / 25
No

Northern Territory

As of the Northern Territory Electoral Commission:[15]

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MPs Federal division
Australian Labor Party (NT Branch) Labor, ALP Michael Gunner Social democracy
16 / 25
Yes
Country Liberal Party Country Liberals Garry Higgins Liberal conservatism
Agrarianism
2 / 25
Yes
Greens NT Greens Green politics
0 / 25
Yes
SFF Conservatism
Gun rights
0 / 25
Yes
Citizens Electoral Council (NT Division) CEC LaRouche movement
0 / 25
Yes
1 Territory Party Braedon Earley Regionalism
0 / 25
No
Australian Country Party Country Australian nationalism
Economic nationalism
0 / 25
Yes

Unregistered

These are Australian political parties which are no longer registered with any federal, state or territory political bodies, and can thus no longer contest elections. However, they still remain active in electoral politics through running candidates under a local government party, as independents, or as members of an electoral alliance. For parties that are unregistered and are no longer actively involved in electoral politics, see the list of historical political parties

Parties listed in alphabetical order:

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Description
Communist Party of Australia CPA Bob Briton Communism Despite being non-registered, the party has elected members. Member Tony Oldfield is an elected councillor in the Auburn Council.
Progressive Labour Party PLP Democratic Socialism Registered between 19 January 1998 and 27 December 2006. Occasionally runs in elections as independents.
Socialist Alternative SAlt Trotskyism Despited being non-registered, the party runs members under the Victorian Socialists.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The merger of the Queensland branches of the Liberal and National parties, it only contends elections in that state. Members elected on a federal level caucus with either party according to the terms of the merger.
  2. ^ The merger of the Northern Territory branches of the Liberal and National parties, it only contends elections in that territory. Members elected on a federal level are free to caucus with either party.

References

  1. ^ Humphrys, Elizabeth (8 October 2018). How labour built neoliberalism : Australia's accord, the labour movement and the neoliberal project. ISBN 978-90-04-38346-3.
  2. ^ Lavelle, Ashley (2005). "Social Democrats and Neo-Liberalism: a Case Study of the Australian Labor Party". Political Studies. 53 (4): 753–771. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.2005.00555.x. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  3. ^ "OzPolitics.info". OzPolitics.info. Archived from the original on 28 September 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  4. ^ "Current Register of Political Parties". Australian Electoral Commission. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Party registration decisions and changes". Australian Electoral Commission. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  6. ^ "No jab, no vote: new anti-vax party registered". Crikey. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  7. ^ "Information About Registered Parties". www.elections.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  8. ^ "Currently registered parties". Victorian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  9. ^ "Political party register". Electoral Commission Queensland. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Registered Political Parties in WA". Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  11. ^ "Register of political parties". Electoral Commission of South Australia. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Party Register". Tec.tas.gov.au. Tasmanian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  13. ^ "Register of political parties". Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  14. ^ https://www.sustainableaustralia.org.au/policies. Retrieved 8 January 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ "Register of political parties in the Northern Territory". NTEC. Retrieved 30 October 2018.