Mayor of New York City


The mayor of New York City, officially Mayor of the City of New York, is head of the executive branch of the government of New York City and the chief executive of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property, police and fire protection, most public agencies, and enforces all city and state laws within New York City.

Mayor of the City of New York
Seal of the City of New York
Standard of the mayor of New York City
Eric Adams
since January 1, 2022
Government of New York City
StyleHis Honor; Mr. Mayor (informal)
ResidenceGracie Mansion
SeatNew York City Hall
Term lengthFour years, renewable once consecutively
Constituting instrumentNew York City Charter
Inaugural holderThomas Willett
FormationJune 12, 1665; 359 years ago (1665-06-12)
SuccessionNew York City Public Advocate, then New York City Comptroller
Unofficial namesHizzoner
DeputyFirst Deputy Mayor of New York City

The budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States, totaling $100.7 billion in fiscal year 2021.[1] The City employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students (the largest public school system in the United States), and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments.

The mayor's office is located in New York City Hall; it has jurisdiction over all five boroughs of New York City: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Staten Island and Queens. The mayor appoints numerous officials, including deputy mayors and the commissioners who head city agencies and departments. The mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four-year break. The limit on consecutive terms was changed from two to three on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law.[2] However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit to two terms passed overwhelmingly.[3] The position of mayor of New York has been branded as the "second toughest job" in the United States of America, behind only the U.S. President.[4][5][6]

The current mayor is Eric Adams, who was elected on November 2, 2021, and took office shortly after midnight on January 1, 2022.



In 1665, Governor Richard Nicolls appointed Thomas Willett as the first mayor of New York. For 156 years, the mayor was appointed and had limited power. Between 1783 and 1821 the mayor was appointed by the Council of Appointment in which the state's governor had the loudest voice. In 1821 the Common Council, which included elected members, gained the authority to choose the mayor. An amendment to the New York State Constitution in 1834 provided for the direct popular election of the mayor. Cornelius W. Lawrence, a Democrat, was elected that year.

Gracie Mansion has been the official residence of the mayor since Fiorello La Guardia's administration in 1942. Its main floor is open to the public and serves as a small museum.

The mayor is entitled to a salary of $258,750 a year.[7] Michael Bloomberg, mayor of the city from 2002 to 2013 and one of the richest people in the world,[8] declined the salary and instead was paid $1 yearly.

In 2000 direct control of the city's public school system was transferred to the mayor's office. In 2003 the reorganization established the New York City Department of Education.

Tammany Hall

"New York's new solar system": Tammany Hall revolves around Boss Croker in this 1899 cartoon in Puck.

Tammany Hall, which evolved from an organization of craftsmen into a Democratic political machine, gained control of Democratic Party nominations in the state and city in 1861. It played a major role in New York City politics into the 1960s and was a dominant player from the mayoral victory of Fernando Wood in 1854 through the era of Robert Wagner (1954–1965). Its last political leader was an African American man named J. Raymond Jones.



The mayor of New York City may appoint several deputy mayors to help oversee major offices within the executive branch of the city government. The powers and duties, and even the number of deputy mayors, are not defined by the City Charter.

The post was created by Fiorello La Guardia (who appointed Grover Whalen as deputy mayor) to handle ceremonial events that the mayor was too busy to attend. Since then, deputy mayors have been appointed with their areas of responsibility defined by the appointing mayor. There are currently five deputy mayors, all of whom report directly to the mayor. The majority of agency commissioners and department heads report to one of the deputy mayors, giving the role a great deal of power within a mayoral administration.

Deputy mayors do not have any right to succeed to the mayoralty in the case of vacancy or incapacity of the mayor. (The order of succession is the Public Advocate of the City of New York, then the Comptroller of the City of New York.[9])

Current deputy mayors

Advises the mayor on citywide administrative, operational and policy matters.
Oversees and coordinates the operations of the Economic Development Corporation, the Department of City Planning, Department of Housing Preservation and Development, Department of Small Business Services, Department of Cultural Affairs, New York City Housing Development Corporation and related agencies.
Oversees and coordinates the operations of the Human Resources Administration, Department of Homeless Services, the Administration for Children's Services, New York City Health and Hospitals, and related agencies.
Oversees and coordinates the operations of the Department of Environmental Protection, Department of Sanitation, Department of Transportation, Department of Parks and Recreation, Department of Design and Construction, School Construction Authority, Department of Buildings, Taxi and Limousine Commission, and related agencies.
Oversees and coordinates the operations of the Fire Department, Department of Correction, Department of Probation, New York City Emergency Management, Mayor's Office of Criminal Justice and related agencies.
  • Ana Almanzar, Deputy Mayor for Strategic Initiatives[11][12]
  • Fabien Levy, Deputy Mayor for Communications[13][14]

Notable former deputy mayors


Under Bill de Blasio


Under Michael Bloomberg


Previous administrations


Offices appointed


"The mayor has the power to appoint and remove the commissioners of more than 40 city agencies and members of City boards and commissions."[15] These include:

Board member


The mayor of New York City is an ex-officio board member of the following organizations:[15]



The New York City mayoralty has become known as the "second toughest job in America."[16] It has been observed that politicians are rarely elected to any higher office after serving as mayor of New York City; the last mayor who later achieved higher office was John T. Hoffman, who became governor of New York in 1869. Former mayor Ed Koch said that the post was jinxed due to divine intervention, whereas Michael Bloomberg has called the supposed curse "a statistical fluke."[17]


Local tabloid newspapers often refer to the mayor as "Hizzoner", a corruption of the honorific style His Honor.

Spin City, a 1990s TV sitcom, starred Michael J. Fox as a deputy mayor of New York under Barry Bostwick's fictional Mayor Randall Winston.

Several mayors have appeared in television and movies, as well as on Broadway, most notably in The Will Rogers Follies. In the 1980s and 1990s, mayors Ed Koch and Rudy Giuliani appeared on Saturday Night Live on several occasions, sometimes mocking themselves in sketches. Giuliani and Mayor Michael Bloomberg have both appeared, as themselves in their mayoral capacities, on episodes of Law & Order. Giuliani also appeared as himself in an episode of Seinfeld, titled "The Non-Fat Yogurt". Giuliani has made cameos in films such as The Out-of-Towners and Anger Management. Bloomberg has appeared on 30 Rock, Gossip Girl, Curb Your Enthusiasm and Horace and Pete.[18][19]

See also



  1. ^ "New York City Office of Management and Budget Frequently Asked Questions". NYC Office of Management and Budget. January 14, 2021.
  2. ^ Kramer, Marcia (October 23, 2008). "'Aye' and Mighty: Bloomberg's Wish Is Granted". WCBS. Archived from the original on October 25, 2008.
  3. ^ Katz, Celeste. "Is Term Limit Vote a Big Smack at Mayor?". Daily Politics (blog). Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013.
  4. ^ Tracy, Abigail (January 14, 2024). "Bill de Blasio and NYC's "Least and the Lightest": The Second-Hardest Job in the World Is Up for Grabs, and It's a Clusterclump". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 19, 2024.
  5. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 21, 2000). "John V. Lindsay, Mayor and Maverick, Dies at 79". New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2024.
  6. ^ Gabbatt, Adam (April 22, 2021). "Why New York mayor is the 'second toughest job in America'". The Guardian. Retrieved March 19, 2024.
  7. ^ "League of Women Voters of the City of New York – About Us". Archived from the original on December 31, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
  8. ^ "Forbes Profile". Forbes. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  9. ^ "The Mayor". What Makes New York City Run? A Citizen's Guide To How City Government Works (Third ed.). New York, N.Y.: League of Women Voters of the City of New York Education Fund. 2001. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-916130-02-9.
  10. ^ Sommerfeldt, Chris. "Phil Banks picked as NYC Mayor Adams' top public safety deputy despite checkered NYPD history". Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  11. ^ "Mayor Adams Appoints Ana Almanzar as Deputy Mayor for Strategic Initiatives". The official website of the City of New York. May 26, 2023. Retrieved August 16, 2023.
  12. ^ "Ex-Cuomo official Ana Almanzar appointed as NYC deputy mayor". May 26, 2023. Retrieved August 16, 2023.
  13. ^ "Mayor Adams names new deputy mayor for communications". New York Daily News. August 14, 2023. Retrieved August 16, 2023.
  14. ^ Graham, Aidan (August 14, 2023). "Adams appoints former press secretary Fabien Levy as Deputy Mayor for Communications | amNewYork". Retrieved August 16, 2023.
  15. ^ a b "Office of the Mayor". New York City. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  16. ^ Gabbatt, Adam (April 22, 2021). "Why New York mayor is the 'second toughest job in America'". The Guardian. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  17. ^ "A curse? No higher office for NYC mayors". NBC News. January 31, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  18. ^ "Michael Bloomberg". IMDb. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  19. ^ "Episode #1.9". IMDb. March 26, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016.

Further reading

  • Arnold, R. Douglas, and Nicholas Carnes. "Holding mayors accountable: New York's executives from Koch to Bloomberg." American Journal of Political Science 56.4 (2012): 949-963 online.
  • Fine, Elizabeth, and James Caras. "Twenty-Five Years of the Council-Mayor Governance of New York City: A History of the Council’s Powers, the Separation of Powers, and Issues for Future Resolution" New York Law School Review (2013) 58#1 pp. 119-136 online
  • Fuchs, Ester R. Mayors and money: Fiscal policy in New York and Chicago (University of Chicago Press, 1992) online.
  • Hoffman, David C., Tiffany Lewis, and Don Waisanen. "The language of political genres: inaugural and state speeches of New York City Mayors and US Presidents." Proceedings of the New York State Communication Association 2017.1 (2021): 9+ online.
  • Holli, Melvin G., and Peter d'A. Jones, eds. Biographical Dictionary of American Mayors 1820-1980 (Greenwood, 1981) Short scholarly biographies of all NYC mayors 1820-1980; see list p. 410.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. The encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2010). online
  • McNickle, Chris. To be mayor of New York: Ethnic politics in the city (Columbia University Press, 1993) online; covers 1881-1989.
  • McNickle, Chris. Bloomberg: A Billionaire's Ambition (Simon and Schuster, 2017), scholarly study of mayoralty. 2002–2013 online.
  • Reitano, Joanne. The Restless City: A short history of New York from colonial times to the present (Routledge, 2010).
  • Rogers, David. Mayoral control of the New York City schools (Springer, 2009). online
  • Weikart, Lynne A. Follow the Money: Who Controls New York City Mayors? (SUNY Press, 2009).