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In geometry, a **normal** is an object such as a line, ray, or vector that is perpendicular to a given object. For example, the **normal line** to a plane curve at a given point is the (infinite) line perpendicular to the tangent line to the curve at the point.
A normal vector may have length one (a unit vector) or its length may represent the curvature of the object (a *curvature vector*); its algebraic sign may indicate sides (interior or exterior).

In three dimensions, a **surface normal**, or simply **normal**, to a surface at point is a vector perpendicular to the tangent plane of the surface at P. The word "normal" is also used as an adjective: a line *normal* to a plane, the *normal* component of a force, the **normal vector**, etc. The concept of normality generalizes to orthogonality (right angles).

The concept has been generalized to differentiable manifolds of arbitrary dimension embedded in a Euclidean space. The **normal vector space** or **normal space** of a manifold at point is the set of vectors which are orthogonal to the tangent space at
Normal vectors are of special interest in the case of smooth curves and smooth surfaces.

The normal is often used in 3D computer graphics (notice the singular, as only one normal will be defined) to determine a surface's orientation toward a light source for flat shading, or the orientation of each of the surface's corners (vertices) to mimic a curved surface with Phong shading.

The **normal distance** of a point *Q* to a curve or to a surface is the Euclidean distance between *Q* and its perpendicular projection on the object (at the point *P* on the object where the normal contains *Q*). The normal distance is a type of *perpendicular distance* generalizing the distance from a point to a line and the distance from a point to a plane. It can be used for curve fitting and for defining offset surfaces.

For a convex polygon (such as a triangle), a surface normal can be calculated as the vector cross product of two (non-parallel) edges of the polygon.

For a plane given by the equation the vector is a normal.

For a plane whose equation is given in parametric form

where is a point on the plane and are non-parallel vectors pointing along the plane, a normal to the plane is a vector normal to both and which can be found as the cross product

If a (possibly non-flat) surface in 3-space is parameterized by a system of curvilinear coordinates with and real variables, then a normal to *S* is by definition a normal to a tangent plane, given by the cross product of the partial derivatives

If a surface is given implicitly as the set of points satisfying then a normal at a point on the surface is given by the gradient

since the gradient at any point is perpendicular to the level set

For a surface in given as the graph of a function an upward-pointing normal can be found either from the parametrization giving

or more simply from its implicit form giving
Since a surface does not have a tangent plane at a singular point, it has no well-defined normal at that point: for example, the vertex of a cone. In general, it is possible to define a normal almost everywhere for a surface that is Lipschitz continuous.

The normal to a (hyper)surface is usually scaled to have unit length, but it does not have a unique direction, since its opposite is also a unit normal. For a surface which is the topological boundary of a set in three dimensions, one can distinguish between the **inward-pointing normal** and **outer-pointing normal**. For an oriented surface, the normal is usually determined by the right-hand rule or its analog in higher dimensions.

If the normal is constructed as the cross product of tangent vectors (as described in the text above), it is a pseudovector.

*Note: in this section we only use the upper matrix, as translation is irrelevant to the calculation*

When applying a transform to a surface it is often useful to derive normals for the resulting surface from the original normals.

Specifically, given a 3×3 transformation matrix we can determine the matrix that transforms a vector perpendicular to the tangent plane into a vector perpendicular to the transformed tangent plane by the following logic:

Write **n′** as We must find

Choosing such that or will satisfy the above equation, giving a perpendicular to or an perpendicular to as required.

Therefore, one should use the inverse transpose of the linear transformation when transforming surface normals. The inverse transpose is equal to the original matrix if the matrix is orthonormal, that is, purely rotational with no scaling or shearing.

For an -dimensional hyperplane in -dimensional space given by its parametric representation

where is a point on the hyperplane and for are linearly independent vectors pointing along the hyperplane, a normal to the hyperplane is any vector in the null space of the matrix meaning That is, any vector orthogonal to all in-plane vectors is by definition a surface normal. Alternatively, if the hyperplane is defined as the solution set of a single linear equation then the vector is a normal.

The definition of a normal to a surface in three-dimensional space can be extended to -dimensional hypersurfaces in A hypersurface may be locally defined implicitly as the set of points satisfying an equation where is a given scalar function. If is continuously differentiable then the hypersurface is a differentiable manifold in the neighbourhood of the points where the gradient is not zero. At these points a normal vector is given by the gradient:

The **normal line** is the one-dimensional subspace with basis

A **differential variety** defined by implicit equations in the -dimensional space is the set of the common zeros of a finite set of differentiable functions in variables

The Jacobian matrix of the variety is the matrix whose -th row is the gradient of By the implicit function theorem, the variety is a manifold in the neighborhood of a point where the Jacobian matrix has rank At such a point the

In other words, a variety is defined as the intersection of hypersurfaces, and the normal vector space at a point is the vector space generated by the normal vectors of the hypersurfaces at the point.

The **normal (affine) space** at a point of the variety is the affine subspace passing through and generated by the normal vector space at

These definitions may be extended *verbatim* to the points where the variety is not a manifold.

Let *V* be the variety defined in the 3-dimensional space by the equations

This variety is the union of the -axis and the -axis.

At a point where the rows of the Jacobian matrix are and Thus the normal affine space is the plane of equation Similarly, if the *normal plane* at is the plane of equation

At the point the rows of the Jacobian matrix are and Thus the normal vector space and the normal affine space have dimension 1 and the normal affine space is the -axis.

- Surface normals are useful in defining surface integrals of vector fields.
- Surface normals are commonly used in 3D computer graphics for lighting calculations (see Lambert's cosine law), often adjusted by normal mapping.
- Render layers containing surface normal information may be used in Digital compositing to change the apparent lighting of rendered elements.
^{[citation needed]} - In computer vision, the shapes of 3D objects are estimated from surface normals using photometric stereo.
^{[1]}

The **normal ray** is the outward-pointing ray perpendicular to the surface of an optical medium at a given point.^{[2]} In reflection of light, the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection are respectively the angle between the normal and the incident ray (on the plane of incidence) and the angle between the normal and the reflected ray.

- Dual space – Vector space of linear functions of vectors returning scalars; generalizing the dot product
- Ellipsoid normal vector
- Normal bundle
- Pseudovector – Physical quantity that changes sign with improper rotation
- Vertex normal

- Weisstein, Eric W. "Normal Vector".
*MathWorld*. - An explanation of normal vectors from Microsoft's MSDN
- Clear pseudocode for calculating a surface normal from either a triangle or polygon.