Kyrgyzstan,[a] officially the Kyrgyz Republic,[b][12] is a landlocked country in Central Asia, lying in the Tian Shan and Pamir mountain ranges. Bishkek is the capital and largest city of the country. Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south, and China to the east and southeast.[13][14][15] Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 7 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians.[16]

Kyrgyz Republic
  • Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyz)
  • Кыргызская Республика (Russian)
Anthem: Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик гимни (Kyrgyz)
"National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic"
Location of Kyrgyzstan (dark green)
Location of Kyrgyzstan (dark green)
and largest city
42°52′N 74°36′E / 42.867°N 74.600°E / 42.867; 74.600
Official languages
Official scriptCyrillic
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Sadyr Japarov
Akylbek Japarov
Nurlanbek Shakiev
LegislatureSupreme Council
Formation History
14 October 1924
11 February 1926
5 December 1936
30 December 1990
31 August 1991
26 December 1991
11 April 2021
• Total
200,105[6] km2 (77,261 sq mi) (85th)
• Water
7,198 km2 (2,779 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2024 estimate
7,161,900[7] (112th[7])
• Density
35.8/km2 (92.7/sq mi) (109th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $48.054 billion[8] (129th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,790[9] (139th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $13.599 billion[citation needed] (140th)
• Per capita
Increase $1,922[9] (152nd)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 29.0[10]
HDI (2022)Increase 0.701[11]
high (117th)
CurrencyKyrgyzstani som (c) (KGS)
Time zoneUTC+6 (KGT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+996
ISO 3166 codeKG

Kyrgyzstan's history spans a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road along with other commercial routes. Inhabited by a succession of tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under larger domination, for example the Turkic nomads, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states. It was first established as the Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate. Later, in the 13th century, Kyrgyzstan was conquered by the Mongols; it regained independence, but was later invaded by the Dzungar Khanate. After the fall of Dzhungars, Kyrgyz and Kipchaks were an integral part of Kokand Khanate. In 1876, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian Empire, and in 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was formed to become a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. Following Mikhail Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from the USSR and a democratic government was established. Kyrgyzstan attained sovereignty as a nation state after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Tian Shan Mountains in East Kyrgyzstan

After independence, Kyrgyzstan was officially a unitary presidential republic; after the Tulip Revolution it became a unitary parliamentary republic, although it gradually developed an executive president and was governed as a semi-presidential republic before reverting to a presidential system in 2021. Throughout its existence, the country has continued to endure ethnic conflicts,[17][18] revolts,[19] economic troubles,[20][21] transitional governments[22] and political conflict.[23]

Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. It is a developing country ranked 118th in the Human Development Index, and is the second poorest country in Central Asia after neighbouring Tajikistan. The country's transitional economy is heavily dependent on deposits of gold, coal and uranium.


Statue of Manas in Bishkek

Kyrgyz is derived from the Turkic word for "We are forty", believed to refer to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans. The Persian suffix -stan means "place of".

The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.

The country's official name is Kyrgyz Republic, used in international arenas and foreign relations.[24][25] In the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is commonly used, while its former name Kirghizia[c] is rarely used.[26]



Early history

Petroglyphs of local sheep, Sary Kamysh

The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 AD.[27] From the tenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years.

There is a storytelling tradition of the Epic of Manas, which involves a warrior who unified all of the scattered tribes into a single nation in the 9th century. The trilogy, an element of the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List, expresses the memory of the nomadic peoples.[citation needed]

In the 12th century, the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207.

Silk road caravansarai utilized during the Islamic Golden Age

Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders, merchants, and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty of China, and in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand.[28] In 1842, the Kyrgyz tribes broke away from Kokand and united into the Kara-Kyrgyz Khanate [ky], led by Ormon Khan. Following Ormon's death in 1854, the khanate disintegrated.[29]

Russian conquest

Group of Kirghiz men posing with a local Russian Governor, his wife, and their child in front of a yurt

In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan, mainly the Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai.[30] The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan.

In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz later to migrate to China.[31] Since many ethnic groups in the region were, and still are, split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might mean better rains for pasture or better government during oppression.

Soviet Kyrgyzstan (1919–1991)


Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (SFSR). The phrase Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a constituent Union Republic of the Soviet Union.

After the Russian Civil War, the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP), began, which lasted roughly to 1928.[32] The Bolsheviks made an effort to establish a standardized tax system, with higher taxes for nomads to discourage the wandering livelihood and they divided the Central Asia region into five nation-states.[32][33][34] Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational, and social life, literacy was greatly improved. Economic and social development also was notable.[35] Under Stalin a great focus was put on Kyrgyz national identity. The Soviet state was fighting tribalism: its social organization based on patrilineal kinship contradicted the concept of the modern nation state.[33][35] In a region that did not previously know national institutions or consciousness, the process of nation-building was, from the indigenous perspective, a difficult and ambivalent one.[34]

By the end of the 1920s, the Soviet Union developed a series of five-year plans, centered around industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture, including the creation of huge "kolkhoz" collective farming systems, needed to feed the new workers in the industries.[36] Because of the plan's reliance on rapidity, major economic and cultural changes had to occur, which led to conflicts. In Kyrgyzstan, Russian settlers acquired the best pasture land, creating much hardship for most of its original inhabitants, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Turkmen nomads, who were also forced to settle down on soil that hadn't enough agricultural potential.[34][37] The changes caused unrest, and between 1928 and 1932, nomads and peasants made it clear through methods like passive resistance that they did not agree with these policies, in the Kirgiziya area also guerrilla opposition occurred.[32][34][37] The region suffered relatively more deaths from collectivization than any other.[32]

Nomadic farming in the Suusamyr Valley, Kyrgyzstan

The early years of glasnost, in the late 1980s, had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function.

According to the last Soviet census in 1989, ethnic Kyrgyz made up only 22% of the residents of the northern city of Frunze (now Bishkek), while more than 60% were Russians, Ukrainians, and people from other Slavic nations. Nearly 10% of the capital's population were Jewish (a rather unique fact, for almost any place in the Soviet Union, except the Jewish Autonomous Oblast).

In June 1990, ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in the Osh Region (southern Kyrgyzstan), where Uzbeks form a minority of the population.[38] The tensions between Kyrgyzs and Uzbeks in Osis led to 186 deaths.[39] Attempts to appropriate Uzbek collective farms for housing development triggered the Osh Riots. A state of emergency and curfew were introduced[40] and Askar Akayev, the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers (in northern Kyrgyzstan), was elected president in October of that same year. By then, the Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament. On 15 December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new cabinet composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its pre-revolutionary name of Bishkek.[41]

Despite these political moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union in March 1991, 88.7%[citation needed] of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union as a "renewed federation". Nevertheless, secessionist forces pushed Kyrgyzstan's independence through in August of that same year.

On 19 August 1991, when the State Emergency Committee assumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the Soviet Union on 31 August 1991 as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.[42]

Wild sheep, urial, on a Kyrgyzstan stamp

According to a 2013 Gallup poll, 62% of Kyrgyz people say that the collapse of the Soviet Union harmed their country, while only 16% said that the collapse benefitted it.[43]



In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95 percent of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics that same month, he signed the Treaty of the Economic Community. The new leaders of three out of four Soviet Union's founding republics, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, on 8 December 1991 signed the Belavezha Accords, denouncing the Union Treaty of 1922, declaring that the Union would cease to exist and proclaimed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.[44]

On 21 December 1991, Kyrgyzstan agreed with the other four Central Asian Republics, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan to the Alma-Ata Protocols, formally entering the Commonwealth with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Moldova and Ukraine. Finally, Kyrgyzstan gained full independence on 25 December 1991. The following day, on 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). On 5 May 1993, the official name changed from the Republic of Kyrgyzstan to the Kyrgyz Republic following the adoption of a new constitution.[45]

In 2005, an uprising known as the "Tulip Revolution", took place after the parliamentary elections in March 2005, forced President Askar Akayev's resignation on 4 April 2005. Opposition leaders formed a coalition, and a new government was formed under President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Felix Kulov. The nation's capital was looted during the protests.

Political stability appeared to be elusive, however, as various groups and factions allegedly linked to organized crime jockeyed for power. Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006 shortly after winning his murdered brother's seat in a by-election. All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal business ventures.[according to whom?]

April 2010 crisis


On 6 April 2010, civil unrest broke out in the town of Talas after a demonstration against government corruption and increased living expenses. The protests became violent, spreading to Bishkek by the following day. Protesters attacked President Bakiyev's offices, as well as state-run radio and television stations. There were conflicting reports that Interior Minister Moldomusa Kongatiyev had been beaten. On 7 April 2010, President Bakiyev imposed a state of emergency. Police and special services arrested many opposition leaders. In response, protesters took control of the internal security headquarters (former KGB headquarters) and a state television channel in the capital, Bishkek.[citation needed] Reports by Kyrgyzstan government officials indicated that at least 75 people were killed and 458 hospitalized in bloody clashes with police in the capital.[46] Reports say that at least 80 people died as a result of clashes with police.

A transition government had been established, led by former foreign minister Roza Otunbayeva (Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan), that by 8 April 2010 had taken control of state media and government facilities in the capital, but Bakiyev had not resigned from office.[47][48]

President Bakiyev returned to his home in Jalal-Abad and stated his terms of resignation at a press conference on 13 April 2010.[49] On 15 April 2010, Bakiyev left the country and flew to neighboring Kazakhstan, along with his wife and two children. The country's provisional leaders announced that Bakiyev signed a formal letter of resignation prior to his departure.[50]

Prime Minister Daniar Usenov accused Russia of supporting the protests; this accusation was denied by Russian Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin. Opposition members also called for the closing of the US-controlled Manas Air Base.[51] Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev ordered measures to ensure the safety of Russian nationals and tighten security around Russian sites in Kyrgyzstan to protect them against possible attacks.

The 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes occurred between the two main ethnic groups—the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz—in Osh, the second-largest city in the country, on 11 June 2010. The clashes incited fears that the country could be heading towards a civil war.[52][53]

Interim leader Otunbayeva sent a letter to the Russian president, Dimitry Medvedev, asking him to send Russian troops to help the country control the situation. Medvedev's Press Attaché, Natalya Timakova, said in a reply to the letter, "It is an internal conflict and for now Russia does not see the conditions for taking part in its resolution". The clashes caused a shortage of food and other essential commodities with more than 200 killed and 1,685 people hurt, as of 12 June 2010. The Russian government, however, said it would be sending humanitarian aid to the troubled nation.[54]

According to local sources, there was a clash between two local gangs and it did not take long for the violence to spread to the rest of the city. There were also reports that the armed forces supported ethnic Kyrgyz gangs entering the city, but the government denied the allegations.[54]

The riots spread to neighboring areas, and the government declared a state of emergency in the entire southern Jalal-Abad region. To control the situation, the interim government gave special shoot-to-kill powers to the security forces. The Russian government decided to send a battalion to the country to protect Russian facilities.[55]

Kyrgyz family in the village of Sary-Mogol, Osh Region

Otunbayeva accused the family of Bakiyev of "instigating the riots".[56] AFP reported "a veil of smoke covering the whole city". Authorities in neighboring Uzbekistan said at least 30,000 Uzbeks had crossed the border to escape the riots.[55] Osh became relatively calm on 14 June 2010, but Jalal-Abad witnessed sporadic incidents of arson. The entire region was still under a state of emergency as Uzbeks were reluctant to leave their houses for fear of attacks by the mobs. The United Nations decided to send an envoy to assess the situation.[57]

Kyrgyzstan's second-largest city, Osh, in 2018

Temir Sariyev, deputy chief of the interim government, said there were local clashes and that it was not possible [for the government] to fully control the situation. He added that there were not sufficient security forces to contain the violence. Media agencies reported on 14 June 2010 that the Russian government was considering a request by the Kyrgyz government. An emergency meeting of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) was held on the same day (14 June) to discuss the role it could play in helping to end the violence. Ethnic violence waned, according to the Kyrgyz government, by 15 June 2010 and Kyrgyz president Roza Otunbayeva held a news conference that day and declared that there was no need for Russia to send in troops to quell the violence. There were at least 170 people left dead by 15 June 2010 but Pascale Meige Wagner of the International Committee of the Red Cross said the [official] death toll was an underestimate. The UN High Commissioner told reporters in Geneva that evidence suggested that the violence seemed to have been staged up. Ethnic Uzbeks threatened to blow up an oil depot in Osh if they failed to get guarantees of protection. The United Nations said it believed that the attacks were "orchestrated, targeted and well-planned". Kyrgyz officials told the media that a person suspected to be behind the violence in Jalal-Abad had been detained.[58]

On 2 August 2010, a Kyrgyz government commission began investigating the causes of the clashes. Members of the National Commission, led by former parliament speaker Abdygany Erkebaev, met with people from the predominantly ethnic Uzbek villages of Mady, Shark, and Kyzyl-Kyshtak in the Kara-Suu district of Osh Oblast. This National Commission, including representatives of many ethnic groups, was established by a presidential decree.

President Otunbayeva meets representatives of an environmental organisation in 2011.

President Roza Otunbayeva also said in August 2010 that an international commission would be formed to investigate the clashes.[59] The international commission conducted an extensive investigation and prepared a report—The Independent international commission of inquiry into the events in southern Kyrgyzstan in June 2010 (KIC).[60] It stated that "The Provisional Government, which had assumed power two months before the events, either failed to recognize or underestimated the deterioration in inter-ethnic relations in southern Kyrgyzstan". The KIC concluded that the "Provisional Government had the responsibility to ensure that the security forces were adequately trained and appropriately equipped to deal with situations of civil unrest" but were unable to take necessary measures.

As of today, Kyrgyzstan celebrates its Independence Day annually on August 31, the anniversary of its declaration of independence in 1991. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan has made developments such as creating genuinely free news media and fostering an active political opposition.[61]

In late April 2021, a conflict over water escalated into one of the most serious border clashes between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan since independence in 1991.[62][63]

In September 2022, armed clashes, including the use of artillery, erupted along much of the border between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.[64]


Kyrgyzstan's topography
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It lies between latitudes 39° and 44° N, and longitudes 69° and 81° E. It is farther from the sea than any other individual country, and all its rivers flow into closed drainage systems which do not reach the sea. The mountainous region of the Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country (Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerland of Central Asia", as a result),[65] with the remainder made up of valleys and basins.

A map of Kyrgyzstan

Issyk-Kul Lake, or Ysyk-Köl in Kyrgyz, in the north-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. The lowest point is in Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) at 132 meters and the highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 m (24,406 ft), is the highest point and is considered by geologists to be the northernmost peak over 7,000 m (22,966 ft) in the world. Heavy snowfall in winter leads to spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity.

Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and rare-earth metals. Due to the country's predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley.

Bishkek in the north is the capital and largest city, with 937,400 inhabitants (as of 2015). The second city is the ancient town of Osh, located in the Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan. The principal river is the Kara Darya, which flows west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in Uzbekistan it meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Naryn.

The confluence forms the Syr Darya, which originally flowed into the Aral Sea. As of 2010, it no longer reaches the sea, as its water is withdrawn upstream to irrigate cotton fields in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan.

Kyrgyzstan contains seven terrestrial ecosystems: Tian Shan montane conifer forests, Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe, Gissaro-Alai open woodlands, Tian Shan foothill arid steppe, Pamir alpine desert and tundra, Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows, and Central Asian northern desert.[66] It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.86/10, ranking it 13th globally out of 172 countries.[67]


Kyrgyzstan map of Köppen climate classification

The climate varies regionally. The low-lying Fergana Valley in the southwest is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 40 °C (104 °F). The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas, winter temperatures drop below freezing for approximately 40 days, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall during this period. In the lowlands the temperature ranges from around −6 °C (21 °F) in January to 24 °C (75 °F) in July.

Glaciers and climate change

Reduction of glacier area in the Borkoldoy range (1965-2010)
Climate change is evident in Kyrgyzstan. Among the countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan is the third most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as changes in weather patterns that could lead to prolonged periods of precipitation and drought.[68] Moreover, the frequent occurrence of extreme weather and climate events such as heatwaves, droughts, heavy rainfalls, and biotic/abiotic catastrophes during recent years are evidence of climate change.[69] Kyrgyzstan is threatened with glacier melting and a lack of freshwater balance, which are accelerated by global warming.[70] The average temperature has increased from 4.8 °C to 6 °C so far within the last 20 years.[71] In 2013 the World Bank estimated a likely increase of 2 °C in average mean temperature by 2060 and of 4–5 °C by 2100, noting that the country's glaciers were significantly reduced and projected to decline further.[72] A significant warming trend in Kyrgyztsan with a projected increase of 6°C under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenario SSP5-8.5 from 2076 to 2096.[73] However the very slight increase in temperature is expected to positively affect climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, energy, and forestry as more land is within the optimum temperature band.[citation needed]

Enclaves and exclaves


There is one exclave, the tiny village of Barak[74] (population 627), in the Fergana Valley. The village is surrounded by Uzbek territory. It is located on the road from Osh (Kyrgyzstan) to Khodjaabad (Uzbekistan) about 4 kilometres (2 miles) north-west from the Kyrgyz–Uzbek border in the direction of Andijan.[75] Barak is administratively part of Kara-Suu District in Kyrgyzstan's Osh Region.

There are four Uzbek enclaves within Kyrgyzstan. Two of them are the towns of Sokh, with an area of 325 km2 (125 sq mi) and a population of 42,800 in 1993, although some estimates go as high as 70,000 (99% are Tajiks, the remainder Uzbeks); and Shakhimardan (also known as Shahimardan, Shohimardon, or Shah-i-Mardan), with an area of 90 km2 (35 sq mi) and a population of 5,100 in 1993; 91% are Uzbeks, and the remaining 9% are Kyrgyz; the other two are the tiny territories of Chong-Kara (roughly 3 km (2 mi) long by 1 km (0.6 mi) wide) and Jangy-ayyl (a dot of land barely 2–3 km (1–2 mi) across). Chong-Kara is on the Sokh river, between the Uzbek border and the Sokh enclave. Jangy-ayyl is about 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Batken, in a northward projection of the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border near Khalmion.

There are also two enclaves belonging to Tajikistan on the Kyrgyz-Tajik border: Vorukh, and Lolazor. Vorukh has an area between 95–130 km2 (37–50 sq mi), and a population estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks and 5% Kyrgyz. It is distributed among 17 villages and is located around 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of Isfara on the right bank of the river Karavshin. Lolazor (Western Qalacha or Kayragach) is a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach.



Political system

Sadyr Japarov, President of Kyrgyzstan
Supreme Council building in Bishkek, house of the unicameral parliament
Kyrgyz women parliamentarians, 2016

The 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic unicameral republic. The executive branch includes a president and prime minister. The parliament currently is unicameral. The judicial branch comprises a supreme court, local courts and a chief prosecutor.

In March 2002, in the southern district of Aksy, five people protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, sparking nationwide protests. President Askar Akayev initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil and social representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities.

The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and the Constitutional Court. Parliamentary elections for a new, 75-seat unicameral legislature were held on 27 February and 13 March 2005, but were widely viewed as corrupt. The subsequent protests led to a bloodless coup on 24 March 2005, after which Akayev fled the country with his family and was replaced by acting president Kurmanbek Bakiyev.

On 10 July 2005, acting president Bakiyev won the presidential election in a landslide, with 88.9% of the vote, and was inaugurated on 14 August. However, initial public support for the new administration substantially declined in subsequent months as a result of its apparent inability to solve the corruption problems that had plagued the country since its independence from the Soviet Union, along with the murders of several members of parliament. Large-scale protests against president Bakiyev took place in Bishkek in April and November 2006, with opposition leaders accusing the president of failing to live up to his election promises to reform the country's constitution and transfer many of his presidential powers to parliament.[76]

Kyrgyzstan is also a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), a league of 57 participating states committed to peace, transparency, and the protection of human rights in Eurasia. As an OSCE participating state, Kyrgyzstan's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission.

In December 2008, the state-owned broadcast KTRK announced that it would require prior submission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty programmes, which KTRK are required to retransmit according to a 2005 agreement.[77] KTRK had stopped retransmitting RFE/RL programming in October 2008, a week after it failed to broadcast an RFE/RL programme called Inconvenient Questions which covered the October elections, claiming to have lost the missing material. President Bakiyev had criticised this programme in September 2008, while KTRK told RFE/RL that its programming was too negative. Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Kyrgyzstan 111th out of 173 countries on its Press Freedom Index, strongly criticised the decision.

On 3 February 2009, President Bakiyev announced the imminent closure of the Manas Air Base, the only US military base remaining in Central Asia.[78] The closure was approved by Parliament on 19 February 2009 by a vote of 78–1 for the government-backed bill.[79] However, after much behind-the-scenes negotiation between Kyrgyz, Russian and American diplomats, the decision was reversed in June 2009. The Americans were allowed to remain under a new contract, whereby rent would increase from $17.4 million to $60 million annually.[80]

President Jeenbekov at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit in China, June 2018

Kyrgyzstan is among the fifty countries in the world with the highest perceived level of corruption: the 2016 Corruption Perception Index for Kyrgyzstan is 28 on a scale of 0 (most corrupt) to 100 (least corrupt).[81]

In 2010, another revolution erupted in the country (see: April uprising). President Bakiyev, together with his relatives, including his son Maksim[82] and brother Janish—were forced to flee to Kazakhstan and then sought asylum in Belarus. Roza Otunbayeva, who was appointed interim president, announced that she did not intend to run for the Presidential elections in 2011. The election was held in November and won by Prime Minister Almazbek Atambayev, leader of the Social Democratic Party, and Atambayev was sworn in as president on 1 December 2011. Omurbek Babanov was appointed prime minister on the same day and was confirmed on 23 December 2011.[83]

In 2015, Kyrgyzstan became a full-fledged member of the Eurasian Economic Union (EES) after it formally abolished customs controls along its border with Kazakhstan, other members are the former Soviet republics Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Armenia.

President Japarov (right) with Vladimir Putin and other post-Soviet leaders at the 2023 Moscow Victory Day Parade[84]

In October 2017, Sooronbay Jeenbekov, a former prime minister backed by incumbent Almazbek Atambayev, was elected as the new President of Kyrgyzstan.[85] In foreign policy he saw the Kremlin as the country's "main strategic partner" and China as an "important strategic and trade partner", but he intended to seek more collaborative bilateral ties with European partners.[86] On 7 August 2019, the Special Forces of Kyrgyzstan launched an operation against the residence of former President Almazbek Atambayev, supposedly based on charges of corruption made against him.[87][88] In a meeting of the Security Council, President Jeenbekov accused Atambayev of violating the constitution.[89] In October 2020, President Sooronbay Jeenbekov resigned after protests caused by irregularities in parliamentary elections on 4 October 2020.[90]

In January 2021, Sadyr Japarov was elected as the new president after winning the presidential election by a landslide.[91]

In April 2021, the majority of voters approved in the constitutional referendum a new constitution that will give new powers to the president, significantly strengthening the power of the presidency.[92]

Administrative divisions


Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven regions (Kyrgyz: облустар). The regions are subdivided into 44 districts (Kyrgyz: аймактар, aymaqtar;). The districts are further subdivided into rural districts at the lowest level of administration, which include all rural settlements (aýyl ökmötü) and villages without an associated municipal government.

The cities of Bishkek and Osh have status "state importance" and do not belong to any region.

Each region is headed by an akim (regional governor) appointed by the president. District akims are appointed by regional akims.

 OshBishkekBatken RegionOsh RegionJalal-Abad RegionNaryn RegionTalas RegionChüy RegionIssyk-Kul Region
A clickable map of Kyrgyzstan exhibiting its provinces.

The regions, and independent cities, are as follows, with subdivisions:

  1. City of Bishkek
    1. Lenin District
    2. Oktyabr District
    3. Birinchi May District
    4. Sverdlov District
  2. Batken Region
    1. Batken District
    2. Kadamjay District
    3. Leylek District
  3. Chüy Region
    1. Alamüdün District
    2. Chüy District
    3. Jayyl District
    4. Kemin District
    5. Moskva District
    6. Panfilov District
    7. Sokuluk District
    8. Ysyk-Ata District
  4. Jalal-Abad Region
    1. Aksy District
    2. Ala-Buka District
    3. Bazar-Korgon District
    4. Chatkal District
    5. Nooken District
    6. Suzak District
    7. Toguz-Toro District
    8. Toktogul District
  5. Naryn Region
    1. Ak-Talaa District
    2. At-Bashy District
    3. Jumgal District
    4. Kochkor District
    5. Naryn District
  6. Osh Region
    1. Alay District
    2. Aravan District
    3. Chong-Alay District
    4. Kara-Kulja District
    5. Kara-Suu District
    6. Nookat District
    7. Özgön District
  7. Talas Region
    1. Bakay-Ata District
    2. Kara-Buura District
    3. Manas District
    4. Talas District
  8. Issyk-Kul Region
    1. Ak-Suu District
    2. Issyk-Kul District
    3. Jeti-Ögüz District
    4. Tong District
    5. Tüp District
  9. City of Osh


Kyrgyz soldiers conducting mine sweeping exercises

The armed forces of Kyrgyzstan were formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union and consist of the Land Forces, Air Forces, internal troops, National Guard, and the border guard. The military works with the US Armed Forces, which leased a facility named the Transit Center at Manas at Manas International Airport near Bishkek until June 2014.[93] In recent years, the armed forces have begun developing better relations with Russia including signing modernization deals worth $1.1bn and participating in more exercises with Russian troops.[94] The Agency of National Security works with the military and serves similar purposes to its Soviet predecessor, the KGB. It oversees an elite counterterrorism special forces unit known as "Alfa", the same name used by other former Soviet countries, including Russia and Uzbekistan. The police are commanded by the Ministry of the Interior Affairs, along with the border guard.[95]

Human rights


Kyrgyzstan is classified as a "hybrid regime" in the Democracy Index, ranking 107th out of 167 for 2020.[96] Kyrgyzstan was also ranked "not free" in the 2021 Freedom in the World report with a score of 28/100. In 2020, it was ranked "partly free" with a score of 39/100.[97]

After the installment of a more democratic government, many human rights violations still take place. In a move that alarmed human-rights groups, dozens of prominent Uzbek religious and community leaders were arrested by security forces following the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots, including journalist and human-rights activist Azimzhan Askarov.[98] A law banning women under the age of 23 from traveling abroad without a parent or guardian, with the purpose of "increased morality and preservation of the gene pool" passed in the Kyrgyz parliament in June 2013.[99] American diplomats expressed concern in October 2014 when Kyrgyzstan lawmakers passed a law that imposes jail terms on gay-rights activists and others, including journalists, who create "a positive attitude toward non-traditional sexual relations."[100]

Kyrgyzstani activist and journalist Azimzhan Askarov was sentenced to life in prison in 2010.[101] On 24 January 2017, a Kyrgyz court has reinstated a sentence of life imprisonment for Askarov.[102]

In February 2024, the independent investigative media organization Kloop was ordered shut down by the Kyrgyz courts. This move drew criticism within the country and abroad.[103][104]



The National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic serves as the central bank of Kyrgyzstan.

Kyrgyzstan was the ninth poorest country in the former Soviet Union, and is today the second poorest country in Central Asia after Tajikistan. 22.4% of the country's population lives below the poverty line.[105]

Despite the backing of major Western lenders, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, Kyrgyzstan has had economic difficulties following independence. Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the Soviet trade bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the republic's transition to a demand economy.

The government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies and introduced a value-added tax. Overall, the government appears committed to the transition to a market economy. Through economic stabilization and reform, the government seeks to establish a pattern of long-term consistent growth. Reforms led to Kyrgyzstan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 20 December 1998.

The Kyrgyz economy was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In 1990, some 98% of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union. Thus, the nation's economic performance in the early 1990s was worse than any other former Soviet republic except war-torn Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan, as factories and state farms collapsed with the disappearance of their traditional markets in the former Soviet Union. While economic performance has improved considerably in the last few years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in securing adequate fiscal revenues and providing an adequate social safety net. Remittances of around 800,000 Kyrgyz migrants working in Russia contribute to the economy however in recent years, remittances have decreased.[106][107]

Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in Kyrgyzstan (see agriculture in Kyrgyzstan). By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some harvests. In 2002, agriculture accounted for 35.6% of GDP and about half of employment. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity, so the resulting wool, meat and dairy products are major commodities. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit. As the prices of imported agrichemicals and petroleum are so high, much farming is being done by hand and by horse, as it was generations ago. Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial economy as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign investment.

Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Among its mineral reserves are substantial deposits of coal, gold, uranium, antimony, and other valuable metals. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in this field. The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement in extracting and processing gold from the Kumtor Gold Mine and other regions. The country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy.

The principal exports are nonferrous metals and minerals, woollen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy and certain engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include Germany, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. After Beijing launched the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, China has expanded its economic presence and initiated a number of sizable infrastructure projects in Kyrgyzstan.[108]

In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Kyrgyz Republic ranks last in Central Asia in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI)—an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. Kyrgyz Republic ranked number 118 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from 2013 (see Networked Readiness Index).

Kyrgyzstan is ranked 78th among countries for economic freedom by the Heritage Institute.[109]

The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a significant negative impact on the Kyrgyz economy that is reliant on services, remittances and natural resources. As a result, in order to mitigate the economic shock and preserve much of the development progress achieved in recent years the World Bank will provide support by financing several projects in the country.[110]


Southern shore of Issyk Kul Lake
Bazar in Osh

One of the most popular tourist destination points in Kyrgyzstan is the lake Issyk-Kul. Numerous hotels, resorts and boarding houses are located along its northern shore. The most popular beach zones are in the city of Cholpon-Ata and the settlements nearby, such as Kara-Oi (Dolinka), Bosteri and Korumdy. The number of tourists visiting the lake was more than a million a year in 2006 and 2007. However, due to the economic and political instability in the region, the number has declined in recent years.[111]

Science and technology


The headquarters of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences is located in Bishkek, where several research institutes are located. Kyrgyz researchers are developing useful technologies based on natural products, such as heavy metal remediation for purifying waste water.[112] Kyrgyzstan was ranked 106th in the Global Innovation Index in 2023, down from 90th in 2019.[113][114][115]


A population pyramid showing Kyrgyzstan's age distribution (2005)
Population density (people per km2) of Kyrgyzstan, 2015[116]

Kyrgyzstan's population is estimated at 6,586,600 in August 2020.[117] Of those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over 65. The country is rural: only about one-third of the population live in urban areas. The average population density is 25 people per km2.

Ethnic groups


The nation's largest ethnic group are the Kyrgyz, a Turkic people, who comprise 77.8% of the population. Other ethnic groups include the Russians (3.8%) concentrated in the north and the Uzbeks (14.2%) living in the south. Small but noticeable minorities include the Dungans (1.0%), Uyghurs, Tajiks, Kazakhs, Ukrainians, and other smaller ethnic minorities.[118] The country has over 80 ethnic groups.[119]

The Kyrgyz have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in round tents called yurts and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally (see transhumance) as herding families return to the high mountain pasture (or jailoo) in the summer. The sedentary Uzbeks and Tajiks traditionally have farmed lower-lying irrigated land in the Fergana valley.[120]

Kyrgyzstan has undergone a pronounced change in its ethnic composition since independence.[121][122][123] The percentage of ethnic Kyrgyz has increased from around 50% in 1979 to over 70% in 2013, while the percentage of ethnic groups, such as Russians, Ukrainians, Germans and Tatars dropped from 35% to about 7%.[117] Since 1991, a large number of Germans, who in 1989 numbered 101,000 persons, have emigrated to Germany.[124]

Population of Kyrgyzstan according to ethnic group 1926–2021
Kyrgyz Uzbeks Russians Ukrainians
1926 census[125] Number 661,171 110,463 116,436 64,128
1959 census[126] Number 836,831 218,640 623,562 137,031
1989 census[127] Number 2,229,663 550,096 916,558 108,027
1999 census[128] Number 3,128,147 664,950 603,201 50,442
2018 census[129] Number 4,587,430 918,262 352,960 11,252
2021 census[130] Number 4,995,900 999,300 335,200
2024 estimate[131] Number 5,570,900 1,017,700 274,900
Kyrgyz writer Kenesh Jusupov and General Beishe Moldogaziev with villagers, On-Archain, Naryn Region


The name of Kyrgyzstan rendered in the traditional script in use from the 13th century to 1920

Kyrgyz is the state language of Kyrgyzstan. Russian is additionally an official language. Kyrgyzstan is one of five former Soviet republics to have Russian as a de jure official language, along with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan.[132] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz was adopted as the state language of Kyrgyzstan in 1991. Kyrgyzstan adopted Russian as an official language in 1997. The languages have different legal statuses.

Kyrgyz is a Turkic language of the Kipchak branch, closely related to Kazakh, Karakalpak, and Nogay Tatar. It was written in the Arabic alphabet until the twentieth century. The Latin script was introduced and adopted on Stalin's orders in 1928, and was subsequently replaced by Cyrillic script in 1941.[133] A reformed Perso-Arabic alphabet, created by the Kyrgyz intellectual and scientist Kasym Tynystanov is the official script of the Kyrgyz language in the People's Republic of China.[134] As a result of the pending language reform in neighboring Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan will be the only independent Turkic-speaking country in a few years that exclusively uses the Cyrillic alphabet.[135] In April 2023, Russia suspended dairy exports to Kyrgyzstan after the chairman of Kyrgyzstan's National Commission for the State Language and Language Policies, Kanybek Osmonaliev, proposed to change the official script from Cyrillic to Latin to bring the country in line with other Turkic-speaking nations. Osmonaliev was reprimanded by President Sadyr Japarov who then clarified that Kyrgyzstan had no plans to replace the Cyrillic alphabet.[136]

In 2009,[137] 4.1 million people spoke Kyrgyz as native or second language and 2.5 million spoke Russian as native or second language. Uzbek is the second most common native language with 700,000 native speakers.

Russian TV media enjoy enormous popularity in Kyrgyzstan, especially in the deeply russified city of Bishkek and the Chüy Region, despite the percentage of Russians today being a fraction of that in 1989. Russian media outlets have an enormous influence on public opinion in Kyrgyzstan, especially in areas such as human rights and international political developments.[138]

Many business and political affairs are carried out in Russian. Until recently, Kyrgyz remained a language spoken at home and was rarely used during meetings or other events. However, most parliamentary meetings today are conducted in Kyrgyz, with simultaneous interpretation available for those not speaking Kyrgyz. According to an RFE/RL article from 2014, despite the attempts to raise the status of Kyrgyz, thousands of Kyrgyz are russifying their names every year (around 40,000), mostly for career prospects, and to remove themselves from the Russian blacklists (people who are to be deported upon entrance) by registering different names. There are also many Russian-language medium schools that are supported from the Russian foundations via the embassy of Russia in Bishkek which are better funded than the Kyrgyz language medium schools. Due to this, many ethnic Kyrgyz go to Russian language medium schools. Many high school students change their surnames annually; for example, 800 such changes were recorded in high school students in the region of Naryn.[139]

Language name Native speakers Second-language speakers Total speakers
Kyrgyz 3,830,556 271,187 4,121,743
Russian 482,243 2,109,393 2,591,636
Uzbek 772,561 97,753 870,314
English 28,416 28,416
French 641 641
Other 277,433 31,411 308,844

Urban centres

Largest cities or towns in Kyrgyzstan
Rank Name Region Pop.
1 Bishkek Bishkek 1,074,075  
2 Osh Osh Region 322,164
3 Jalal-Abad Jalal-Abad Region 123,239
4 Karakol Issyk-Kul Region 84,351
5 Tokmok Chüy Region 71,443
6 Özgön Osh Region 62,802
7 Kara-Balta Chüy Region 48,278
8 Balykchy Issyk-Kul Region 42,875
9 Naryn Naryn Region 41,178
10 Talas Talas Region 40,308


Religion in Kyrgyzstan (2017 estimate)
Karakol Dungan Mosque

Islam is the dominant religion of Kyrgyzstan and most Kyrgyz. The CIA World Factbook estimates that as of 2017, 90% of the population is Muslim, with the majority being Sunni; 7% are Christian, including 3% Russian Orthodoxy, and the remainder are other religions.[140] A 2009 Pew Research Center report indicated 86.3% of Kyrgyzstan's population adhering to Islam.[141] The great majority of Muslims are Sunni, adhering to the Hanafi school of thought,[142] although a 2012 Pew survey report showed that only 23% of respondents to a questionnaire chose to identify themselves as Sunni, with 64% volunteering that they were "just a Muslim".[143] There are a few Ahmadiyya Muslims, though unrecognised by the country.[144] Later figures show a rise in the number of agnostics in the country.[145]

During Soviet times, state atheism was encouraged. Today, however, Kyrgyzstan is a secular state, although Islam has exerted a growing influence in politics.[146] For instance, there has been an attempt to arrange for officials to travel on hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) under a tax-free arrangement.

While Islam in Kyrgyzstan is more of a cultural background than a devout daily practice for many, public figures have expressed support for restoring religious values. For example, human rights ombudsman Tursunbay Bakir-Ulu noted, "In this era of independence, it is not surprising that there has been a return to spiritual roots not only in Kyrgyzstan, but also in other post-communist republics. It would be immoral to develop a market-based society without an ethical dimension."[146]

Bishkek Eastern Orthodox Church

Additionally, Bermet Akayeva, the daughter of Askar Akayev, the former President of Kyrgyzstan, stated during a July 2007 interview that Islam is increasingly taking root across the nation.[147] She emphasized that many mosques have recently been built and that the Kyrgyz are increasingly devoting themselves to Islam, which she noted was "not a bad thing in itself. It keeps our society more moral, cleaner."[147] There is a contemporary Sufi order present which adheres to a somewhat different form of Islam than the orthodox Islam.[148]

Mosque under construction in Kyrgyzstan

The other faiths practiced in Kyrgyzstan include Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox versions of Christianity, practiced primarily by Russians and Ukrainians respectively. A community of 5000 to 10,000 Jehovah's Witnesses gather in both Kyrgyz and Russian-speaking congregations, as well as some Chinese- and Turkish-speaking groups.[149][150] A small minority of ethnic Germans are also Christian, mostly Lutheran and Anabaptist as well as a Roman Catholic community of approximately 600.[151][152]

A few Animistic traditions survive, as do influences from Buddhism such as the tying of prayer flags onto sacred trees, though some view this practice rooted within Sufi Islam.[153] There is also a small number of Bukharian Jews living in Kyrgyzstan, but during the collapse of the Soviet Union most fled to other countries, mainly the United States and Israel. In addition, there is a small community of Ashkenazi Jews, who fled to the country from eastern Europe during the Second World War.[154]

On 6 November 2008, the Kyrgyzstan parliament unanimously passed a law increasing the minimum number of adherents for recognizing a religion from 10 to 200. It also outlawed "aggressive action aimed at proselytism", and banned religious activity in schools and all activity by unregistered organizations. It was signed by President Kurmanbek Bakiyev on 12 January 2009.[155]

There have been several reported police raids against peaceful minority religious meetings,[156] as well as reports of officials planting false evidence,[157] but also some court decisions in favour of religious minorities.[158]

Kyrgyz Opera and Ballet Theatre, Bishkek






A Kyrgyz manaschi performing part of the Epic of Manas at a yurt camp in Karakol
Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music
Hunting with an eagle

Illegal, but still practiced, is the tradition of bride kidnapping.[161] It is debatable whether bride kidnapping is actually traditional. Some of the confusion may stem from the fact that arranged marriages were traditional, and one of the ways to escape an arranged marriage was to arrange a consensual "kidnapping".[162]



The 40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the national flag represent the 40 tribes that once made up the entirety of Kyrgyz culture before the intervention of Russia during the rise of the Soviet Union. The lines inside the sun represent the crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк) of a yurt, a symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz architecture. The red portion of the flag represents peace and openness of Kyrgyzstan.

Under Soviet rule and before 1992, it had the flag of the Soviet Union with two big blue stripes and a white thin stripe in the middle.

Public holidays


In addition to celebrating the New Year each 1 January, the Kyrgyz observe the traditional New Year festival Nowruz on the vernal equinox. This spring holiday is celebrated with feasts and festivities such as the horse game Ulak Tartish.

This is the list of public holidays in Kyrgyzstan:

  • 1 January – New Year's Day
  • 7 January – Orthodox Christmas
  • 23 February – Fatherland Defender's Day
  • 8 March – Women's Day
  • 21–23 March – Nooruz Mairamy, Persian New Year (spring festival)
  • 7 April – Day of National Revolution
  • 1 May – Labor Day
  • 5 May – Constitution Day
  • 8 May – Remembrance Day
  • 9 May – Victory Day
  • 31 August – Independence Day
  • 7–8 November – Days of History and Commemoration of Ancestors

Two additional Muslim holidays Orozo Ayt and Qurman (or Qurban) Ayt are defined by the lunar calendar.



In the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Kyrgyzstan received its first ever Olympic medal when Aidyn Smagulov won bronze in the men's 60 kg competition final in judo.[163][164]

Bandy: Kyrgyzstan in red against Japan

Football is the most popular sport in Kyrgyzstan.[citation needed] The official governing body is the Football Federation of Kyrgyz Republic, which was founded in 1992, after the split of the Soviet Union. It administers the Kyrgyzstan national football team.[165]

Wrestling is also very popular. Since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Kyrgyzstani wrestlers have won six medals in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling: three in 2008 and three in 2020.[166]

Ice hockey was not as popular in Kyrgyzstan until the first Ice Hockey Championship was organized in 2009. In 2011, the Kyrgyzstan men's national ice hockey team won 2011 Asian Winter Games Premier Division dominating in all six games with six wins. It was the first major international event that Kyrgyzstan's ice hockey team took part in.[167] The Kyrgyzstan men's ice hockey team joined the IIHF in July 2011.

Bandy is becoming increasingly popular in the country. The Kyrgyz national team took Kyrgyzstan's first medal at the Asian Winter Games, when they captured the bronze. They played in the Bandy World Championship 2012, their first appearance in that tournament.[168]

Martial Arts: Valentina Shevchenko is a Kyrgyzstani–Peruvian professional mixed martial artist who competes in the women's flyweight division of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), where she was formerly the Women's Flyweight champion.

Boxing: Dmitry Bivol is a Kyrgyzstani Professional Boxer from Tokmok, who competes in the Light Heavyweight Division. Since 2017, he has held the World Boxing Association Light Heavyweight Title. As of August 2019, Bivol is ranked as the world's best active light-heavyweight by the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board and BoxRec, and third by The Ring Magazine.

Kyrgyzstan's national basketball team had its best performance at the official 1995 Asian Basketball Championship where the team finished ahead of favorites such as Iran, Philippines and Jordan.

XXI International Issyk-Kul Sports Games (SCO + CIS) was held in 9–17 September 2022 in Baktuu-Dolonotu village (Issyk-Kul).[169] The first three World Nomad Games were held in Cholpon-Ata, Kyrgyzstan. The 6th International Sports Festival Pearl of Kyrgyzstan were held in Issyk-Kul region from 15 June to 3 July 2022.

Horse riding

Ulak Tartysh

The traditional national sports reflect the importance of horse riding in Kyrgyz culture.

Very popular, as in all of Central Asia, is Ulak Tartysh, a team game resembling a cross between polo and rugby in which two teams of riders wrestle for possession of the headless carcass of a goat, which they attempt to deliver across the opposition's goal line, or into the opposition's goal: a big tub or a circle marked on the ground.

Other popular games on horseback include:

  • At Chabysh – a long-distance horse race, sometimes over a distance of more than 50 km
  • Jumby Atmai – a large bar of precious metal (the "jumby") is tied to a pole by a thread and contestants attempt to break the thread by shooting at it, while at a gallop
  • Kyz Kuumai – a man chases a girl in order to win a kiss from her, while she gallops away; if he is not successful she may in turn chase him and attempt to beat him with her "kamchi" (horsewhip)
  • Oodarysh – two contestants wrestle on horseback, each attempting to be the first to throw the other from his horse
  • Tyin Emmei – picking up a coin from the ground at full gallop



The school system in Kyrgyzstan also includes primary (grades 1 to 4, some schools have optional 0 grade), secondary (grades 5 to 9) and high (grades 10 to 11) divisions within one school.[170] Children are usually accepted to primary schools at the age of 6 or 7. It is required that every child finishes 9 grades of school and receives a certificate of completion. Grades 10–11 are optional, but it is necessary to complete them to graduate and receive a state-accredited school diploma. To graduate, a student must complete the 11-year school course and pass 4 mandatory state exams in writing, maths, history, and a foreign language.

There are 77 public schools in Bishkek (capital city) and more than 200 in the rest of the country. There are 55 higher educational institutions and universities in Kyrgyzstan, out of which 37 are state institutions.[citation needed]

In September 2016, the University of Central Asia was launched in Naryn, Kyrgyzstan.[171]

There are also various Russian-language medium schools in Bishkek, Osh and other areas. Because of the better funding that they receive in comparation with Kyrgyz state schools, many Kyrgyz go there. In March 2021 Russia announced its plans to create approximately 30 new Russian-language schools in Kyrgyzstan. Teachers from Russia are also working here. However, the existence of these schools has been criticised, for reasons such as the fact that Russian language education has flaws compared to the Turkish and American schools in the country, but also because many ethnic Kyrgyz born after Kyrgyz independence in 1991 can't speak Kyrgyz, but only Russian, according to a Bishkek resident.[172]



Kyrgyzstan is home to 1,066 libraries.[173] The National Library of the Kyrgyz Republic is the oldest library in the country, which was established in 1934. Kyrgyz Libraries are working towards expanding access to communities, evident in projects such as the signing of the Marrakesh VIP Treaty and the Open access Portal.[174][175]


Marshrutka in Bishkek

Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the country's alpine topography. Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes of 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) altitude and more, and are subject to frequent mudslides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to impossible in many of the more remote and high-altitude regions.

Additional problems come from the fact that many roads and railway lines built during the Soviet period are today intersected by international boundaries, requiring time-consuming border formalities to cross where they are not completely closed. Horses are still a much-used transport option, especially in more rural areas; Kyrgyzstan's road infrastructure is not extensive, so horses are able to reach locations that motor vehicles cannot, and they do not require expensive, imported fuel.


Manas International Airport

At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built primarily to serve military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few of them remain in service today. The Kyrgyzstan Air Company provides air transport to China, Russia, and other local countries.

  • Manas International Airport near Bishkek is the main international airport, with services to Moscow, Tashkent, Almaty, Ürümqi, Istanbul, Baku, and Dubai.
  • Osh Airport is the main air terminal in the south of the country, with daily connections to Bishkek, and services to Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, Almaty and more international places.
  • Jalal-Abad Airport is linked to Bishkek by daily flights. The national flag carrier, Kyrgyzstan, operates flights on BAe-146 aircraft. During the summer months, a weekly flight links Jalal-Abad with the Issyk-Kul Region.
  • Other facilities built during the Soviet era are either closed down, used only occasionally or restricted to military use (e.g., Kant Air Base near Bishkek, which is used by the Russian Air Force).

Banned airline status


Kyrgyzstan appears on the European Union's list of prohibited countries for the certification of airlines. This means that no airline that is registered in Kyrgyzstan may operate services of any kind within the European Union, due to safety standards that fail to meet European regulations.[176]



The Chüy Valley in the north and the Fergana valley in the south were endpoints of the Soviet Union's rail system in Central Asia. Following the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut by borders, and traffic is therefore severely curtailed. The small bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about 370 km (230 mi) (1,520 mm (59.8 in) broad gauge) in total, have little economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long distances to and from such centres as Tashkent, Almaty, and the cities of Russia.

In 2022, construction began on a new 186 km extension of the existing railway from Balykchy to Karakeche.[177] Its primary purpose will be to carry coal from mines at Karakeche to Bishkek.

There are vague plans about extending rail lines from Balykchy in the north or from Osh in the south into China, but the cost of construction would be enormous.[citation needed]

In 2022, the president of Kyrgyzstan, Zhaparov, has told local media that he expects construction of the 523 km China–Kyrgyzstan–Uzbekistan (CKU) Railway to begin next year. The CKU Railway would comprise 213 km (132 mi) in China, 260 km (162 mi) in Kyrgyzstan and 50 km (31 mi) in Uzbekistan.[178]

Rail connections with adjacent countries

Rail link name  Rail gauge notes
Kazakhstan Yes Bishkek branch Same gauge
Uzbekistan Yes Osh branch Same gauge
Tajikistan No   — Same gauge
China No   — Gauge break: 1524 mm vs. 1435 mm


Highway A363 Bishkek towards Balykchy, Lake Issyk-Kul and Chinese border (Xinjiang)

With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest of the country from the capital city of Bishkek to Osh has recently been completed. This considerably eases communication between the two major population centres of the country—the Chüy Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into China.

  • total: 34,000 km (21,127 mi) (including 140 km (87 mi) of expressways)
  • paved: 22,600 km (14,043 mi) (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
  • unpaved: 7,700 km (4,785 mi) (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Ports and harbours

  • Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye) on Issyk Kul Lake.

See also



  1. ^
    • Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, romanizedKyrgyzstan, pronounced [qɯrʁɯˈstɑn];
    • Russian: Кыргызстан, romanizedKyrgyzstan, pronounced [kɨrɡɨˈstan] .
  2. ^ Since 5 May 1993.
    • Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасы, romanized: Kyrgyz Respublikasy;
    • Russian: Кыргызская Республика, romanized: Kyrgyzskaya Respublika.
  3. ^ Russian: Киргизия, romanizedKirgiziya, pronounced [kʲɪrˈɡʲizʲɪjə] .[26]


  1. ^ "Kyrgyzstan's Constitution of 2010 with Amendments through 2016" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  2. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the Kyrgyz Republic - Publications Archive - Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic".
  3. ^ "2021 Report on International Religious Freedom: Kyrgyz Republic". United States Department of State. Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  4. ^ "Definition of Kyrgyzstani noun from the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ "History of Central Asia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  6. ^ "Безусловно, это победа! Площадь Кыргызстана достигла 20 млн гектаров". 18 November 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Краткий статистический справочник «Кыргызстан»".
  8. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, March 2024 Edition. (Kyrgyzstan)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  9. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Kyrgyzstan)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  10. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Kyrgyz Republic". World Bank. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/2024" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  12. ^ Article 1 of the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic states: "1. Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic)...". "2021-жылдын 5-майындагы Кыргыз Республикасынын Конституциясы (2021-жылдын 11-апрелиндеги референдумда (бүткүл элдик добуш берүүдө) кабыл алынган".
  13. ^ "Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic". CIS Legislation. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  14. ^ "Kyrgyzstan Constitution" (PDF). Constitution Net. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  15. ^ "Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic" (PDF). Legislationline. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  16. ^ "Total population by nationality - Open Data - Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic". National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  17. ^ "Investigating Kyrgyzstan's ethnic violence: Bloody business". The Economist. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  18. ^ "Foreigners in Kyrgyzstan: 'Will We Be Banned, Too?'". Eurasianet. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  19. ^ "Pro-Government Election Victory Sparks Overnight Revolution in Kyrgyzstan". OCCRP. 6 October 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  20. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: Economy globalEDGE: Your source for Global Business Knowledge". 20 December 1998. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  21. ^ "Kyrgyz Republic Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation, Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption". Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  22. ^ "BBC News – Kyrgyzstan profile – Timeline". 10 October 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  23. ^ "Kyrgyz Unrest". Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  24. ^ "Canada – Kyrgyz Republic Relations". 5 July 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  25. ^ "The World Bank in the Kyrgyz Republic". 26 October 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  26. ^ a b "Vladimir Putin to meet with Azerbaijani delegation". News.Az. 22 February 2018. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  27. ^ "Kyrgyzstan timeline". BBC News. 12 June 2010.
  28. ^ "Kyrgyzstan–Mongol Domination" Library of Congress Country Studies.
  29. ^ Osmonov, Oskon Dzhusupbekovich (2016). A History of Kyrgyzstan: From Stone Age to the Present (2 ed.). Bishkek: Sarybaev TT. ISBN 978-9967-04-680-1. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  30. ^ "Chinese Empire".
  31. ^ "Uzbekistan – The Jadidists and Basmachis". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  32. ^ a b c d Thomas, Alun (2019). Nomads and Soviet Rule: Central Asia under Lenin and Stalin (Paperback ed.). Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1350143685.
  33. ^ a b Stolberg, Eva-Maria (2004). Book review - Edgar, Adrienne Lynn: Tribal Nation. The Making of Soviet Turkmenistan, Princeton 2004: Princeton University Press. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691117751. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  34. ^ a b c d Edgar, Adrienne (2004). Tribal Nation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-691-11775-1.
  35. ^ a b Shelestyuk, Elena (4 November 2019). "National in Form, Socialist in Content: USSR National and Language Policies in the Early Period". SHS Web of Conferences. 69: 00104. doi:10.1051/shsconf/20196900104. S2CID 211378423 – via
  36. ^ "1929". Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  37. ^ a b "Kyrgyz | people". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  38. ^ "KYRGYZSTAN: Economic disparities driving inter-ethnic conflict". IRIN Asia. 15 February 2006.
  39. ^ "Kyrgyzstan". Kyrgyzstan | Communist Crimes. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  40. ^ "Ethnic Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan Voice Complaints Over Discrimination, Corruption Archived 14 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine". 24 January 2006.
  41. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Chronology for Russians in Kyrgyzstan". Refworld. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  42. ^ "Kyrgyzstan | People, Language, & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  43. ^ Esipova, Neli; Ray, Julie (19 December 2013). "Former Soviet Countries See More Harm From Breakup". Gallup.
  44. ^ Surana, Kavitha; Mellen, Ruby (22 December 2016). "The Last Days of the Soviet Union". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  45. ^ Czerewacz-Filipowicz, Katarzyna; Konopelko, Agnieszka (26 November 2016). Regional Integration Processes in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Economic and Political Factors. Springer. p. 103. ISBN 978-3-319-47563-9.
  46. ^ Tkachenko, Maxim (9 April 2010). "Kyrgyz president says he won't resign". CNN. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  47. ^ "Expert: Kyrgyzstan could face civil war". 9 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  48. ^ AFP (10 April 2010). "Ousted Kyrgyz president is offered 'safe passage'". asiaone. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  49. ^ "Kyrgyz President Bakiyev 'will resign if safe'". BBC News. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  50. ^ "Ousted Kyrgyz president quits, leaves country". CNN. 16 April 2010.
  51. ^ Leonard, Peter (7 April 2010). "Kyrgyz Opposition Controls Government Building". The Associated Press via ABC News. Archived from the original on 11 April 2010.
  52. ^ "There are clashes in the Kyrgyzstan again". BBC. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  53. ^ Shuster, Simon. (1 August 2010) "Signs of Uzbek Persecution Rising in Kyrgyzstan". Retrieved on 6 December 2013.
  54. ^ a b "Kyrgyz president asks for Russian help". BBC. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  55. ^ a b "Situation worsens in Kyrgyzstan". 13 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  56. ^ "Ousted Kyrgyz President's family blamed". Associated Press via The Indian Express. 12 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  57. ^ "Osh gets relatively calmer but Jalalabad flares up". BBC. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  58. ^ "UN and Russian aid arrives". BBC News. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  59. ^ "Kyrgyz Commission Begins Investigating Ethnic Clashes". 2 August 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  60. ^ "Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry into the Events in Southern Kyrgyzstan in June 2010" (PDF). Kyrgyzstan Inquiry Commission. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  61. ^ "Kyrgystan as an Independent Nation". Facts and Details. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  62. ^ "Kyrgyz, Tajik security forces clash at border in water dispute". Reuters. 29 April 2021.
  63. ^ "After Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan Border Conflict, Time For a Human Rights Agenda". Human Rights Watch. 21 May 2021.
  64. ^ "Armed clashes erupted all along the border of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, Kyrgyz government sources reported on September 16th". Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  65. ^ Escobar, Pepe (26 March 2005). "The Tulip Revolution takes root". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 27 March 2005.
  66. ^ Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  67. ^ Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  68. ^ President; Parliament; Government; Politics; Economy; Society; Analytics; Regions; Culture. "Kyrgyzstan ranks third most vulnerable to climate change impacts in Central Asia". Информационное Агентство Кабар. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  69. ^ Isaev, Erkin; Ermanova, Mariiash; Sidle, Roy C.; Zaginaev, Vitalii; Kulikov, Maksim; Chontoev, Dogdurbek (2022). "Reconstruction of Hydrometeorological Data Using Dendrochronology and Machine Learning Approaches to Bias-Correct Climate Models in Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan". Water. 14 (15): 2297. doi:10.3390/w14152297.
  70. ^ Park, Sugyeong; Lim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Sea Jin; Isaev, Erkin; Choi, Sol-E.; Lee, Sung-Dae; Lee, Woo-Kyun (2021). "Assessing Climate Change Impact on Cropland Suitability in Kyrgyzstan: Where Are Potential High-Quality Cropland and the Way to the Future". Agronomy. 11 (8): 1490. doi:10.3390/agronomy11081490.
  71. ^ "Kyrgyzstan is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in Central Asia". Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  72. ^ Kyrgyz Republic: Overview of Climate Change Activities (PDF) (Report). World Bank. October 2013. pp. 1–17. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  73. ^ cajwr. "High-resolution dynamic downscaling of historical and future climate projections over Central Asia – CAJWR". doi:10.29258/cajwr/2024-r1.v10-1/91-114.eng. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  74. ^ The exclave of Barak, Kyrgyzstan in Uzbekistan. Retrieved on 2 May 2009
  75. ^ Map showing the location of the Kyrgyz exclave Barak. Retrieved on 2 May 2009
  76. ^ "Clashes erupt in Kyrgyz capital". BBC Online. 7 November 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  77. ^ "Refworld | Demand for prior approval of RFE/RL programmes called "intolerable"". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  78. ^ "Proposal to close the Manas Air Base". BBC News. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  79. ^ Kyrgyz Parliament Approves U.S. base closure. Associated Press. 19 February 2009
  80. ^ Schwirtz, Michael and Levy, Clifford J. (23 June 2009) In Reversal, Kyrgyzstan Won't Close a U.S. Base. New York Times
  81. ^ "2016 official table". 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  82. ^ "Maksim Bakiyev tracked not only in Bishkek, but also in the States?". Ferghana Information agency, Moscow. 16 October 2012.
  83. ^ "New Kyrgyz President Atambayev pledges 'new page'". BBC News. December 2011.
  84. ^ "Central Asian Presidents Join Putin for May 9 Victory Day Parade". The Diplomat. 10 May 2023.
  85. ^ "Kyrgyzstan election: Sooronbay Jeenbekov wins historic election". BBC News. 15 October 2017.
  86. ^ "New Kyrgyz President Vows Balanced Foreign Policy With Russia As Main 'Strategic Partner'". Radio Free Europe - Radio Liberty. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  87. ^ Putz, Catherine (8 August 2019). "Former Kyrgyz President Detained After Second Raid". The Diplomat.
  88. ^ Leonid, Bershidsky (8 August 2019). "A Bloody Raid Shows Why Post-Soviet Leaders Hate to Hand Off Power". The Moscow Times.
  89. ^ "Kyrgyzstan's former president detained after violent clashes". The Guardian. 8 August 2019.
  90. ^ "Kyrgyzstan election: President Jeenbekov resigns after protests". BBC News. 15 October 2020.
  91. ^ "Kyrgyzstan election: Sadyr Japarov wins presidency with landslide". BBC News. 11 January 2021.
  92. ^ "Kyrgyzstan voters back presidential rule in referendum".
  93. ^ Vandiver, John (5 February 2014). "First troops move through new US transit point in Romania". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  94. ^ Ott, Stephanie (18 September 2014). "Russia tightens control over Kyrgyzstan". The Guardian.
  95. ^ "Kyrgyzstan | OSCE POLIS". Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  96. ^ "Global democracy has a very bad year". The Economist. 2 February 2021.
  97. ^ "Kyrgyzstan". Freedom House.
  98. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (1 July 2010). "Uzbeks Accused of Inciting Violence in Kyrgyzstan". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  99. ^ Kyrgyzstan Passes Controversial Girl Travel Ban. (13 June 2013). Retrieved on 2 October 2014.
  100. ^ "Kyrgyzstan moves towards adoption of Russia's anti-gay law". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  101. ^ "Human rights groups condemn Kyrgyzstan activist jailing". BBC News. 16 September 2010.
  102. ^ "Kyrgyz court confirms life sentence for journalist". Fox News. 24 January 2017.
  103. ^ Pannier, Bruce (18 February 2024). "Kloop's Closure: A Bad Omen For Independent Kyrgyz Media?". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  104. ^ "Independent Media Under Attack in Kyrgyzstan as Court Shuts Down OCCRP Member Center Kloop Media". OCCRP. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  105. ^ "Нацстатком: 22% кыргызстанцев живут за чертой бедности" [National Statistical Committee: 22% of Kyrgyz live below the poverty line]. Радио Азаттык [Radio Azattyk] (in Russian). 14 June 2019.
  106. ^ "Kyrgyz unrest plays into regional rivalry". Reuters. 8 April 2010.
  107. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: Returning Labor Migrants are a Cause for Concern". 2 April 2009. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  108. ^ Vakulchuk, Roman and Indra Overland (2019) “China's Belt and Road Initiative through the Lens of Central Asia”, in Fanny M. Cheung and Ying-yi Hong (eds) Regional Connection under the Belt and Road Initiative. The Prospects for Economic and Financial Cooperation. London: Routledge, pp. 115–133.
  109. ^ "Kyrgyz Republic Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation, Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption".
  110. ^ Kyrgyzstan to mitigate pandemic-caused economic shocks for businesses, vulnerable people and communities with World Bank support, AKIpress (1 August 2020)
  111. ^ "Issyk-Kul: Chasing short-term profit". New Eurasia. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  112. ^ Yurishcheva, A.A.; Kydralieva, K.A.; Zaripova, A.A.; Dzhardimalieva, G.I.; Pomogaylo, A.D.; Jorobekova, S.J. (2013). "Sorption of Pb2+ by magnetite coated with humic acids". J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 13 (2): 61–68. doi:10.4024/36FR12A.jbpc.13.02.
  113. ^ Global Innovation Index 2023, 15th Edition. World Intellectual Property Organization. 27 May 2024. doi:10.34667/tind.46596. ISBN 978-92-805-3432-0. Retrieved 30 October 2023 – via
  114. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2019". Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  115. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  116. ^ "Ethnic composition of the population in Kyrgyzstan 2015" (PDF) (in Russian). National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  117. ^ a b "Основные итоги естественного движения населения январе-августе 2020г". National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  118. ^ "Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic". National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  119. ^ "10 Things You Need To Know About The Ethnic Unrest In Kyrgyzstan". RFERL. 14 June 2010.
  120. ^ "Kyrgyzstan – population". Library of Congress Country Studies.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  121. ^ "KYRGYZSTAN: Focus on post-Akayev Russian exodus". IRIN Asia. 19 April 2005.
  122. ^ Spoorenberg, Thomas (2013). "Fertility changes in Central Asia since 1980". Asian Population Studies. 9 (1): 50–77. doi:10.1080/17441730.2012.752238. S2CID 154532617.
  123. ^ Spoorenberg, Thomas (2015). "Explaining recent fertility increase in Central Asia". Asian Population Studies. 11 (2): 115–133. doi:10.1080/17441730.2015.1027275. S2CID 153924060.
  124. ^ Kokaisl, Petr; Kokaislova, Pavla (2009). The Kyrgyz – Children of Manas. Кыргыздар – Манастын балдары. NOSTALGIE Praha. p. 132. ISBN 978-80-254-6365-9.
  125. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам РСФСР" [All-Union Census of 1926. The national composition of the population in the republics of the USSR]. Демоскоп Weekly (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  126. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам СССР" [All-Union Census of 1959. The national composition of the population in the republics of the USSR]. Демоскоп Weekly (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  127. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам СССР" [All-Union Census of 1989. The national composition of the population in the republics of the USSR]. Демоскоп Weekly (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 March 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  128. ^ " Национальный состав населения" [ National composition of the population] (PDF) (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  129. ^ "Total population by nationality - Open Data - Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic" (XLS).
  130. ^ "2021 Cencus Results" (PDF). National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  131. ^ "Kyrgyzstan". National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  132. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  133. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: Latin (alphabet) fever takes hold | Eurasianet". Eurasianet. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  134. ^ "Kyrgyz". Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  135. ^ "'Only Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia insists on Cyrillic' — Tokayev". 4 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  136. ^ Russia Suspends Dairy Products From Kyrgyzstan After Calls In Bishkek To Drop Cyrillic Script. Radio Free Europe, 21 April 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2023
  137. ^ "Перепись населения и жилищного фонда Кыргызской Республики" [Population and Housing Census of the Kyrgyz Republic] (in Russian). NSC of Kyrgyzstan. 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  138. ^ "Major Russian TV Channel Sidelined in Kyrgyzstan". Jamestown.
  139. ^ Aidarov, Jenish; Recknagel, Charles (10 December 2014). "In Kyrgyzstan, A New Interest In Russified Names". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  140. ^ "Central Asia:: KYRGYZSTAN". CIA The World Factbook. 5 November 2021.
  141. ^ "MAPPING THE GLOBAL MUSLIM POPULATION – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population" (PDF). Pew Research Center. October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2010.
  142. ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity". Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. Pew Research Center. 9 August 2012.
  143. ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity - Topline Survey Results" (PDF). Pew Research Center's Forum on Religion & Public Life.
  144. ^ US State Dept 2022 report
  145. ^ The ARDA website, retrieved 2023-08-08
  146. ^ a b "ISN Security Watch – Islam exerts growing influence on Kyrgyz politics". Archived from the original on 16 March 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  147. ^ a b "EurasiaNet Civil Society – Kyrgyzstan: Time to Ponder a Federal System – Ex-President's Daughter". 17 July 2007. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  148. ^ "Religion and expressive culture – Kyrgyz". Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  149. ^ "2015 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses". Watchtower Bible & Tract Society. 21 December 2015. p. 182.
  150. ^ "Congregation Meetings of Jehovah's Witnesses". Watchtower Bible & Tract Society. 21 December 2015.
  151. ^ "Kirguistán la Iglesia renace con 600 católicos". ZENIT. 2 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008.
  152. ^ "Religion in Kyrgyzstan". 4 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  153. ^ Shaikh Muhammad Bin Jamil Zeno, Muhammad Bin Jamil Zeno, 2006, pg. 264
  154. ^ "Jewish Bishkek: A Brief History and Guide". 3 February 2015. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  155. ^ "Human Rights Activists Condemn New Religion Law". 16 January 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  156. ^ "KYRGYZSTAN: "His screams of terror and pain could be heard throughout the building"". Forum 18 News Service. 21 December 2015.
  157. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: Court Confuses Jehovah's Witnesses for Islamic Radicals". 3 June 2011.
  158. ^ "Kyrgyzstan Court Upholds Acquittal of Two Women Convicted Under False Charges". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. 3 June 2011.
  159. ^ Aidar, Iliyas. "Kyrgyz Style – Production – Souvenirs". Archived from the original on 11 November 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  160. ^ "Ala-kiyiz and Shyrdak, art of Kyrgyz traditional felt carpets". UNESCO.
  161. ^ Lom, Petr (March 2004). "The Story (Synopsis of Kyrgyzstan – The Kidnapped Bride)". Frontline / World. WGBH Educational Foundation.
  162. ^ "Reconciled to Violence: State Failure to Stop Domestic Abuse and Abduction of Women in Kyrgyzstan" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Human Rights Watch Report. September 2006, Vol. 18, No.9.
  163. ^ "Kyrgyzstan at the Olympic Games". Retrieved 11 June 2024.
  164. ^ "Sydney 2000 Sydney 2000 Judo - 60 kg men Results". Olympics | Olympic Games, Medals, Results & Latest News. Retrieved 11 June 2024.
  165. ^ "Kyrgyzstan". FIFA. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  166. ^ "Кыргызстан завоевал первые с 2008 года медали на Олимпиаде". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). 3 August 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  167. ^ Lundqvist, Henrik (5 February 2011). "Kyrgyzstan wins the Asian Winter Games Premier Division 2011". EuroHockey.
  168. ^ "Team picture with Japan after their first meeting in the World Championships". Archived from the original on 19 August 2012.
  169. ^ "Issyk-Kul region to host International Sports Games -". 25 August 2022.
  170. ^ Curtis, Glenn E. (1997). "Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan : country studies". Library of Congress. Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. Archived from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  171. ^ "University of Central Asia – University of Central Asia". 14 September 2018.
  172. ^ Altynbayev, Kanat. "Russia's 'soft power' education push in Kyrgyzstan worries locals". Caravanserai. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  173. ^ Library map of the world. (n.d.). Retrieved March 14, 2021, from
  174. ^ "Kyrgyzstan | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Archived from the original on 14 April 2015.
  175. ^ "The Right to Read in Kyrgyzstan | EIFL".
  176. ^ "List of banned European Union air carriers". Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  177. ^ "Kyrgyz president launches construction of railway to Kara-Keche". Railway Gazette International.
  178. ^ "Work to start next year on China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan Railway". Railpage. Retrieved 10 June 2022.

Further reading

  • Minahan, James. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States (Routledge, 1998) pp 200-214.
  • Historical Dictionary of Kyrgyzstan by Rafis Abazov
  • Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia's Island of Democracy? by John Anderson
  • Kyrgyzstan: The Growth and Influence of Islam in the Nations of Asia and Central Asia by Daniel E. Harmon
  • Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew
  • Odyssey Guide: Kyrgyz Republic by Ceri Fairclough, Rowan Stewart and Susie Weldon
  • Politics of Language in the Ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine by Jacob M. Landau and Barbara Kellner-Heinkele. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-472-11226-5
  • Kyrgyzstan: Traditions of Nomads by V. Kadyrov, Rarity Ltd., Bishkek, 2005. ISBN 9967-424-42-7
  • Cities in Kyrgyzstan Archived 7 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  • Bishkek city of Kyrgyzstan Archived 14 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  • Osh city of Kyrgyzstan Archived 14 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  • Jalal-Abad city of Kyrgyzstan Archived 14 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  • President of Kyrgyzstan official site
  • Government of Kyrgyzstan official site
  • Parliament of Kyrgyzstan official site
  • Laws of the Kyrgyz Republic
General information
  •   Wikimedia Atlas of Kyrgyzstan

41°N 75°E / 41°N 75°E / 41; 75