NASA Astronaut Group 9

Summary

19+80
Official group portrait
Group 9 astronauts. Back row, L-R: Gardner, Springer, O'Connor, Ockels, Smith, Lounge. Middle row, L-R: Bagian, Blaha, Nicollier, Hilmers, Fisher, Dunbar, Ross. Front row, L-R: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Cleave, Leestma, Spring, Richards, Bridges
Year selected1980
Number selected19
← 1978
1984 →
Class patch; the patch features nineteen stars representing the nineteen NASA astronauts belonging to the group.

NASA Astronaut Group 9 was a group of 19 NASA astronauts announced on May 29, 1980,[1] and completed their training by 1981. This group was selected to supplement the 35 astronauts that had been selected in 1978, and marked the first time that non-Americans were trained as mission specialists with the selections of ESA astronauts Claude Nicollier and Wubbo Ockels. In keeping with the previous group, astronaut candidates were divided into pilots and mission specialists, with eight pilots, eleven mission specialists, and two international mission specialists within the group.[1]

Achievements

As with the previous group, several spaceflight firsts were achieved, including:

In addition, Chang-Diaz and Ross share the world record for the most spaceflights, with seven each.[8] Bolden also became the second astronaut to serve as NASA Administrator, appointed in July 2009.[9]

Group members

Pilots

STS-29 Discovery[10] — March 1989 — Pilot — Deployed TDRS-D
STS-33 Discovery[10] — November 1989 — Pilot — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-43 Atlantis[10] — August 1991 — Commander — Deployed TDRS-E
STS-58 Columbia[10] — October 1993 — Commander — Spacelab: SLS-2
STS-79 Atlantis[10] — September 1996 — Mission Specialist 4 — Launched for long duration flight aboard Mir
Mir EO-22: Board Engineer 2[10]
STS-81 Atlantis[10] — January 1997 — Mission Specialist 4 — Landed from long duration flight aboard Mir
STS-61-C Columbia[11] — January 1986 — Pilot — Deployed Ku-1 communications satellite
STS-31 Discovery[11] — April 1990 — Pilot — Deployed the Hubble Space Telescope
STS-45 Atlantis[11] — March 1992 — Commander — ATLAS-1
STS-60 Discovery[11] — February 1994 — Commander — Spacehab 2
STS-51-F Challenger[12] — July 1985 — Pilot — Spacelab 2
STS-27 Atlantis[13] — December 1988 — Pilot — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-35 Columbia[13] — December 1990 — Pilot — ASTRO-1
STS-51-J Atlantis[14] — October 1985 — Pilot — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-30 Atlantis[14] — May 1989 — Pilot — Deployed the Magellan probe
STS-42 Discovery[14] — January 1992 — Commander — Spacelab: IML-1
STS-57 Endeavour[14] — June 1993 — Commander — Spacehab
STS-61-B Atlantis[15] — November 1985 — Pilot — Deployed 3 communication satellites
STS-40 Columbia[15] — June 1991 — Commander — Spacelab: SLS-1
STS-28 Columbia[16] — August 1989 — Pilot — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-41 Discovery[16] — October 1990 — Commander — Deployed the Ulysses (spacecraft)
STS-50 Columbia[16] — June 1992 — Commander — Spacelab: U.S. Microgravity Laboratory 1
STS-64 Discovery[16] — September 1994 — Commander — Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)
STS-51-L Challenger[17] — January 1986 — Pilot — Planned to Deploy TDRS-B

Mission Specialists

STS-29 Discovery[18] — March 1989 — Mission Specialist 1 — Deployed TDRS-D
STS-40 Columbia[18] — June 1991 — Mission Specialist 1 — Spacelab: SLS-1
STS-61-C Columbia[19] — January 1986 — Mission Specialist 1 — Deployed Ku-1 communications satellite
STS-34 Atlantis[19] — October 1989 — Mission Specialist 1 — Deployed the Galileo probe
STS-46 Atlantis[19] — July 1992 — Mission Specialist 2 — Deployed ESA's European Retrievable Carrier and flew the Tethered Satellite System's TSS-1 mission
STS-60 Discovery[19] — February 1994 — Mission Specialist 3 — Spacehab 2
STS-75 Columbia[19] — February 1996 — Mission Specialist 4/Payload Commander — The Tethered Satellite System's TSS-1R mission
STS-91 Discovery[19] — June 1998 — Mission Specialist 2 — Final Shuttle/Mir mission
STS-111 Endeavour[19] — June 2002 — Mission Specialist 1 — Installed the Mobile Base System for Canadarm2 on the ISS
STS-61-B Atlantis[20] — November 1985 — Mission Specialist 1 — Deployed 3 communication satellites
STS-30 Atlantis[20] — May 1989 — Mission Specialist 2 — Deployed the Magellan probe
STS-61-A Challenger[21] — October 1985 — Mission Specialist 1 — Spacelab D1
STS-32 Columbia[21] — January 1990 — Mission Specialist 1 — Deployed the SYNCOM IV-F5 satellite; retrieved the Long Duration Exposure Facility
STS-50 Columbia[21] — June 1992 — Mission Specialist 1 — Spacelab: U.S. Microgravity Laboratory 1
STS-71 Atlantis[21] — June 1995 — Mission Specialist 3 — First Shuttle/Mir docking
STS-89 Endeavour[21] — January 1998 — Mission Specialist 3 — Eighth Shuttle/Mir docking
STS-51-I Discovery[22] — August 1985 — Mission Specialist 3 — Deployed three communications satellites
STS-51-J Atlantis[23] — October 1985 — Mission Specialist 1 — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-26 Discovery[23] — September 1988 — Mission Specialist 3 — Was the "Return-to-Flight" shuttle mission following the Challenger disaster; deployed TDRS-C
STS-36 Atlantis[23] — February 1990 — Mission Specialist 2 — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-42 Discovery[23] — January 1992 — Mission Specialist 2 — Spacelab: IML-1
STS-41-G Challenger[24] — October 1984 — Mission Specialist 3 — Deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite
STS-28 Columbia[24] — August 1989 — Mission Specialist 2 — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-45 Atlantis[24] — March 1992 — Mission Specialist 2 — ATLAS-1
STS-51-I Discovery[25] — August 1985 — Mission Specialist 2 — Deployed three communications satellites
STS-26 Discovery[25] — September 1988 — Mission Specialist 1 — Was the "Return-to-Flight" shuttle mission following the Challenger disaster; deployed TDRS-C
STS-35 Columbia[25] — December 1990 — Mission Specialist 2 — ASTRO-1
  • Jerry L. Ross (born 1948), U.S. Air Force (7 flights)[26] - Currently NASA Chief of JSC's Vehicle Integration Test Office
STS-61-B Atlantis[26] — November 1985 — Mission Specialist 2 — Deployed 3 communication satellites
STS-27 Atlantis[26] — December 1988 — Mission Specialist 2 — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission
STS-37 Atlantis[26] — April 1991 — Mission Specialist 1 — Launched the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
STS-55 Columbia[26] — April 1993 — Mission Specialist 1 — Spacelab: D2
STS-74 Atlantis[26] — November 1995 — Mission Specialist 2 — Second Shuttle/Mir docking
STS-88 Endeavour[26] — December 1998 — Mission Specialist 1 — First shuttle mission to the International Space Station; delivered Unity (Node 1) and the first two Pressurized Mating Adapters
STS-110 Atlantis[26] — April 2002 — Mission Specialist 1 — Delivered the S0 Truss and the Mobile Transporter for Canadarm2
STS-61-B Atlantis[27] — November 1985 — Mission Specialist 3 — Deployed 3 communication satellites
STS-29 Discovery[28] — March 1989 — Mission Specialist 3 — Deployed TDRS-D
STS-38 Atlantis[28] — November 1990 — Mission Specialist 1 — Was a classified United States Department of Defense mission

International Mission Specialists

STS-46 Atlantis[30] — July 1992 — Mission Specialist 3 — Deployed ESA's European Retrievable Carrier and flew the Tethered Satellite System's TSS-1 mission
STS-61 Endeavour[31] — December 1993 — Mission Specialist 3 — Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1
STS-75 Columbia[32] — February 1996 — Mission Specialist 3 — The Tethered Satellite System's TSS-1R mission
STS-103 Discovery[33] — December 1999 — Mission Specialist 5 — Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A
STS-61-A Challenger[35] — October 1985 — Payload Specialist 3 — Spacelab: D1

Delays in Spacelab caused NASA to offer ESA payload specialists the opportunity to train with its full-time astronauts; Nicollier and Ockels were the first non-Americans to do so. Ulf Merbold would also have trained as a mission specialist but could not pass the medical examination, an example of the lower physical standards for payload specialists. ESA believed that Spacelab was more important than mission specialist training. In September 1981 Ockels withdrew from training to focus on Spacelab; Nicollier continued and until 2005 was a NASA mission specialist.[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b White, Terry (29 May 1980). "80-038: NASA Selects 19 Astronaut Candidates" (PDF). JSC News Releases. Houston, Texas: NASA. pp. 80–81. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  2. ^ Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (2018). "NASA's Hispanic Astronauts" (PDF). NASA Facts. Houston, Texas: NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  3. ^ Petty, John Ira (29 March 2004). "Dutch Doctor Bound for Space Station". NASA News. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021. The first space-faring Dutch astronaut was Wubbo Ockels, who flew aboard Space Shuttle Challenger in 1985.
  4. ^ Garret, David W. (21 December 1992). "92-228: 1992 Seen as NASA's Most Productive Year for Science Discoveries" (TXT). NASA News. Washington, D.C.: NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021. International cooperation was highlighted by the flight of the first Swiss astronaut and the first Italian payload specialist on STS-46...
  5. ^ Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (2018). "NASA's African-American Astronauts" (PDF). NASA Facts. Houston, Texas: NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  6. ^ Buck, Joshua; Cloutier-Lemasters, Nicole (27 January 2012). "12-033: Astronaut Jerry Ross, First Seven-Time Flier, Retires". NASA News. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  7. ^ Ross-Nazzal, Jennifer (3 March 2011). "Anna L. Fisher". Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Houston, Texas: NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021. You were the first married couple in the Astronaut Office.
  8. ^ Smith, Yvette (18 September 2020). "Franklin Chang-Diaz Performs a Spacewalk on the STS-111 Mission". Historic Missions. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  9. ^ Cabbage, Michael (15 July 2009). "09-165: Bolden and Garver Confirmed by U.S. Senate". NASA News. Washington, D.C.: NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (May 2008). "John E. Blaha" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d e Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (January 2017). "Charles F. Bolden, Jr" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  12. ^ a b Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (October 2005). "Roy D. Bridges, Jr" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  13. ^ a b c Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (December 1994). "Guy S. Gardner" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d e Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (July 1999). "Ronald J. Grabe" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  15. ^ a b c Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (August 2011). "Bryan D. O'Connor" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d e Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (July 2007). "Richard N. Richards" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  17. ^ a b Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (December 2003). "Michael J. Smith" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  18. ^ a b c Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (May 1995). "James P. Bagian" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (September 2012). "Franklin R. Chang-Diaz" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  20. ^ a b c Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (February 2007). "Mary L. Cleave" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (September 2005). "Bonnie J. Dunbar" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  22. ^ a b Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (December 1993). "William F. Fisher" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d e Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (December 1993). "David C. Hilmers" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (May 2014). "David C. Leestma" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  25. ^ a b c d Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (May 2011). "John M. Lounge" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (May 2014). "Jerry L. Ross" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  27. ^ a b Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (December 1994). "Sherwood C. Spring" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  28. ^ a b c Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (June 2011). "Sherwood C. Spring" (PDF). Biographical Data. Houston, Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  29. ^ "Claude Nicollier". Personal Data. Paris: ESA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  30. ^ Ryba, Jeanne (31 March 2010). "STS-46". Mission Archives. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  31. ^ Ryba, Jeanne (31 March 2010). "STS-61". Mission Archives. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  32. ^ Ryba, Jeanne (23 November 2007). "STS-75". Mission Archives. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  33. ^ Ryba, Jeanne (23 November 2007). "STS-103". Mission Archives. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  34. ^ "Wubbo J. Ockels". Personal Data. Paris: ESA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  35. ^ Ryba, Jeanne (18 February 2010). "STS-61A". Mission Archives. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  36. ^ Croft, Melvin; Youskauskas, John (2019). Come Fly with Us: NASA's Payload Specialist Program. Outward Odyssey: a People's History of Spaceflight. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 9781496212252.

External links

  • Astronaut Biographies: Home Page