The borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in some areas of western and central Queens, such as Ozone Park, Jackson Heights, Flushing, Astoria, and Long Island City, to neighborhoods with many low-rise structures in the eastern part of the borough.
The first European settlement in the region were the Dutch, who established the colony of New Netherland. The first settlements were established in 1635 followed by further settlement at Maspeth in 1642 (ultimately unsuccessful), and Vlissingen (now Flushing) in 1645. Other early settlements included Newtown (now Elmhurst) in 1652 and Jamaica in 1655. However, these towns were mostly inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island (Suffolk County) who were subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its subsequent renaming as New York in 1664, the area (and all of Long Island) became known as Yorkshire.: xi–xii
From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Hempstead, Jamaica, Newtown, and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead. The seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 (and later completed) in an area near Mineola (now in Nassau County) known then as Clowesville.
The 1850 United States census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, and several sites were in contention for the construction of a new one.
In 1870, Long Island City split from the Town of Newtown, incorporating itself as a city, consisting of what had been the village of Astoria and some unincorporated areas within the town of Newtown. Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola.
In 1886, Lloyd's Neck, which was then part of the town of Oyster Bay and had earlier been known as Queens Village, was set off and separated from Queens County and annexed to the town of Huntington in Suffolk County. On April 16, 1964, South Brother Island was transferred to Bronx County.
Incorporation as borough
The New York City borough of Queens was authorized on May 4, 1897, by a vote of the New York State Legislature after an 1894 referendum on consolidation. The eastern 280 square miles (730 km2) of Queens that became Nassau County was partitioned on January 1, 1899. Queens Borough was established on January 1, 1898.
"The city of Long Island City, the towns of Newtown, Flushing and Jamaica, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in the county of Queens, which is westerly of a straight line drawn through the middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island, in the county of Queens, to the Atlantic Ocean" was annexed to New York City, dissolving all former municipal governments (Long Island City, the county government, all towns, and all villages) within the new borough. The areas of Queens County that were not part of the consolidation plan, consisting of the towns of North Hempstead and Oyster Bay, and the major remaining portion of the Town of Hempstead, remained part of Queens County until they seceded to form the new Nassau County on January 1, 1899. At this point, the boundaries of Queens County and the Borough of Queens became coterminous. With consolidation, Jamaica once again became the county seat, though county offices now extend to nearby Kew Gardens also.
In 1899, New York City conducted a land survey to determine the exact border of Queens between the Rockaways and Lawrence. This proved difficult because the border was defined as "middle of the channel between Rockaway Beach and Shelter Island" (now called Long Beach Island), and that particular channel had closed up by 1899. The surveyors had to determine where the channel had been when the consolidation law was written in 1894. The surveyors did so in part by speaking with local fishermen and oystermen who knew the area well.
Looking south from the Queensboro Bridge in Long Island City, this photo was published in 1920 by the Queens Chamber of Commerce to illustrate the borough's "numerous attractive industrial plants."
Location of Queens (red) within New York City (remainder white)
An average winter will have 22 days with some snowfall, of which 9 days have at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) of snowfall. Summer is typically hot, humid, and wet. An average year will have 17 days with a high temperature of 90 °F (32 °C) or warmer. In an average year, there are 14 days on which the temperature does not go above 32 °F (0 °C) all day. Spring and autumn can vary from chilly to very warm.
The highest temperature ever recorded at LaGuardia Airport was 107 °F (42 °C) on July 3, 1966. The highest temperature ever recorded at John F. Kennedy International Airport was 104 °F (40 °C), also on July 3, 1966. LaGuardia Airport's record-low temperature was −7 °F (−22 °C) on February 15, 1943, the effect of which was exacerbated by a shortage of heating oil and coal. John F. Kennedy International Airport's record-low temperature was −2 °F (−19 °C), on February 8, 1963, and January 21, 1985. On January 24, 2016, 30.5 inches (77 cm) of snow fell, which is the record in Queens.
Tornadoes are generally rare; the most recent tornado, an EF0, touched down in College Point on August 3, 2018, causing minor damage. Before that, there was a tornado in Breezy Point on September 8, 2012, which damaged the roofs of some homes,< and an EF1 tornado in Flushing on September 26, 2010.
Four United States Postal Service postal zones serve Queens, based roughly on those serving the towns in existence at the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City: Long Island City (ZIP codes starting with 111), Jamaica (114), Flushing (113), and Far Rockaway (116). Also, the Floral Park post office (110), based in Nassau County, serves a small part of northeastern Queens. Each of these main post offices has neighborhood stations with individual ZIP codes, and unlike the other boroughs, these station names are often used in addressing letters. These ZIP codes do not always reflect traditional neighborhood names and boundaries; "East Elmhurst", for example, was largely coined by the USPS and is not an official community. Most neighborhoods have no solid boundaries. The Forest Hills and Rego Park neighborhoods, for instance, overlap.
Residents of Queens often closely identify with their neighborhood rather than with the borough or city. The borough is a patchwork of dozens of unique neighborhoods, each with its own distinct identity:
Corona and Corona Heights, once considered the "Little Italy" of Queens, was a predominantly Italian community with a strong African American community in the northern portion of Corona and adjacent East Elmhurst. From the 1920s through the 1960s, Corona remained a close-knit neighborhood. Corona today has the highest concentration of Latinos of any Queens neighborhood, with an increasing Chinese American population, located between Elmhurst and Flushing.
At the 2020 census, 2,405,464 people lived in Queens. In 2018's American Community Survey, the population of Queens was estimated by the United States Census Bureau to have increased to 2,278,906, a rise of 2.2%. Queens' estimated population represented 27.1% of New York City's population of 8,398,748; 29.6% of Long Island's population of 7,701,172; and 11.7% of New York State's population of 19,542,209. The 2019 estimates reported a decline to 2,253,858."2019 ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates Program". data.census.gov. Retrieved February 9, 2021.</ref> In 2018, there were 865,878 housing units, and 777,904 households, 2.97 persons per household, and a median value of $481,300. There was an owner-occupancy rate of 44.5. In the 2010 United States census, Queens recorded a population of 2,230,722. There were 780,117 households enumerated, with an average of 2.82 persons per household. The population density was 20,465.3 inhabitants per square mile (7,966.9/km2). There were 835,127 housing units at an average density of 7,661.7 per square mile (2,982.6/km2).
In Queens, residents consisted of 6.2% under 5, 13.9% 6-18, 64.2% 19–64, and 15.7% over 65. Females made up 51.5% of the population. An estimated 47.5% of residents are foreign-born in 2018. The per capita income was $28,814, and the median household income was $62,008. In 2018, 12.2% of residents lived below the poverty line.
The New York City Department of City Planning was alarmed by the negligible reported increase in population between 2000 and 2010. Areas with high proportions of immigrants and undocumented aliens are traditionally undercounted for a variety of reasons, often based on a mistrust of government officials or an unwillingness to be identified. In many cases, counts of vacant apartment units did not match data from local surveys and reports from property owners.
According to a 2001 Claritas study, Queens was the most diverse county in the United States among counties of 100,000+ population. A 2014 analysis by The Atlantic found Queens County to be the 3rd most racially diverse county-equivalent in the United States—behind Aleutians West Census Area and Aleutians East Borough in Alaska—as well as the most diverse county in New York. Meanwhile, a 2017 study by Axios found that, although numerous smaller counties in the United States had higher rates of diversity, Queens was the United States' most diverse populous county.
In Queens, approximately 48.5% of the population was foreign born as of 2010. Within the foreign born population, 49.5% were born in Latin America, 33.5% in Asia, 14.8% in Europe, 1.8% in Africa, and 0.4% in North America. Roughly 2.1% of the population was born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or abroad to American parents. In addition, 51.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 44.2% of the population over 5 years of age speak English at home; 23.8% speak Spanish at home. Also, 16.8% of the populace speak other Indo-European languages at home. Another 13.5% speak a non-Indo-European Asian language or language of the Pacific Islands at home.
Ridgewood is home to a large Puerto Rican community
Among the Hispanic or Latin American population, Puerto Ricans made up the largest ethnic group at 4.6%, next to Mexicans, who made up 4.2% of the population, and Dominicans at 3.9%. Central Americans made up 2.4% and are mostly Salvadorans. South Americans constitute 9.6% of Queens's population, mainly of Ecuadorian (4.4%) and Colombian descent (4.2%). The 2019 American Community Survey estimated Mexicans and Puerto Ricans were equally the largest groups (4.5% each) in Queens, and Cuban Americans were the third largest single group. Other Hispanic and Latinos collectively made up 18.9% of the population. The Hispanic or Latino population increased by 61% to 597,773 between 1990 and 2006 and now accounts for over 26.5% of the borough's population.
Queens has the largest Colombian population in the city, accounting for over 35.6% of the city's total Colombian population, for a total of 145,956 in 2019; it also has the largest Ecuadorian population in the city, accounting for 62.2% of the city's total Ecuadorian population, for a total of 101,339. Queens has the largest Peruvian population in the city, accounting for 69.9% of the city's total Peruvian population, for a total of 30,825. Queens has the largest Salvadoran population in the city, accounting for 50.7% of the city for a total population of 25,235. The Mexican population in Queens has increased 45.7% since 2011 to 71,283, the second-highest in the city, after Brooklyn.
The Jewish Community Study of New York 2011, sponsored by the UJA-Federation of New York, found that about 9% of Queens residents were Jews. In 2011, there were about 198,000 Jews in Queens, making it home to about 13% of all people in Jewish households in the eight-county area consisting of the Five Boroughs and Westchester, Nassau, and Suffolk counties. Russian-speaking Jews make up 28% of the Jewish population in Queens, the largest in any of the eight counties.
In Queens, the Black and African American population earns more than non-Hispanic whites on average. Many of these Blacks and African Americans live in quiet, middle-class suburban neighborhoods near the Nassau County border, such as Laurelton and Cambria Heights which have large black populations whose family income is higher than average. The migration of European Americans from parts of Queens has been long ongoing with departures from Ozone Park, Woodhaven, Bellerose, Floral Park, and Flushing (most of the outgoing population has been replaced with Asian Americans). Neighborhoods such as Whitestone, College Point, North Flushing, Auburndale, Bayside, Middle Village, and Douglaston–Little Neck have not had a substantial exodus of white residents, but have seen an increase of Asian population, mostly Chinese and Korean. Queens has experienced a real estate boom making most of its neighborhoods desirable for people who want to reside near Manhattan but in a less urban setting.
According to the office of the New York State Comptroller in 2000, 138 languages are spoken in the borough. Another survey, in 2010, by the Modern Language Association, found that – of those over the age of five residing in Queens – 56.16% spoke a language other than English in the home.
In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Queens was the Diocese of Brooklyn, with 677,520 Roman Catholics worshiping at 100 parishes, followed by an estimated 81,456 Muslims with 57 congregations, 80,000 Orthodox Jews with 110 congregations, 33,325 non-denominational Christian adherents with 129 congregations, 28,085 AME Methodists with 14 congregations, 24,250 Greek Orthodox with 6 congregations, 16,775 Hindus with 18 congregations, 13,989 AoG Pentecostals with 64 congregations, 13,507 Seventh-day Adventists with 45 congregations, and 12,957 Mahayana Buddhists with 26 congregations. Altogether, 49.4% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information. In 2014, Queens had 738 religious organizations, the thirteenth most out of all U.S. counties.
Queens hosts various museums and cultural institutions that serve its diverse communities. They range from the historical (such as the John Bowne House) to the scientific (such as the New York Hall of Science), from conventional art galleries (such as the Noguchi Museum) to unique graffiti exhibits (such as 5 Pointz). Queens's cultural institutions include, but are not limited to:
The travel magazine Lonely Planet also named Queens the top destination in the country for 2015 for its cultural and culinary diversity. Stating that Queens is "quickly becoming its hippest" but that "most travelers haven't clued in... yet," the Lonely Planet stated that "nowhere is the image of New York as the global melting pot truer than Queens."
Queens has the second-largest economy of New York City's five boroughs, following Manhattan. In 2004, Queens had 15.2% (440,310) of all private-sector jobs in New York City and 8.8% of private-sector wages. In 2012, private-sector employment increased to 486,160. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs, with occupations spread relatively evenly across the health care, retail trade, manufacturing, construction, transportation, and film and television production sectors, such that no single sector is overwhelmingly dominant.
The diversification in Queens' economy is reflected in a large amount of employment in the export-oriented portions of its economy—such as transportation, manufacturing, and business services—that serve customers outside the region. This accounts for more than 27% of all Queens jobs and offers an average salary of $43,727, 14% greater than that of jobs in the locally oriented sector.
The borough's largest employment sector—trade, transportation, and utilities—accounted for nearly 30% of all jobs in 2004; in 2012, its largest employment sector became health care and social services. Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. These airports are among the busiest in the world, leading the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. This airline industry is particularly important to the economy of Queens, providing almost one-quarter of the sector's employment and more than 30% of the sector's wages.
Education and health services were the next largest sector in Queens and comprised almost 24% of the borough's jobs in 2004; in 2012, transportation and warehousing, and retail were the second largest at 12% each. The manufacturing and construction industries in Queens are among the largest of the city and accounted for nearly 17% of the borough's private sector jobs in 2004. Comprising almost 17% of the jobs in Queens is the information, financial activities, and business and professional services sectors in 2004.
As of 2003[update], Queens had almost 40,000 business establishments. Small businesses act as an important part of the borough's economic vitality with two-thirds of all businesses employing between one and four people.
Long Island City is a major manufacturing and back-office center. Flushing is a major commercial hub for Chinese American and Korean American businesses, while Jamaica is the major civic and transportation hub for the borough.
Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Queens' Borough President is Melinda Katz, elected in November 2013 as a Democrat with 80.3% of the vote. Queens Borough Hall is the seat of government and is located in Kew Gardens.
The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Sixty-three percent of registered Queens voters are Democrats. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development. Controversial political issues in Queens include development, noise, and the cost of housing.
The Queens County Courthouse was built in 1938 and houses the borough's Supreme Court, Surrogate Court and County Clerk.
Each of the city's five counties has its criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Richard A. Brown, who ran on both the Republican and Democratic Party tickets, was the District Attorney of Queens County from 1991 to 2018. The new DA as of January 2020 is Melinda Katz. Queens has 12 seats on the New York City Council, the second-largest number among the five boroughs. It is divided into 14 community districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for residents.
Although Queens is heavily Democratic, it is considered a swing county in New York politics. Republican political candidates who do well in Queens usually win citywide or statewide elections. Republicans such as former Mayors Rudolph Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg won majorities in Queens. Republican State Senator Serphin Maltese represented a district in central and southern Queens for twenty years until his defeat in 2008 by Democratic City Councilman Joseph Addabbo, Jr. In 2002, Queens voted against incumbent Republican Governor of New YorkGeorge Pataki in favor of his Democratic opponent, Carl McCall by a slim margin.
Elementary and secondary school education in Queens is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Most private schools are affiliated with or identify themselves with the Roman Catholic or Jewish religious communities. Townsend Harris High School is a Queens public magnet high school for the humanities consistently ranked as among the top 100 high schools in the United States. One of the nine Specialized High Schools in New York City is located in Queens. Located in the York College, City University of New York Campus in Jamaica, the Queens High School for the Sciences at York College, which emphasizes both science and mathematics, ranks as one of the best high schools in both the state and the country. It is one of the smallest Specialized High Schools that requires an entrance exam, the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test. The school has a student body of around 400 students.
Queens College is one of the elite colleges in the CUNY system. Established in 1937 to offer a strong liberal arts education to the residents of the borough, Queens College has over 16,000 students including more than 12,000 undergraduates and over 4,000 graduate students. Students from 120 different countries speaking 66 different languages are enrolled at the school, which is located in Flushing. Queens College is also the host of CUNY's law school. The Queens College Campus is also the home of Townsend Harris High School and the Queens College School for Math, Science, and Technology (PS/IS 499).
St. John's University is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic university founded in 1870 by the Vincentian Fathers. With over 19,000 students, St. John's is known for its pharmacy, business and law programs as well as its men's basketball and soccer teams.
Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology is a private, cutting edge, degree-granting institution located across the Grand Central Parkway from LaGuardia Airport. Its presence underscores the importance of aviation to the Queens economy.
York College is one of CUNY's leading general-purpose liberal arts colleges, granting bachelor's degrees in more than 40 fields, as well as a combined BS/MS degree in Occupational Therapy. Noted for its Health Sciences Programs York College is also home to the Northeast Regional Office of the Food and Drug Administration.
The Queens Public Library is the public library system for the borough and one of three library systems serving New York City. Dating back to the foundation of the first Queens library in Flushing in 1858, the Queens Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States. Separate from the New York Public Library, it is composed of 63 branches throughout the borough. In the fiscal year 2001, the Library achieved a circulation of 16.8 million. The Library has maintained the highest circulation of any city library in the country since 1985 and the highest circulation of any library in the nation since 1987. The Library maintains collections in many languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Haitian Creole, Polish, and six Indic languages, as well as smaller collections in 19 other languages.
According to 2011–2015 ACS Microdata, 38% of Queens households did not own a car; the citywide rate is 55%.
Vehicles for hire
As of 2019, the city had about 80,000 for-hire vehicles, of which, two-thirds were ride-hail – Uber, Lyft, Via, and Juno. Until the Covid-19 pandemic, the ride-hail car offered a ride-share option. There are about 13,500 traditional taxis (yellow cabs with medallions) in the city, 7,676 boro taxis, 38,791 black cars, 21,932 livery cars, 288 commuter vans, and 2,206 paratransit vehicles.
Roundtrip car sharing
Zipcar, and others, entered New York City market in 2002 offering roundtripcar sharing from private locations, mostly from parking garages. In 2018, the city partnered with the roundtrip car share companies, led by Zipcar, to launch the nation's larges on-street car-sharing program with the greatest take-up in The Bronx and in Queens – Jackson Heights, Jamaica, and Far Rockaway. In 2020, during beginning throes of the COVID-19 pandemic, Enterprise CarShare suspended service in New York City. Among the traditional car rental locations in Queens, both international airports harbor larger fleets, conveniently close to Queens residents.
Citi Bike – a docked-bike and e-bike sharing company had, as of July 2019, 169,000 annual subscribers. In 2021, the Department of Transportation and Citi Bike announced that, as part of its Phase 3 expansion, it was doubling its service area to 70 square miles and tripling the number of bikes to 40,000. The expansion includes 52 new docking stations in Astoria, as well as new stations in Sunnyside and Woodside.
JFK is owned by the City of New York and managed, since 1947, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The airport's runways and six terminals cover an area of 4,930 acres (2,000 ha) on Jamaica Bay in southeastern Queens. The airport's original official name was New York International Airport, although it was commonly known as Idlewild, with the name changed to Kennedy in December 1963 to honor the assassination of John F. Kennedy, November 22, 1963.
LaGuardia Airport is located in East Elmhurst, in northern Queens, on Flushing Bay. Originally opened in 1939, the airport's two runways and four terminals cover 680 acres (280 ha), serving 28.4 million passengers in 2015. In 2014, citing outdated conditions in the airport's terminals, Vice President Joe Biden compared LaGuardia Airport to a "third world country". In 2015, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began a $4 billion project to renovate LaGuardia Airport's terminals and entryways. The project is expected to be complete by 2021.
The MTA, New York City's 24-hour subway system, has 472 stations, more than any other metro system in the world – 81 of those stations on seven main lines are in Queens. The subway system has almost twice as many miles of track as any other North American system – (i) 665 mi (1,070 km) revenue length (the opposite of "revenue" track would be non-revenue track or dead mileage), (ii) 850 mi (1,368 km) total length, and (iii) 248 mi (399 km) route length. Queens has 42 mi (68 km) miles of route length – 15 mi (24 km) underground, 20 mi (32 km) elevated, 7 mi (11 km) other. The A train – from 207th Street in Manhattan to Far Rockaway in Queens – is the longest line, more than 31 miles. The subway system transports triple the number of people than the next five largest American cities – Chicago, Washington, Boston, San Francisco, and Philadelphia combined.
The A, G, J/Z, and M routes connect Queens to Brooklyn without going through Manhattan first. The F, M, N, and R trains connect Queens and Brooklyn via Manhattan, while the E, W, and 7/<7> trains connect Queens to Manhattan only. Trains on the M service go through Queens twice in the same trip; both of its full-length terminals, in Middle Village and Forest Hills, are in Queens.
The elevated AirTrainpeople mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road along the Van Wyck Expressway; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport itself in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities, and this project would accommodate the new AirTrain connection.
In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin a citywide ferry service called NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to communities in the city that have been traditionally underserved by public transit. The ferry opened in May 2017, with the Queens neighborhoods of Rockaway and Astoria served by their eponymous routes. A third route, the East River Ferry, serves Hunter's Point South.
Standard cross-street signs for a single-named Boulevard and a co-named Avenue, in Queens
The streets of Queens are laid out in a semi-grid system, with a numerical system of street names (similar to Manhattan and the Bronx). Nearly all roadways oriented north–south are "Streets", while east–west roadways are "Avenues", beginning with the number 1 in the west for Streets and the north for Avenues. In some parts of the borough, several consecutive streets may share numbers (for instance, 72nd Street followed by 72nd Place and 72nd Lane, or 52nd Avenue followed by 52nd Road, 52nd Drive, and 52nd Court), often confusing non-residents. Also, incongruous alignments of street grids, unusual street paths due to geography, or other circumstances often lead to the skipping of numbers (for instance, on Ditmars Boulevard, 70th Street is followed by Hazen Street which is followed by 49th Street). Numbered roads tend to be residential, although numbered commercial streets are not rare. A fair number of streets that were country roads in the 18th and 19th centuries (especially major thoroughfares such as Northern Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, Hillside Avenue, and Jamaica Avenue) carry names rather than numbers, typically though not uniformly called "Boulevards" or "Parkways".
Queens house numbering was designed to provide convenience in locating the address itself; the first half of a number in a Queens address refers to the nearest cross street, the second half refers to the house or lot number from where the street begins from that cross street, followed by the name of the street itself. For example, to find an address in Queens, 14-01 120th Street, one could ascertain from the address structure itself that the listed address is at the intersection of 14th Avenue and 120th Street and that the address must be closest to 14th Avenue rather than 15th Avenue, as it is the first lot on the block. This pattern doesn't stop when a street is named, assuming that there is an existing numbered cross-street. For example, Queens College is situated at 65–30 Kissena Boulevard, and is so named because the cross-street closest to the entrance is 65th Avenue.
Many of the village street grids of Queens had only worded names, some were numbered according to local numbering schemes, and some had a mix of words and numbers. In the early 1920s, a "Philadelphia Plan" was instituted to overlay one numbered system upon the whole borough. The Topographical Bureau, Borough of Queens, worked out the details. Subway stations were only partly renamed, and some, including those along the IRT Flushing Line (7 and <7> trains), now share dual names after the original street names. In 2012, some numbered streets in the Douglaston Hill Historic District were renamed to their original names, with 43rd Avenue becoming Pine Street.
The Rockaway Peninsula does not follow the same system as the rest of the borough and has its own numbering system. Streets are numbered in ascending order heading west from near the Nassau County border, and are prefixed with the word "Beach." Streets at the easternmost end, however, are nearly all named. Bayswater, which is on Jamaica Bay, has its numbered streets prefixed with the word "Bay" rather than "Beach". Another deviation from the norm is Broad Channel; it maintains the north–south numbering progression but uses only the suffix "Road," as well as the prefixes "West" and "East," depending on location relative to Cross Bay Boulevard, the neighborhood's major through street. Broad Channel's streets were a continuation of the mainland Queens grid in the 1950s; formerly the highest-numbered avenue in Queens was 208th Avenue rather than today's 165th Avenue in Howard Beach & Hamilton Beach. The other exception is the neighborhood of Ridgewood, which for the most part shares a grid and house numbering system with the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bushwick. The grid runs east–west from the LIRR Bay Ridge Branchright-of-way to Flushing Avenue; and north–south from Forest Avenue in Ridgewood to Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn before adjusting to meet up with the Bedford-Stuyvesant grid at Broadway. All streets on the grid have names.
Several large cemeteries in Queens – St. Michaels, Luthern, Calvary, Cypress Hill, Mt. Olivet and Mt. Zion – together with several in Brooklyn are collectively known as The Cemetery Belt. Calvary, by itself – with about 3 million burials – has the larges number of interments of any cemetery in the United States.
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^ abNarula, Svati Kirsten (April 29, 2014). "The 5 U.S. Counties Where Racial Diversity Is Highest—and Lowest". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
^ abGamio, Lazaro (July 4, 2019). "Where America's Diversity Is Increasing the Fastest". Axios. Retrieved December 29, 2019. ProQuest 2428620614 (US Newsstream database).
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^Guardian US, The; Ngu, Sarah (August 13, 2020). "'Not What It Used to Be': In New York, Flushing's Asian Residents Brace Against Gentrification" (US ed.). Retrieved January 29, 2021.
"The three developers have stressed in public hearings that they are not outsiders to Flushing, which is 69% Asian. 'They’ve been here, they live here, they work here, they've invested here,' said Ross Moskowitz, an attorney for the developers at a different public hearing in February ... Tangram Tower, a luxury mixed-use development built by F&T. Last year, prices for two-bedroom apartments started at $1.15m ... The influx of transnational capital and rise of luxury developments in Flushing has displaced longtime immigrant residents and small business owners, as well as disrupted its cultural and culinary landscape. These changes follow the familiar script of gentrification, but with a change of actors: it is Chinese American developers and wealthy Chinese immigrants who are gentrifying this working-class neighborhood, which is majority Chinese."
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^ abcdColonial Laws of New York From the Year 1664 to the Revolution, Including the Charters of the Duke of York, the Commissions and Instructions to Colonial Governors, the Duke’s Laws, the Laws of the Dongan and Leisler Assemblies, the Charters of Albany and New York, and the Acts of the Colonial Legislatures From 1691 to 1775, Inclusive (5 volumes). Albany: James B. Lyon (1858–1924). 1894–1896.Retrieved September 8, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 35-25349; OCLC 4602284 (all editions).
Vol. 1. "No. 107 – In Assembley – Report of the Commissioners of Statutory Revision – Historical Note". pp. xi–xii – via Google Books (New York State Legislature).
Vol. 1. Chapter 4 – Section 1. pp. 121–122 – via Google Books (New York State Legislature).
Vol. 1. Chapter 17. p. 268 – via Google Books (New York State Legislature).
1st ed. → Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities, and Historic Sites (entry: "Queens"). 1997. p. 295 – via Internet Archive (Columbia University).
LCCN 96-38011; ISBN 0-7864-0172-9; OCLC 1023788128 (all editions).
2nd ed. → Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites (entry: "Queens"). 2006. p. 308 – via Internet Archive (Albany County Public Library, Laramie, Wyoming). LCCN 2005-17522; ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, 978-0-78642-248-7; OCLC 60671826 (all editions).
^Mushabac, Jane Esther, PhD (born 1944); Wigan, Angela Harman (maiden; born 1943; married to composer Mel W. Marvin) (1999) . A Short and Remarkable History of New York City (entry: "1683").Retrieved December 11, 2011.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
1st printing →. New York: City & Company (publisher). 1997. p. 19→ Note: City & Company, founded by Helene Silver in 1994, was sold in 2002 to Rizzoli International Publications. The company name, as a New York entity, has been inactive since 2009.CS1 maint: postscript (link)ISBN 978-1-8854-9250-0; OCLC 37464494.
LCCN 99-4688; ISBN 0-8232-1984-4; OCLC 1252727441 (all editions).
^New York Times, The; Lippincott, Erin Elisa (January 27, 2002). "Neighborhood Report – Kew Gardens – A Borough President's Goal: Dethroning the Queen of Queens". 151 (52011). p. 8 (section 14). Retrieved August 3, 2017. ProQuest 431958925 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2231393915 (online; US Newsstream) (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^Greenspan, Walter Perry (1945–2012). "Geographic History of Queens County". Retrieved December 23, 2007.
Greenspan, formerly a commodities analyst, was, for the last ten years of his life, active with Metro New York Genealogy. In the 1980s, he was, among other things, Presidident of the New York Chapter of the Futures Industry Association.
^French, John Homer (1824–1888) (1860). "Queens County". Gazeteer of the State of New York (towns in Queens County). Syracuse: R. Pearsall Smith (publisher). Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2007 – via Wayback Machine.
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^"Early Five Borough's History". Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved December 30, 2007 – via Wayback Machine.
"When Queens County was created the courts were transferred from Hempstead to Jamaica Village and a County Court was erected. When the building became too small for its purposes and the stone meeting house had been erected, the courts were held for some years in that edifice. Later a new courthouse was erected and used until the seat of justice was removed to North Hempstead."
^McCurdy, John Gilbert, PhD (born 1972) (2019). Quarters – The Accommodation of the British Army and the Coming of the American Revolution. Cornell University Press.Retrieved June 1, 2020.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 2019-2331 (print); LCCN 2019-4115 (ebook); ISBN 978-1-5017-3661-2 (PDF); ISBN 978-1-5017-3662-9 (ebook); ISBN 978-1-501-73660-5 (cloth); OCLC 1137756892 (all editions).
"From the final withdrawal of the British in November 1783, until the 1830s, Queens continued as an essentially Long Island area of farms and villages. The location of the county government in Mineola (in present-day Nassau County) underscores the island orientation of that era. The population grew hardly at all, increasing only from 5,791 in 1800 to 7,806 in 1830, suggesting that many younger sons moved away, seeking fortunes where land was not yet so fully taken up for farming."
"Even more crucial to future development was the opening of the Queensboro Bridge in 1909. This span ended the isolation of the borough's road system at precisely the time when mass use of the automobile was getting underway in the United States."
^Peterson, Jon Alvah, PhD (born 1935) (ed.); Seyfried, Vincent Francis (1918–2012) (consultant) (1987) . A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens. New York: Department of History, Queens College, City University of New York.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
1983 ed. – A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens and Its Neighborhoods: Bibliography, Chronology, and Other Aids (70 pages). OCLC 1251870218 (all editions).
1987 ed. – A Research Guide to the History of the Borough of Queens, New York City: Historical Sketches, Population Data, Chronologies, Bibliography, and Other Aids (59 pages). OCLC 18097590.
^ abSullivan, James (1873–1931) (editor-in-chief); Williams, Edwin Melvin (1880–1966); Fitzpatrick, James Benedict (1881–1964); Conklin, Edwin Pierson (1874–1957) (associate editors) (1927). History of New York State, 1523–1927 (6 volumes – biographies in volume 6). New York, Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc.Retrieved December 28, 20007.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 27-24237; OCLC 5122461 (all editions).
Vol. 1. Part II. Chapter 4 – "Growth and Achievement" – via HathiTrust (University of Virginia). pp. 340–141.
Vol. 1. Part II. Chapter 4 – "Growth and Achievement" – via Geneanet.org. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007 – via Wayback Machine.
5th ed.(PDF). 2008. pp. 2 (chapter 1), 37 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5), 59 (chapter 7). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2009 – via Wayback MachineCS1 maint: postscript (link) .
6th ed.(PDF). 2009. pp. 2 (chapter 1), 38 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5) – via New York State LibraryCS1 maint: postscript (link)OCLC 48479815 (all editions).
6th ed. (2011 reprint)(PDF). 2011. pp. 2 (chapter 1), 37 (chapter 4), 40 (chapter 5) – via New York State LibraryCS1 maint: postscript (link)OCLC 756917598.
7th ed. (7.0.0)(PDF). March 13, 2018. pp. 3 (chapter 1.1), 46 (chapter 5.2), 70 (chapter 7.1) – via New York State LibraryCS1 maint: postscript (link)OCLC 1091629067.
7th ed (7.0.0)(PDF). November 16, 2018. pp. 3 (chapter 1.1), 46 (chapter 5.2), 70 (chapter 7.1)CS1 maint: postscript (link)
"The 1777 New York State Constitution, Article XXXVI, confirmed land grants and municipal charters granted by the English Crown prior to October 14, 1775. Chapter 64 of the Laws of 1788 organized the state into towns and cities." ... "The basic composition of the counties was set in 1788 when the State Legislature divided all of the counties then existing into towns. Towns, of course, were of earlier origin, but in that year they acquired a new legal status as components of the counties."
^New York Times, The (February 25, 1872). "The Queens County Court-House Question – A New Building to be Erected at Mineola" (PDF). 21 (6375). p. 4 (columns 6 & 7). Retrieved November 11, 2012. (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^Newsday; Amon, Rhoda (née Rhoda Sher; 1923–2008) (February 22, 1998). "Our History – Our Towns – Nassau" (series) "Mineola: First Farmers, Then Lawyers" (All eds.). p. 50 (section H). Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2012 – via Wayback Machine. ProQuest 279117006 (hardcopy; US Newsstream).
"That was the year when the "Old Brig" courthouse was vacated after 90 years of housing lawbreakers. The county court moved from Mineola to Long Island City."
^Queens Tribune, The (2004). Patchwork of Cultures: "A Queens Timeline" (Special ed.). Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2007 – via Wayback Machine. LCCNsn89071405; ISSN 1521-2122; OCLC 1097098828, 1023128279.
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Nassau ed.. 58, no. 208. March 29, 1998. pp. A14–A15, A47–A48.
Suffolk ed.. 58, no. 207. March 28, 1998. pp. A16–A17, A53–A54.
^New York Times, The (February 9, 1874). "The New Queens County Court-House" (PDF). 23 (6988). p. 8 (column 7). Retrieved November 11, 2012. (hardcopy; US Newsstream); (online; US Newsstream) (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)) (link– via Newspapers.comCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the Eighty-Third Session of the Legislature. New York and Albany: Weed, Parsons & Company (printer) → Edward Thurlow Weed (1797–1882). 1860.Retrieved February 14, 2020.CS1 maint: postscript (link)OCLC 7747915, 1039520875.
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^Laws of the State of New York, Passed at the One Hundred Twentieth Session of the Legislature. New York and Albany: Banks & Brothers (A. Bleecker Banks). 1897.Retrieved September 8, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)OCLC 61190319.
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^"Inventing Gotham – New York City and the American Dream: Consolidation". Mapsites.net (a virtual tour of New York City constructed for and by eleventh and twelfth grade students at the Fieldston School in The Bronx). Fieldston School, Department of History. n.d. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2007 – via Mapsites.net (Wayback Machine).
Illustration & editorial: Brooklyn Daily Eagle, The (November 5, 1894). "The Lady or the Tiger?" (anti-consolidation editorial – illustration by Orrin Welch Simons; 1867–1930). 54 (307). p. 19. Retrieved September 8, 2021 – via Newspapers.com(criticized by The New York Times).CS1 maint: postscript (link)
Document L: 1894: Results of the Consolidation Referendum
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This map shows the boundaries of the former towns and the former city within the present Borough of Queens.
^New York Times, The (September 13, 1894). "Of Interest to Politicians". 63 (13435). p. 9 (column 6). Retrieved January 28, 2008 – via TimesMachine. (permalink).
"The question of the Greater New-York, which is also to be submitted to the people at this coming election, involves the proposition to unite in one city the following cities, counties, and towns: New York City, Long Island City, in Queens County; the County of Kings, (Brooklyn;) the County of Richmond, (S.I.;) the towns of Flushing, Newtown, Jamaica, in Queens County; the town of Westchester, in Westchester County, and all that portion of the towns of East Chester and Pelham which lies south of a straight line drawn from a point where the northerly line of the City of New-York meets the centre line of the Bronx River, to the middle of the channel between Hunter's and Glen Islands, in Long Island Sound, and that part of the town of Hempstead, in Queens County, which is westerly of a straight line drawn from the south-easterly point of the town of Flushing in a straight line to the Atlantic Ocean."
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"The increase in area and population that New-York will acquire if consolidation becomes a fact will become evident by a glance at the following table ... "
"The townships in Queens County that are to be included in the Greater New-York have not been heard from yet ... "
^New York Times, The (February 22, 1896). "Report Favors Consolidation – An Argument Against the Claims of the Resubmissionists". 45 (13887). p. 1. Retrieved December 28, 2007 – via TimesMachine. (permalink).
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"How, they wondered, could Queens have grown by only one-tenth of 1 percent since 2000? How, even with a surge in foreclosures, could the number of vacant apartments have soared by nearly 60 percent in Queens and by 66 percent in Brooklyn? ... Often, though, owners of illegally divided houses are reluctant to disclose the number of tenants, who tend to include people who are in the country illegally and are leery of providing any information to the government."
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^Dominion of New York; Dia, Hannington (September 6, 2011). "Best Black Arts & Culture in Queens 2011" (column) "Six Reasons to Love Queens". Retrieved March 28, 2012(Dominion was founded in 2012 by Kelly Virella). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: postscript (link)
^New York Daily News; Rosenberg, Eli; Erikson, Chris (December 11, 2014). "Lonely Planet Guidebooks Call Queens the Best Travel Destination in the United States" (online) (print ed. → December 11, 2014; "Queens is King of U.S.") (Metro Final ed.). 96 (248). p. 8. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2015 – via Wayback Machine. ProQuest 1635183092 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) (alternate link– via Newspapers.comCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^Lonely Planet (December 10, 2014). "Best in the US 2015". Retrieved December 10, 2015.
^TripSavvy (formerly About.com) (January 2, 2012). "Eating Out: Guide to Restaurants and Dining in Queens, NY" (column under the same title that ran from about 2006 to about 2016). Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2012 – via Wayback Machine.
^Gleason, Will (March 11, 2019). "Citing Its Diversity and Culture, NYC Was Voted Best City in the World in New Global Survey". TimeOut. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
"Just look at the Queens Night Market, which began in the summer of 2015 as a collection of 40 vendors serving authentic international cuisine in Flushing Meadows Corona Park. Since then, it's steadily attracted more and more attendees and, last year averaged 10,000 people a night. Those thousands of New Yorkers weren't just hungry for new food, but for new points-of-view. 'When I first started, it was all about how can we attract people with an event that's as affordable and diverse as possible,' says Night Market founder John Wang. 'We've now been able to represent over 85 countries, and I'm constantly hearing examples of people branching out and trying things they've never heard of before."
^New York Times, The; Schreiber, Jay (April 4, 2009). "Short-Lived, Long-Loved" (online ed. → April 3, 2009; "Ebbets Field and Shea: Short-Lived, Well Remembered"). p. 3 (section D). Retrieved July 5, 2016.(Late ed.; East Coast).CS1 maint: postscript (link)ProQuest 434063308 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) & ProQuest 2220224032 (online; US Newsstream).
"Moving the home of the US Open in 1978 across the borough of Queens, from the serene surroundings of Forest Hills to the 46.5 cement acres [188,000 m2; 2,030,000 sq ft; 18.8 ha] of Flushing Meadows, further expanded the US Open's ability to deliver world-class tennis and star-studded entertainment to the masses. Indeed, the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center (the world's largest public tennis facility when not hosting tournament tennis) and its centerpiece, Arthur Ashe Stadium (the world's largest tennis stadium), have enabled the US Open to become the world's best-attended annual sporting event, with nearly three-quarters of a million fans on-site each year."
^New York Times, The; Meyers, Naile-Jean (June 10, 2015). "Supporting Structure for Arthur Ashe Roof Is Completed" (online) (print ed. → June 11, 2015; "Supporting Structure for Roof on Ashe Stadium Is Finished") (New York ed.). p. 13 (section B). Retrieved July 7, 2016. ProQuest 1687288412 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 1713677566 (online; US Newsstream).
"Zausner said the stadium, the largest in tennis, will maintain its seating capacity of 23,771, though some seats in the highest rows were removed to accommodate two video boards. Seats were added in lower levels to replace those lost, he said."
^6sqft; Schulz, Dana (September 1, 2015) [Updated August 23, 2017]. "A History of the US Open in New York: From the West Side Tennis Club to Arthur Ashe Stadium". Chelsea, Manhattan: CityRealty.com, LLC (a real estate listing site, founded 1994) (publisher); Daniel Levy, President. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
^Elections: "Statement and Return Report for Certification – General Election 2020 – 11/03/2020 –Crossover – All Parties and Independent Bodies – President/Vice President – Citywide". Board of Elections in the City of New York. December 1, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
"Election Results Summary 2020" → "General, November 3, 2020" → "Citywide President/Vice President Citywide" (recap)(PDF).
Of the four categories, (i) Extra-Large Colleges (15,000 or more students), (ii) Large Colleges (8,000–14,999 students), (iii) Medium Colleges (4,500–7,999 students), and (iv) Small Colleges (4,499 or fewer students), LaGuardia Community College was in the top three of Large Colleges.
"According to recent census estimates, almost 1.4 million households in New York City own a car compared to 3.1 million total households." ... "Manhattan, where only 22 percent of households own a car, while ownership is highest in Staten Island where cars are owned by 83 percent of all households. Queens (62 percent) is also above the city average, while the Bronx (40 percent) and Brooklyn (44 percent) look more like the city as a whole."
^Martin, Aarian (June 15, 2019). "New York City Flexes Again, Extending Cap on Uber and Lyft" – "Officials want to extend the city's limit on the number of for-hire vehicles, and may consider a congestion charge". Wired. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
^"Earth Day: Declaring On-Street Carshare 'An Unqualified Success,' DOT Announces Permanent Expansion of Pilot" (Press Release #21-016). New York City Department of Transportation. April 22, 2021. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
^"Carshare Parking Pilot Program – Final Report"(PDF). April 2021. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
^Zhen, Tracy (2020). "Zipcar Impact Report" ← webpage link (pdf link). Boston: Zipcar. p. 12. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
^Astoria Post, Allie; Griffin (January 15, 2021). "More Than 50 Citi Bike Stations Will Be Installed in Astoria in the Coming Weeks". Sunnyside: Queens Post group, a subsidiary of Outer Boro Media, owned by Christian Murray and Czarinna Andres. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
^TheStreet.com; Reed, Ted (December 20, 2013). "Fifty Years Ago, Idlewild Airport Became JFK". Retrieved February 27, 2017.
"Fifty years ago on Tuesday, one of the most commonly used words in New York suddenly began to disappear. The word was 'Idlewild,' and it was the name of New York's international airport. On December 24, 1963, the airport's name was changed to John F. Kennedy International Airport, commemorating a young president who had been assassinated just a month earlier."
^ abcNew York Times, The; McGeehan, Patrick (July 27, 2015). "La Guardia Airport to Be Overhauled by 2021, Cuomo and Biden Say" (online) (print ed. → July 28, 2015; "$4 Billion Plan for La Guardia Would Tear It Down and Start Over") (New York ed.). p. 17 (section A). Retrieved July 6, 2016. ProQuest 1699145344 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 1714006701 (online; US Newsstream).
^New York Times, The (February 6, 2014). "Biden Compares La Guardia Airport to 'Third World'" (AP) (online) (print ed. → February 7, 2014; "Biden Compares La Guardia Airport to 'Third World'") (Late ed.; East Coast). p. 19 (section A). Retrieved July 6, 2016. ProQuest 1495401223 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2213767015 (online; US Newsstream).
"Mr. Biden said that if he blindfolded someone and took him to La Guardia, the person would think he was in 'some third world country.'"
^ ab"Facts & Figures – Subways". www.nycsubway.org (website managed by David C. Pirmann, born 1971, of Hoboken, New Jersey). Retrieved March 9, 2014.
^MTA. "Long Island Rail Road - General Information". Retrieved September 21, 2021.
^WNBC; Siff, Andrew (April 16, 2018). "MTA Megaproject to Cost Almost $1B More Than Expected". Retrieved November 28, 2018.
^Newsday; Castillo, Alfonso A. (April 15, 2018). "East Side Access Price Goes Up Again, Now Stands at $11.2B – The Metropolitan Transportation Authority is Blaming Much of the Latest $955 Million Budget Increase on Amtrak". p. 6. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved November 28, 2018 – via Wayback Machine. ProQuest 2024950309 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) → AM New York Metro (April 16, 2018). (same article). p. 4. ProQuest 2025258093 (hardcopy; US Newsstream).
^New York Daily News; Durkin, Erin (January 20, 2015). "Andrew Cuomo Announces $450M Plan to Build AirTrain Connecting LaGuardia Airport to the Subway" (online) (print ed. → January 21, 2015; "High Hopes – Gov Seeks Train to LaGuardia") (Metro Final ed.). 96 (210). p. 10. Retrieved January 21, 2015. ProQuest 1647081122 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) (link to print edition– via Newspapers.comCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^DNAinfo New York; Honan, Katie (née Kathleen M. Honan; born 1985) (January 20, 2015). "Cuomo Announces AirTrain to LaGuardia Airport from Subway, LIRR". Retrieved January 20, 2015.
^MTA (April 14, 2020). "Subway and Bus Facts 2019". Retrieved September 21, 2021.
^The Independent; Guion, Payton (February 4, 2016). "New York Mayor to Propose $2.5B Streetcar for Underserved Communities". Retrieved February 4, 2016.
^New York Observer; Jorgensen, Jillian (February 4, 2016). "A Streetcar Named Independence: De Blasio Invests in Non-MTA Transit". Retrieved February 5, 2016.
^New York Times, The; Grynbaum, Michael M. (February 3, 2016). "Mayor de Blasio to Propose Streetcar Line Linking Brooklyn and Queens" ((print ed. → February 4, 2016; "Mayor Wants a Streetcar Line to Link Brooklyn and Queens") (Late ed.; East Coast). p. 1 (seection A). Retrieved February 4, 2016. ProQuest 1762277440 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 1762277108 (online; US Newsstream).
^Routes and Schedules: "New York", "New Jersey", "Massachusetts", "Rhode Island" (seastreak.com). Seastreakusa.com. Retrieved April 20, 2014(see article SeaStreak.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
^DNAinfo New York; Honan, Katie (née Kathleen M. Honan; born 1985) (January 20, 2014). "Rockaway Ferry Floats on Through May, but Trip Will Cost Nearly Double". Retrieved April 20, 2014.
^New York Times, The; McGeehan, Patrick (June 15, 2016). "De Blasio's $325 Million Ferry Push: Rides to 5 Boroughs, at Subway Price". The New York Times (online) (print ed. → June 16, 2016; "New York's Ferry Push: Rides to 5 Boroughs, at a Subway Price") (New York ed.). p. 1 (section A). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2016. ProQuest 1797022833 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 1796775572 (online; US Newsstream).
^WNBC; Siff, Andrew (March 16, 2016). "New York City's Ferry Service Set to Launch in 2017". Retrieved May 9, 2016.
^New York Daily News (May 1, 2017). "NYC Launches Ferry Service With Queens, East River Routes" (AP). Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017 – via Wayback Machine.
^New York Times, The; Levine, Alexandra S.; Wolfe, Jonathan (May 1, 2017). "New York Today: Our City's New Ferry". Retrieved May 1, 2017. ProQuest 1893466314 (online; US Newsstream).
^ abcGoogle Maps. "Overview Map of Queens". Retrieved January 6, 2017.
^ abNew York Times, The; Kershaw, Sarah (December 15, 2000). "Meet Me at 60th and 60th – Many Drivers Find Streets of Queens a Confusing Maze". The Metro Section (online) (print ed. → December 15, 2000; "Many Drivers Find Streets of Queens A Confusing Maze") (Late ed.; East Coast). 150 (51603). p. 1 (section B). Retrieved August 13, 2017. ProQuest 431629713 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2233049173 (online; US Newsstream) (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^Powell, Charles Underhill (1876–1956), Engineer in Charge, Topographical Bureau, Borough of Queens (February 1928). Buttenheim, Harold Stanley (1905–1962) (ed.). "Bringing Order Out of Chaos in Street Naming and House Numbering – How the Great Borough of Queens, Composed of Sixty Former Villages, Changed the Names of Most of Its Streets and Gave New Numbers to All Its Houses". The American City. Pittsfield, Massachusetts. 38 (2): 91–93.Retrieved September 20, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)ISSN 0002-7936.
^New York Times, The; Nir, Sarah Maslin (March 26, 2012). "In Queens, Taking a Step Back From Numbered Streets" (online) (print ed. → March 27, 2012; "In Queens, Taking a Step Back From Numbered Streets") (New York ed.; East Coast). p. 23 (section A). Retrieved March 28, 2012. ProQuest 940930346 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2216001643 (online; US Newsstream).
^New York Times, The; Ojito, Mirta (September 8, 2001). "Campaigning For City Hall: The Battleground – Gauging the Vote of the Satisfied" (online) (print ed. → September 8, 2001; "Gauging the Vote of the Satisfied – In Queens Neighborhood, Little Things Matter Most") (Late ed.; East Coast). 150 (51870). p. 1 (section B). Retrieved November 11, 2007. ProQuest 431865465 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2231767130 (online; US Newsstream) (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^"Nadia Ali" → "Biography". Retrieved July 7, 2010.
^Humphries, Patrick (1989) [1988 – Boy in the Bubble]. Paul Simon – Still Crazy After All These Years. Doubleday. Retrieved September 15, 2021 – via Internet Archive. LCCN 88-30030; ISBN 0-3852-4908-X; OCLC 740541862 (all editions).
"Their house [Paul Simon's family] was situated on 70th Road [at 137-62] in Kew Garden Hills, only three blocks away from the Garfunkels' home [at 136-58 72nd Avenue in Kew Garden Hills]." (p. 3)
^New York Times, The; Ogunnaike, Lola (October 13, 2003). "The Perks and Pitfalls of a Ruthless-Killer Role; Lucy Liu Boosts the Body Count in New Film". Retrieved October 25, 2007. ProQuest 432545699 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2229682926 (online; US Newsstream).
"Born in Jackson Heights, Queens, Ms. Liu, the daughter of working-class Chinese immigrants, recalled many an afternoon spent parked in front of a television set."
^New York Daily News; Neumaier, Joe (November 15, 2005). "Rent Control – One Part Original, One Part Newcomer". New York Daily News (online) (print ed. → November 15, 2005; "Rent Control" – One Part Original, One Part Newcomer") (Sports Final ed.). p. 52. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2014 – via Wayback Machine. ProQuest 306013522 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 306005097 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 306005271 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 306016877 (hardcopy; US Newsstream) (alternate link– via Newspapers.comCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^Newsday; Blair, Cynthia (April 15, 2005). "It Happened in New York" – "1855: Union Course Tavern, Oldest Bar in Queens, Opens". p. 65 (section A). Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2018. (alternate link– via Newspapers.comCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
^New York Times, The; Williams, Lena (January 1, 2000). "Track and Field – Soothing an Old Ache". 149 (51254) (Late ed.). p. 4 (section D). Retrieved November 7, 2007. ProQuest 431349849 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2233856837 (online; US Newsstream) (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
"Neither the outpouring of affection from an adoring public nor the love he finally found after four failed marriages could make up for the neglect and physical abuse he suffered as a child growing up in South Jamaica, Queens."
^New York Times, The; Berkow, Ira (August 17, 2000). "Ford Highlight Film Started Early". On Baseball. 149 (51483) (Late ed.). p. 1 (section D). Retrieved April 29, 2017. ProQuest 431525428 (hardcopy; US Newsstream); ProQuest 2233220760 (online; US Newsstream) (permalink– via TimesMachineCS1 maint: postscript (link)).
McGovern, Brendan; Frazier, John W., Jr. PhD (born 1947) (2015). "Evolving Ethnic Settlements in Queens: Historical and Current Forces Reshaping Human Geography". Focus on Geography. American Geographical Society (publisher) (Wiley). 58 (1): 11–26. doi:10.1111/foge.12045; ISSN 1949-8535, ISSN 1549-4934 (publication); EBSCOhost 100989570 (article); OCLC 5735481287, 6894888949 (article).
Miyares, Ines Maria, PhD (born 1958) (October 2004). "From Exclusionary Covenant to Ethnic Hyperdiversity in Jackson Heights, Queens". Geographical Review. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. (publisher). 94 (4): 462–483. Journal → ISSN 0016-7428, ISSN 1931-0846; Article → doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2004.tb00183.x; JSTOR 30034291; ProQuest 225329687 (Research Library database); OCLC 211830189, 1104949714.
Hazelton, Henry "Harry" Isham (1867–1938) (1925). The Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens Counties of Nassau and Suffolk Long Island, New York, 1609–1924 (7 volumes). Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc. Retrieved October 5, 2021. LCCN 25-10750; OCLC 498971362 (all editions), 247484068, 250867416.
History of Queens County, New York: With Illustrations, Portraits, and Sketches of Prominent Families and Individuals. New York: W.W. Munsell & Co. → William Watkins Munsell; 1850–1919. 1882.Retrieved September 7, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 01-14233; OCLC 4819282 (all editions).
Via HathiTrust (Columbia University).
Via Internet Archive (Columbia University).
Onderdonk, Henry, Jr. (1804–1886) (1846). Documents and Letters Intended to Illustrate the Revolutionary Incidents of Queens County – With Connecting Narratives, Explanatory Notes, and Additions. New-York: Leavitt, Trow and Company (printer).Retrieved September 21, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 01-14234; OCLC 2860745 (all editions).
Via Google Books (Harvard).
Via Google Books (Indiana University).
Onderdonk, Henry, Jr. (1804–1886) (1865). Queens County in Olden Times: Being a Supplement to the Several Histories Thereof. Jamaica, New York: Charles Welling (printer).Retrieved September 21, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 01-14235; OCLC 1194221823 (all editions).
Via Google Books (Harvard).
Items extracted from newspapers and other sources, arranged chronologically, 1639–1832.
Riker, James, Jr. (1822–1889) (1852). The Annals of Newtown, in Queens County, New-York: Containing Its History From Its First Settlement, Together With Many Interesting Facts Concerning the Adjacent Towns; Also, a Particular Account of Numerous Long Island Families Now Spread Over This and Various Other States of the Union. New York: D. Fanshaw → Daniel Fanshaw (1788–1860).Retrieved September 4, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 01-14941; OCLC 1264039133 (all editions), 58788151.
Via Internet Archive (Columbia University).
Google Books (Princeton University).
Skal, George Hugo August Eugen von (1854–1924) (author); Compiled by F.T. Smiley Publishing Co. (1908). Illustrated History of the Borough of Queens, New York City. New York: F. T. Smiley Publishing Co. → Frederick Thomas Smiley (1857–1910); Jerome Chester Smiley (1882–1968); George W. Flaacke. Retrieved September 1, 2021 – via Google Books (Harvard).→ also accessible via Internet Archive (Library of Congress).CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 10-8903; OCLC 5883592 (all editions).
Part I – "A History of the Borough of Queens". pp. 7–30.
Part II – "Queens Borough of the Present Day". pp. 31–38.
Part III – "Noteworth Buildings and Places". pp. 39–70.
Part IV – "Men of Mark". pp. 71–90.
Part V – "A Glance to the Past and the Future". pp. 91–104.
Copquin, Claudia Gryvatz (born 1961) (2007) . The Neighborhoods of Queens (guide to 99 neighborhoods). Yale University Press.Retrieved September 21, 2021 – via Google Books.CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 2007-13716 (1st ed.; 2007); ISBN 978-0-3001-1299-3, 0-3001-1299-8 (2007); ISBN 978-0-3001-5133-6, 0-3001-5133-0, ISBN 978-0-3001-5005-6, 0-3001-5005-9; OCLC 262432302 (all editions).
Kingsley, J. Donald, Executive Director (June 1958). "Queens Communities – Population Characteristics and Neighborhood Social Resources". Bureau of Community Statistical Services Research Department, The Community Council of Greater New York.Retrieved October 14, 2021.CS1 maint: postscript (link)OCLC 5625172, 248835739.
Vol. 1. "Astoria, Long Island City–Sunnyside, Woodside–Jackson Heights–Elmhurst–Corona, Forest Hills–Rego Park, Middle Village (Glendale part), Ridgewood–Maspeth (Glendale part), Woodhaven–Richmond Hill, Richmond Hill South–Ozone Park–South Ozone Park–Howard Beach, The Rockaways" – via HathiTrust (New York Public Library).
Vol. 2. "College Point–Whitestone, Flushing, Central Queens, Bayside–Oakland Gardens, Douglaston–Little Neck–Bellerose, Jamaica–South Jamaica, Queens Village–Hollis–St. Albans, Springfield Gardens–Laurelton–Rosedale" – via HathiTrust (New York Public Library).
Lieberman, Janet Elaine, PhD (née Janet Elaine Rubensohn; 1921–2019); Lieberman, Richard Kenneth, PhD (born 1947) (1983). City Limits: A Social History of Queens (the two authors are not related). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company(covers the 1870s to the 1930s).CS1 maint: postscript (link)ISBN 0-8403-3150-9, 978-0-8403-3150-2; OCLC 10777703 (all editions).
Kadinsky, Sergey (March 14, 2016). Hidden Waters of New York City: A History and Guide to 101 Forgotten Lakes, Ponds, Creeks, and Streams in the Five Boroughs. Woodstock, Vermont: The Countryman Press(the author, among other things, has been a contributor to Forgotten NY).CS1 maint: postscript (link)LCCN 2015-41163; ISBN 978-1-5815-7355-8, 1-5815-7355-3; OCLC 929863403 (all editions).
Book – via Google Books (limited preview). p. 96. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
Author's blog – "Hidden Waters" (WordPress). Retrieved September 21, 2021. OCLC 1187187978.