Timeline of Mars 2020

Summary

The Mars 2020 mission and its rover, Perseverance, and helicopter Ingenuity, were launched from Earth on 30 July 2020. On 15 February 2022, The New York Times reported an overview of Mars 2020 mission events since landing in Jezero crater on Mars in February 2021.[1] As of May 20, 2022, Perseverance has been on the planet Mars for 443 sols (456 total days; 1 year, 91 days).

Self-portrait of Mars 2020 containing Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter located at the Ingenuity helicopter drop site (7 April 2021)
Perseverance rover on Mars (artist; 18 February 2021)

Current weather data on Mars is being monitored by the Curiosity rover and the Insight lander.[2][3] The Perseverance rover is also collecting weather data. (See the External links section)

Overview of missionEdit

Prelaunch (2012–2020)Edit

Landing and initial tests (February–May 2021)Edit

 
February 18: a new crater appears on Mars after impact of the 77-kg piece of tungsten thrown down during the EDL stage

After arriving on the 18th of February, Perseverance focused on validating its systems. During this phase, it used its science instruments for the first time,[4] generated oxygen on Mars with MOXIE,[5] and deployed Ingenuity. Ingenuity began the technology demonstration phase of its mission, completing five flights before transitioning to the operations demonstration phase of its mission.

  • 18 February 2021: Landing in Jezero crater on Mars
  • 4 March 2021: Perseverance rover's first test drive.
  • 5 March 2021: NASA named the Perseverance rover landing site "Octavia E. Butler Landing".[6]
  • 3 April 2021: Deployment of Ingenuity
  • 8 April 2021: NASA reported the first MEDA weather report on Mars: for 3–4 April 2021, the high was "minus-7.6 degrees, and a low of minus-117.4 degrees ... [winds] gusting to ... 22 mph".[7]
  • 19 April 2021: First major flight test of Ingenuity
  • 20 April 2021: MOXIE made 5.37 g of oxygen gas from carbon dioxide on its first test on Mars
  • 22 April 2021: Second flight test of Ingenuity[8]
  • 25 April 2021: Third flight test of Ingenuity
  • 30 April 2021: Fourth flight test of Ingenuity.[9]
  • 7 May 2021: Fifth flight test of Ingenuity.[10] First one-way flight on Mars. Ingenuity's mission transitions from being a technology demonstration to being an operations demonstration.[11][12]
  • 22 May 2021: Sixth flight test of Ingenuity, first of the operations demonstration.[13] A glitch with the navigation system caused the helicopter to land 5 meters away from its intended landing site.[14]
Perseverance's first test drive (4 March 2021)
 
Rover's first wheel tracks
 
Rover's first test drive (animation-gif)
 
Rocket scour and tracks

Cratered floor campaign (June 2021-April 2022)Edit

 
Perseverance rover - map of the first science campaign (yellow lines, below the landing site). The blue lines above the landing site correspond to the planned second campaign,[15] although the second campaign did not officially start until the arrival of the rover at Three Forks.

The Cratered Floor Campaign was the first science campaign.[16] It began on 1 June 2021, with the goal of exploring the Crater Floor Fractured Rough and Séítah geologic units. To avoid the sand dunes of the Séítah unit, Perseverance will mostly travel within the Crater Floor Fractured Rough geologic unit or along the boundary between the two units. The first of Perseverance's sample tubes are planned to be filled during this expedition.[15]

After collecting the samples, Perseverance will return to its landing site, before continuing to the delta for its second science campaign. At some point, it will store the filled sample tubes in a designated area for the upcoming Mars sample-return mission.[17] While Perseverance embarked on its first science campaign, Ingenuity continued to travel alongside the rover as part of its operations demonstration campaign.[11]

  • 1 June 2021: Perseverance begins its first science campaign.[15]
  • 8 June 2021: Seventh flight of Ingenuity.[18]
  • 21 June 2021: Eighth flight of Ingenuity. The “watchdog issue”, a recurring issue which occasionally prevented Ingenuity from taking flight, is fixed.[19]
  • 5 July 2021: Ninth flight of Ingenuity. This flight is the first to explore areas only an aerial vehicle can, by taking a shortcut over the Séítah unit. The sandy ripples of the Séítah unit would prove too difficult for Perseverance to travel through directly.[20][21][22]
  • 7 July 2021: To test its sampling system, the rover ran one sample tube through inspection, sealing and storing and the attempt was successful. Up to this point, the rover has now used 1 of its 43 sample tubes.[23]
  • 24 July 2021: Tenth flight of Ingenuity.[24]
  • 4 August 2021: Eleventh flight of Ingenuity.[25]
  • 5-6 August 2021: Perseverance attempted to acquire its first sample from the ancient lakebed by drilling out "finger-size cores of Martian rock for return to Earth."[26][27][28] This attempt did not succeed, as the rock sampled was not sufficiently consolidated to produce an intact core and has turned to dust.[29] Up to this point, the rover has now used 2 of its 43 sample tubes.[30] Later on, the mission team confirmed that though soil samples were not cached, but in this process the rover cached the gas samples of the martian atmosphere in it, being the first gas samples cached by the rover.[31]
  • 16 August 2021: Twelfth flight of Ingenuity.[32]
  • 1 September 2021: A second sampling attempt on a rock, named "Rochette", was successful.[33][34]
  • 4 September 2021: Thirteenth flight of Ingenuity.[35]
  • 8 September 2021: A third sampling attempt, also on Rochette, was successful.[36]
  • 1 to 14 October 2021: Mars Solar Conjunction.
  • 24 October 2021: Fourteenth flight of Ingenuity.
  • 6 November 2021: Fifteen flight of Ingenuity.[37]
  • 15 November 2021: A sample was taken from the Brac Outcrop in the South Séítah Unit.
  • 21 November 2021: Sixteenth flight of Ingenuity.[38][39]
  • 24 November 2021: Another sample was taken from the Brac Outcrop.
  • 5 December 2021: Seventeenth flight of Ingenuity. Full data from the flight was not received until later, as Ingenuity initially landed in an area which prevented communication with the rover.[40]
  • 15 December 2021: Eighteenth flight of Ingenuity.
  • 18 December 2021: A sample was taken from Issole in the South Séítah Unit.
  • 29 December 2021: Perseverance attempted to take another sample from Issole, but was unable to successfully cache it.
  • 31 January 2021: The failed sample attempt from Issole was abandoned, and a new, successful sample attempt was made on Issole.
  • 8 February 2022: Nineteenth flight of Ingenuity. It had been planned for earlier, but a dust storm in the area caused delays.
  • 25 February 2022: Twentieth flight of Ingenuity.
  • 7 March 2022: A sample was taken from Sid in the Séítah Unit.
  • 10 March 2022: Twenty-first flight of Ingenuity.
  • 13 March 2022: A second sample was taken from Sid in the Séítah Unit.
  • 20 March 2022: Twenty-second flight of Ingenuity.
  • 24 March 2022: Twenty-third flight of Ingenuity.
  • 28 March 2022: Perseverance enters rapid traverse mode, where it will remain for the rest of the science campaign.[41]
  • 3 April 2022: Twenty-fourth flight of Ingenuity.
  • 8 April 2022: Twenty-fifth flight of Ingenuity. This flight went faster than all previous flights, at a speed of 5.5 meters per second. It also travelled 704 meters, which was farther than all previous flights.[42]
  • 13 April 2022: Perseverance arrives at the Jezero Delta.[43]
Entry-descent-landing debris
 
Skycrane debris captured by Ingenuity Helicopter on April 3, 2022.
 
 
 
Ingenuity took photos April 19, 2022 of the spacecraft backshell and parachute.[44]

Delta front campaign (April 2022 - Present)Edit

 
In blue, the planned traverse of Perseverance. The second science campaign began just before the background map transitions to black and white.

The Delta Front Campaign is the second, currently ongoing science campaign of the Mars 2020 mission. Ingenuity continues to travel alongside the rover as part of its operations demonstration campaign. Once Perseverance traverses to the top of the delta, it is expected to begin the third science campaign - the Delta Top Campaign.[45]

  • 18 April 2022: Perseverance officially begins the Delta Front Campaign.[45]
  • 19 April 2022: Twenty-sixth flight of Ingenuity.[44]
  • 21 April 2022: Perseverance leaves rapid traverse mode.[46]
  • 23 April 2022: Twenty-seventh flight of Ingenuity.
  • 27 April 2022: NASA released images of the backshell that detached from the vehicle containing the Perseverance rover (and companion Ingenuity helicopter) during the landing phase on Mars in February 2021. The backshell and associated parachute were found about a mile from the landing site and images were taken by the companion helicopter during its 26th flight.[44]
  • 3 May 2022: NASA loses contact with Ingenuity due to it running out of power during the night.[47]
  • 5 May 2022: Contact with Ingenuity is regained. To avoid depleting the power, Ingenuity's heaters will not activate when battery temperature drops below -15° Celsius. Ingenuity instead will turn off all electronics when the temperature drops below -40°.[48]

Samples cached for the Mars sample-return missionEdit

In the frame of the Mars sample-return mission around 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of soil samples along with some Martian gas samples from the atmosphere will be cached. Currently, samples are being cached by Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover on the surface of Mars. Out of 43 sample tubes, rock sample tubes cached-8,[49] gas sample tubes cached-1,[31] witness tubes cached-1,[23] tubes due to be cached-33. Before launch, 5 of the 43 tubes were designated “witness tubes” and filled with materials that would capture particulates in the ambient environment of Mars.[50]

Mars sample-return mission – First sampling (6 August 2021)
 
Context
 
MidView
 
CloseUp
 
Sample in drill
 
Sample Tube 233
 
Mapping Perseverance's samples collected to date
Samples Taken Date Contents Sample Name and Image Rock Name Location Notes
Tube 1[51] 7 July 2021 Witness Tube N/A N/A North Séítah Unit[52] This was taken as a dry-run in preparation for later sampling attempts, and did not aim to sample a rock.
Tube 2 5 August 2021 Atmospheric Gas  
N/A (failed attempt of caching rock sample)
Roubion Cratered Floor Fractured Rough Unit[53] Attempted to sample the rock but did not succeed, as they didn't reach the bit carousel and the caching system stored and sealed an empty tube. However in this process, it collected atmospheric samples.
Tube 3[54] 1 September 2021 Soil Sample  
Montdenier
Rochette Citadelle, South Séítah Unit Successful sample.[55][56][57]
Tube 4[58] 8 September 2021 Soil Sample  
Montagnac
Sampled from same rock as previous sample.
Tube 5[59] 15 November 2021 Soil Sample  
Salette
Brac Brac Outcrop, South Séítah Unit
Tube 6[59] 24 November 2021 Soil Sample  
Coulettes
Tube 7 18 December 2021 Soil Sample  
Robine
Issole Issole, South Séítah Unit
Tube 8 29 December 2021 Soil Sample  
N/A (Abandoned sample from this site due to Core Bit Dropoff.)
Pebble-sized debris from the first sample fell into the bit carousel during transfer of the coring bit, which blocked the successful caching of the sample.[60] It was decided to abandon this sample and do a second sampling attempt again. Subsequent tests and measures cleared remaining samples in tube and debris in caching system[61][62] The tube was reused for second sample attempt, which was successful.
31 January 2022 Soil Sample  
Malay
Tube 9 7 March 2022 Soil Sample  
Hahonih
Sid Sid, Séítah Unit
Tube 10 13 March 2022 Soil Sample  
Atsah
 
Perseverance at Rochette rock (10 September 2021)
 
"Rochette" rock − successful borehole sampling of a second rock (1 September 2021)
Perseverance analyzes Rochette rock (August 2021)
 
After abrading rock
 
Bellegarde patch
 
WATSON view
 
PIXL view

Location and Current StatusEdit

Jezero Crater Formation by asteroid impact

GalleryEdit

 
Mars – Perseverance rover – landing site panoramic view (18 February 2021)
 
Mars – Perseverance rover – EDL overview (18 February 2021)
 
Mars Helicopter Route Options out of 'Séítah' with EDL hardware

Self-portraitsEdit

Mars 2020 rover – Selfie process (animated; 2:04; 6 April 2021)
Mars 2020 in Jezero crater on Mars — self-portraits
 
 
Wright Brothers Field
(April 2021)
 
Van Zyl overlook,[a] (April 2021)
 
Perseverance spotted by Ingenuity on its 11th Flight (August 2021)
 
Rochette, September 2021

VideosEdit

ImagesEdit

Perseverance rover on MarsEdit

Ingenuity helicopter's flights on MarsEdit

Flights on Mars – viewed by the Perseverance rover
 
Ingenuity's first flight
(19 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity's first flight after 30 secs flying
 
Ingenuity's second flight
(22 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity's third fight
(25 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity's fourth flight
(30 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity's successful fifth flight to "Airfield B"
(7 May 2021)[64]

Ingenuity helicopter on MarsEdit

Images from Ingenuity helicopter[b][c]
 
Ingenuity's first color image after deployment
(4 April 2021)[d]
 
Ingenuity on sol 45
 
Ingenuity's first image on first flight – altitude 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in)
 
Ingenuity landing from its first flight (19 April 2021)
 
First color aerial image taken – altitude 5.2 m (17 ft) (22 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity views rover (left-up) from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) (25 April 2021)
 
Rover from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) high
 
Ingenuity's shadow during third test flight (25 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity's fourth flight (30 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity finds new Airfield B on fourth flight (30 April 2021)
 
Ingenuity during anomaly survivor sixth flight on sol 91
 
Ingenuity's fifth flight from 10 m (33 ft) high (7 May 2021)
 
Ingenuity's sixth flight from 10 m (33 ft) high (22 May 2021)
 
Ingenuity flight six navcam imagery showing last 29 seconds in flight along with navigation anomaly
 
The Ingenuity helicopter views the Perseverance rover (left) about 85 m (279 ft) away from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) in the air (25 April 2021)

Ingenuity deployment and pre-flight operations on MarsEdit

Mars Ingenuity helicopter tests
 
Wright Brothers Field flight zone and rover locations
 
Map of Wright Brothers Field
 
Rover view of the field
 
Flight zone activities
 
Rover track and Wright Brothers Field
Ingenuity helicopter deployment: out from under the Perseverance rover and pre-flight testing operations
 
Successful deployment on Mars
 
Ingenuity helicopter rotor blades unlocked for flying
 
Ingenuity on sol 48[e]
 
Ingenuity gives its blades a slow-speed spin up test or 50 rpm test spin on sol 48
 
Ingenuity gives high-speed spin up test or 2400 rpm test spin on sol 55[e]
 
Ingenuity base station on rover
 
Debris shield removed
 
Legs deployed

LandingEdit

LaunchEdit

PrelaunchEdit

Other imagesEdit

Wide imagesEdit

 
Scarps Of Jezero Crater - viewed from space (7 October 2021)
 
Panorama from Perseverance viewing the South Séítah geologic unit (12 September 2021)
 
Perseverance viewing first drill site (enhanced color; 28 July 2021)
 
Perseverance views Santa Cruz Hill in Jezero Crater (29 April 2021)
 
The Ingenuity helicopter views the Perseverance rover (left) about 85 m (279 ft) away from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) in the air (25 April 2021)
 
Perseverance views Kodiak Hill (18 April 2021)
 
Panorama from Perseverance - scarps of Jezero Crater (17 April 2021)
 
Perseverance views "Delta Scarp" from over a mile away (17 March 2021)
 
Panorama from Perseverance's landing site (ultra-high-rez; 22 February 2021)
 
Panorama from Perseverance's landing site (21 February 2021)
 
Panorama of Perseverance views Santa Cruz (16 February 2022)
 
Mars sunset viewed by the Perseverance rover (9 November 2021)
Acheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe Terra 
 
(view • discuss)
Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars Lander and Rover sites. Hover over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(See also: Mars map; Mars Memorials map / list)
(   Active ROVER  Inactive  Active LANDER  Inactive  Future )


Acheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe Terra 
 
(view • discuss)
Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars Memorial sites. Hover over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(See also: Mars map; Mars Rovers map; Mars Memorials list)
(   Named  Debris  Lost )


See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Aerial image by the helicopter Ingenuity
  2. ^ All images taken by Ingenuity are taken from black-and-white downward-facing navigation camera or horizon-facing terrain camera[65]
  3. ^ Ingenuity legs are seen clearly on the corners of the each image
  4. ^ Perseverance rover wheels are clearly seen in top corners
  5. ^ a b Please see the difference between the image on high-speed spin up test and the one on sol 48, that is the image on sol 48 has the upper blade in diagonal position while the high-speed spin up test has lower blade in diagonal position
  6. ^ note the difference it is on earth and run by electric cables, while perseverance is on Mars run by MMRTG

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chang, Kenneth (15 February 2022). "On Mars, a NASA Rover and Helicopter's Year of Surprise and Discovery - The past 12 months on Mars have been both "exciting" and "exhausting" for scientists and engineers minding Perseverance and Ingenuity. And the mission is only really getting started". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  2. ^ Dvorsky, George (20 February 2019). "You Can Now Check the Weather on Mars Every Day". Gizmodo. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  3. ^ Berger, Eric (20 February 2019). "With the best air pressure sensor ever on Mars, scientists find a mystery". Ars Technica. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  4. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Perseverance Rover's SuperCam Science Instrument Delivers First Results". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  5. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Perseverance Mars Rover Extracts First Oxygen From Red Planet". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b Staff (5 March 2021). "Welcome to 'Octavia E. Butler Landing'". NASA. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  7. ^ Cappucci, Matthew (8 April 2021). "NASA receives first weather reports from Perseverance rover on Mars at Jezero Crater – The weather data is crucial as the first flight of Ingenuity draws near". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  8. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "We Are Prepping for Ingenuity's Third Flight Test". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  9. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Ingenuity Completes Its Fourth Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  10. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Completes First One-Way Trip". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  11. ^ a b mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Ingenuity Helicopter to Begin New Demonstration Phase". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  12. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Why Ingenuity's Fifth Flight Will Be Different". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  13. ^ NASA/JPL. "Plans Underway for Ingenuity's Sixth Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  14. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Surviving an In-Flight Anomaly: What Happened on Ingenuity's Sixth Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  15. ^ a b c mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Perseverance Rover Begins Its First Science Campaign on Mars". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  16. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "To Séítah and Back". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  17. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Sample Handling". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  18. ^ June 2021, Mike Wall 09 (9 June 2021). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity aces 7th flight on the Red Planet". Space.com. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  19. ^ Demo, Teddy Tzanetos, Operations Lead for Ingenuity Mars Helicopter-Ops. "Flight 8 Success, Software Updates, and Next Steps". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  20. ^ Laboratory, Håvard Grip, Chief Pilot & Bob Balaram, Chief Engineer for the Mars Helicopter Project at NASA's Jet Propulsion. "We're Going Big for Flight 9". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  21. ^ July 2021, Meghan Bartels 06 (6 July 2021). "NASA's Mars helicopter Ingenuity sails through 9th flight on the Red Planet". Space.com. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  22. ^ Scientist, Håvard F. Grip, Ingenuity Chief Pilot, and Ken Williford, Perseverance Deputy Project. "Flight 9 Was a Nail-Biter, but Ingenuity Came Through With Flying Colors". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Sample Caching Dry Run, 1st sample tube cached". Twitter. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  24. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Aerial Scouting of 'Raised Ridges' for Ingenuity's Flight 10". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  25. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "North-By-Northwest for Ingenuity's 11th Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  26. ^ Voosen, Paul (31 July 2021). "Mars rover's sampling campaign begins". Science. AAAS. 373 (6554): 477. doi:10.1126/science.373.6554.477. PMID 34326215. S2CID 236514399. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  27. ^ Voosem, Paul (21 June 2021). "NASA's Perseverance rover to drill first samples of martian rock". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  28. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "On the Eve of Perseverance's First Sample". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  29. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Assessing Perseverance's First Sample Attempt". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  30. ^ "NASA's first Mars sample appears to have crumbled to bits". Science. 11 August 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  31. ^ a b mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Perseverance Plans Next Sample Attempt". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  32. ^ Teddy Tzanetos (15 August 2021). "Better By the Dozen – Ingenuity Takes on Flight 12". Status #321. NASA/JPL. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  33. ^ Fox, Karen; Johnson, Alana; Agle, AG (2 September 2021). "NASA's Perseverance Rover Successfully Cores Its First Rock". NASA. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  34. ^ Chang, Kenneth (3 September 2021). "On Mars, NASA's Perseverance Rover Drilled the Rocks It Came For - After an earlier drilling attempt failed to collect anything, the rover appeared to gather its first sample. But mission managers need to take another look before sealing the tube". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  35. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Lucky 13 – Ingenuity to Get Lower for More Detailed Images During Next Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  36. ^ "https://twitter.com/nasajpl/status/1435772707254063109". Twitter. Retrieved 9 September 2021. {{cite web}}: External link in |title= (help)
  37. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Flight #15 - Start of the Return Journey". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  38. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Flight 16 – Short Hop to the North". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  39. ^ Meghan Bartels (23 November 2021). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity soars on 16th Red Planet flight". Space.com. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  40. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Flight 17 – Discovering Limits". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  41. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Sample Tally for the Crater Floor Campaign". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  42. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Mars Helicopter". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  43. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Perseverance Rover Arrives at Delta for New Science Campaign". NASA Mars Exploration. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  44. ^ a b c Chang, Kenneth (27 April 2022). "NASA Sees 'Otherworldly' Wreckage on Mars With Ingenuity Helicopter - The debris was part of the equipment that helped the Perseverance mission safely land on the red planet in 2021". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  45. ^ a b mars.nasa.gov. "Campaign #2: The Delta Front". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  46. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "We've Arrived! Perseverance Starts the Delta Front Campaign". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  47. ^ Berger, Eric (9 May 2022). "After losing contact with its helicopter, NASA put the entire Mars mission on hold". Ars Technica. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  48. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Ingenuity in Contact With Perseverance Rover After Communications Dropout". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  49. ^ "3rd soil sample tube cached". nasa.gov. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  50. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Perseverance Sample Tube 266". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  51. ^ "Sample Caching Dry Run, 1st sample tube cached". Twitter. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  52. ^ "Witness Tube in Perseverance Sample Caching System". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  53. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Perseverance's Drive to Citadelle". NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  54. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Kicking off the Sampling Sol Path at Citadelle". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  55. ^ Fox, Karen; Johnson, Alana; Agle, AG (2 September 2021). "NASA's Perseverance Rover Successfully Cores Its First Rock". NASA. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  56. ^ Chang, Kenneth (3 September 2021). "On Mars, NASA's Perseverance Rover Drilled the Rocks It Came For – After an earlier drilling attempt failed to collect anything, the rover appeared to gather its first sample. But mission managers need to take another look before sealing the tube". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  57. ^ Chang, Kenneth (7 September 2021). "NASA's Perseverance Rover Stashes First Mars Rock Sample – The rock, sealed in a tube, is the first of many the robotic explorer will collect to one day send back to Earth for scientists to study". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  58. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "A Historic Moment – Perseverance Collects, Seals, and Stores its First Two Rock Samples". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  59. ^ a b "A rock so nice, I sampled it twice!". Twitter. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  60. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Assessing Perseverance's Seventh Sample Collection". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  61. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Pebbles Before Mountains". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  62. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Ejecting Mars' Pebbles". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  63. ^ a b Staff (7 March 2021). "Messages on Mars Perseverance Rover". NASA. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  64. ^ Chang, Kenneth (7 May 2021). "NASA Mars Helicopter Makes One-Way Flight to New Mission - Ingenuity has flown almost flawlessly through the red planet's thin air and will now assist the science mission of the Perseverance rover". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  65. ^ "Raw Images From Ingenuity Helicopter". NASA. 30 April 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.

External linksEdit

  • Current Weather Report on Mars by the Perseverance rover – MEDA
    • (MarsWxReport/temp; 1st Report/6apr2021; NASA-1; NASA-2)
    • Mars Weather: Perseverance*Curiosity*InSight
  • Current Weather Report on Mars by the Curiosity rover
  • Current Weather Report on Mars by the InSight lander
  • Perseverance rover: Official website
  • Mars 2020: Official website
  • Mars 2020: Location Maps
  • Perseverance at Van Zyl (AVideo360; 1:40; Spring 2021) on YouTube (related site; 2GB PNG-image)
  • Video (03:25) – Mars 2020 – Landing on Mars (18 February 2021) on YouTube
  • Video (60:00) – Minerals and the Origins of Life – (Robert Hazen; NASA; April 2014)
  • Video (86:49) – Search for Life in the Universe – (NASA; July 2014)
  • Video (13:33) – Mars Perseverance rover/Ingenuity helicopter report (9 May 2021; CBS-TV, 60 Minutes)
  • Video (03:04) − Exploring Jezero Crater − (NASA; December 2021)