2S1 Gvozdika

Summary

The 2S1 Gvozdika (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», "Carnation") is a Soviet self-propelled howitzer based on the MT-LBu multi-purpose chassis, mounting a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of track widths are available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infrared night-vision capability.

2S1 (SAU-122)
6742 - Moscow - Poklonnaya Hill - Tank.JPG
TypeSelf-propelled artillery
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1972–present
Used bysee Operators
WarsSoviet–Afghan War
Iran–Iraq War
Gulf War
War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)
Yugoslav Wars
Kosovo War
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
Iraq War
2008 South Ossetia War
Russo-Georgian War
First Libyan Civil War
Second Libyan Civil War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Production history
DesignerKharkiv Tractor Plant
Designed1956–1961
Produced1971–1991
No. builtmore than 10,000
Variantssee Variants
Specifications
Mass16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)
Length7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)
Width2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)
Height2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)
Crew4

Shell122 x 447mm .R
separate loading, cased charge
Caliber122 mm
BreechHorizontal sliding-wedge, semi-automatic
Elevation-3 to +70 degrees
Traverse360 degrees
Rate of fireMaximum: 5 rpm
Sustained: 1–2 rpm
Muzzle velocity680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)
Maximum firing rangeConventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi)
Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)

Armor20 mm (.78 in)
Main
armament
2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer
EngineYaMZ-238N diesel
220 kW (300 hp)
Suspensiontorsion bar
Operational
range
500 km (310 mi)
Maximum speed Road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph)
Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)

DescriptionEdit

The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 uses a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.[1][2]

Production historyEdit

The first prototype was ready in 1958. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Soviet, Polish and Bulgarian state factories.

VariantsEdit

Former Soviet Union/RussiaEdit

 
2S8 Astra

UkraineEdit

  • Kevlar-EInfantry fighting vehicle based on the 2S1 platform, equipped with Shturm remote weapon station and room for 6 passengers in addition to the 3 crew. The original 300 horsepower V8 diesel engine has been replaced with 420 horsepower diesel engine, produced by Caterpillar, Cummins or Deutz, increasing the maximum road speed to 70 km/h. Additionally, the vehicle is amphibious, includes air conditioning, a fire detection and suppression system, an NBC system, navigation system and night-vision equipment. The variant was first introduced in April 2018.[4]

PolandEdit

The 2S1 Gvozdika (as well as other related vehicles such as the MT-LB and Opal) were produced in Poland by Huta Stalowa Wola under the name 2S1 Goździk.

  • 2S1M Goździk – Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
  • 2S1T Goździk – Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.

RomaniaEdit

  • OAPR model 89 (Obuzierul autopropulsat românesc, model 89) – Romanian variant combining the 2S1 Gvozdika's turret and a modified version of the MLI-84's chassis. Designed around 1978, produced between 1987 and 1992. Also simply known as Model 89.[5][6]

IranEdit

  • Raad-1 ('thunder') – Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.

SerbiaEdit

  • 2S1 modernized - The modernization is being carried out on the basis of the 122 mm towed howitzer of the Serbian modernization program. Project "SORA 122mm" and NORA B-52. Where the truck platform was abandoned, which was used by the proto-type version of the "SORA 122mm" system In favor of a much better, crawler platform 2S1 Gvozdika system. The action was made possible by two new projectiles, an increased target on the target, and an increased range of about 40% from 15,200 to almost 22,000 m. By installing a new ballistic computer, and a fire control system, which enables, it is much faster to take a combat position, as well as to leave the same combat position. There is also a new inertial navigation system, as well as GPRS, as well as the possibility of action, multiple projectiles in one point MRSI. Thus, it was achieved that with one 2S1 Gvozdika system, in the system of MRSI action in one point, 6 projectiles can be fired in a minute. Which leads to the fact that one system 2S1 Gvozdika, with this modernization, practically changes the whole battery of this system, before the modernization. Also, for better protection of the 2S1 Gvozdika system itself, a turret with a 12.7mm machine gun was added. In 2021, the first battery of the modernized 2S1 Gvozdika system was introduced into the Serbian Army.

MyanmarEdit

  • 2S1U – In March 2019, a Ukrainian company[who?] and the Myanmar military have signed a joint-venture agreement to build a plant capable of manufacturing armored personnel carriers (APCs) and self-propelled howitzers. The types of APCs that will be made in the plant are said to be eight-wheeled BTR-4Us while the howitzers will be 2S1Us, which are based on the MT-LBu multipurpose chassis.[7][8]

OperatorsEdit

 
Map of 2S1 operators in blue with former operators in red
 
Serbian Army 2S1 Gvozdika modernized
 
Polish Land Forces 2S1 Gvozdika at artillery range
 
Romanian Model 89, using the 2S1's turret on the MLI-84's chassis
 
An Iraqi M-1974 howitzer lies stranded in the desert after being deserted by Iraqi forces during the Persian Gulf War's Operation Desert Storm.

Current operatorsEdit

Former operatorsEdit

  •   Czech Republic – Phased out in the early 2000s.
  •   Czechoslovakia – Passed on to successor states.
  •   East Germany – Phased out in 1990 after German reunification.
  •   Hungary – Phased out in 2004. Original there were 144 pieces of Gvozdikas.
  •   Iraq - Phased out.
  •   Islamic State – Reportedly; currently probably all destroyed.
  •   Romania – 48 reserve status since 2005 (42 OAPR 89s and 6 2S1 Gvozdikas).
  •   Slovenia – 8 reserve status.
  •   Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states.
  •   Yugoslavia – Passed on to successor states.[18]

Combat historyEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Marat Kenzhetaev (1998). "Self Propelled Artillery and Mortars". armscontrol.ru. MIPT Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
  2. ^ "2S1 M-1974 122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer". GlobalSecurity.org. 9 November 2008. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
  3. ^ "САУ 2С15 "Норов". СССР". Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  4. ^ Foss, Christopher F (29 April 2018). "Ukraine re-roles 2S1 SPH for infantry combat". IHS Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  5. ^ http://www.worldwar2.ro/documents/004-artileria-romana-in-date-si-imagini.pdf p. 164
  6. ^ "Obuzierul Autopropulsat Românesc, Model 1989". 23 June 2018.
  7. ^ "myanmar-ukrainian firming aims plant deal". 9 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Joint venture to supply Ukrainian APCs to Myanmar army | March 2019 Global Defense Security army news industry | Defense Security global news industry army 2019 | Archive News year". www.armyrecognition.com.
  9. ^ "Belarus Army Equipment" Archived 16 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, GlobalSecurity
  10. ^ a b "Kolejny fatalny rok eksportu polskiego uzbrojenia". www.altair.com.pl.
  11. ^ IISS Military Balance 2020, p.469
  12. ^ "Deagel.com". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
  13. ^ Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – info@warfare.ru. "2s1 Gvozdika Self-Propelled Howitzer | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  14. ^ Hərbi TV (31 October 2016). "Turkmenistan Military Parade 2016". YouTube (in Turkmen). Ashgabat. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  15. ^ "Ground Forces Equipment – Ukraine". Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2007.
  16. ^ "Kolejne haubice Goździk trafią na Ukrainę – Defence24". www.defence24.pl.
  17. ^ "Trade Registers". armstrade.sipri.org.
  18. ^ Kočevar, Iztok (August 2014). "Micmac à tire-larigot chez Tito: L'arme blindée yougoslave durant la Guerre froide" [The Yugoslav armored arm during the Cold War]. Batailles et Blindés (in French). No. 62. Caraktère. pp. 66–79. ISSN 1765-0828.
  19. ^ "- YouTube". www.youtube.com.
  • Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. p. 124. ISBN 0-7607-1260-3.

External linksEdit

  Media related to 2S1 Gvozdika at Wikimedia Commons

  • FAS.org
  • Armscontrol.ru
  • Huta Stalowa Wola – Polish manufacturer
  • Arsenal Co. – Bulgarian manufacturer of 2A31(2S1)