Republican Party
AbbreviationGOP (Grand Old Party)
ChairpersonRonna McDaniel (MI)
U.S. PresidentDonald Trump (NY)
U.S. Vice PresidentMike Pence (IN)
Senate Majority LeaderMitch McConnell (KY)
House Minority LeaderKevin McCarthy (CA)
FoundedMarch 20, 1854; 165 years ago (1854-03-20)
Preceded byWhig Party
Free Soil Party
Headquarters310 First Street SE
Washington, D.C. 20003
Student wingCollege Republicans
Youth wingYoung Republicans
Teen Age Republicans
Women's wingNational Federation of Republican Women
Overseas wingRepublicans Overseas
Membership (2018)Decrease32,854,496[1]
 • Conservatism[2]
 • Social conservatism[3][4][5]
 • Economic liberalism[6][7]
 • Centrism[8]
 • Fiscal conservatism[9]
 • Fusionism[10][11]
 • Libertarianism[12]
 • Neoconservatism[12]
 • Paleoconservatism[13]
 • Right-wing populism[14][15]
 • Economic nationalism[16][17]
European affiliationAlliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe[18] (regional partner)
International affiliationInternational Democrat Union[19]
Regional affiliationAsia Pacific Democrat Union[20]
Colors     Red
Seats in the Senate
53 / 100
Seats in the House
199 / 435
State Governorships
27 / 50
State Upper Chamber Seats
1,080 / 1,972
State Lower Chamber Seats
2,773 / 5,411
Total State Legislature Seats
3,853 / 7,366
Territorial Governorships
1 / 6
Territorial Upper Chamber Seats
12 / 97
Territorial Lower Chamber Seats
14 / 91

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of slavery into certain U.S. territories. The party supported classical liberalism, opposed the expansion of slavery, and supported economic reform.[21][22] Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president. Under the leadership of Lincoln and a Republican Congress, slavery was banned in the United States in 1865. The Party was generally dominant during the Third Party System and the Fourth Party System. After 1912, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right.[23] Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics.[24] Since the 1990s, the Party's support has chiefly come from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural and exurban areas in the Midwest.[25][26]

The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism. The GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights, pro-life, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. After the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in