Republic of China Navy
中華民國海軍
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn (Mandarin)
Chûng-fà Mìn-koet Hói-kiûn (Hakka)
Republic of China Navy (ROCN) Logo.svg
Emblem of the ROCN
Founded1924 (1924)
Country Taiwan (Republic of China)
TypeNavy
Size38,000 personnel
117 Ships
28 Aircraft
Part ofRepublic of China Armed Forces
Colorswhite     
Fleet4 Destroyer
20 Frigate
31 Missile boat
2 Submarine
1 Corvette
12 Patrol ship
9 Minesweeper
10 Landing Ship, Tank
(10 Auxiliaries)
Websitenavy.mnd.gov.tw ‹See Tfd›(in English)
Commanders
Commander of the Republic of China NavyROCN Admiral's Flag.svg Admiral Huang Shu-kuang (黃曙光)[1]
Deputy Commander of the Republic of China NavyROCMC Lieutenant General's Flag.svg Marine Lieutenant General Pan Chin-lung (潘進隆)
Insignia
EnsignFlag of the Republic of China.svg
JackNaval Jack of the Republic of China.svg

The Republic of China Navy (ROCN; Chinese: 中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn) is the maritime branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. The ROC Navy's primary mission is to defend ROC territories and the sea lanes that surround Taiwan against a blockade, attack, or possible invasion by the People's Liberation Army Navy of the People's Republic of China. Operations include maritime patrols in the Taiwan Strait and surrounding waters, as well as counter-strike and counter-invasion operations during wartime. The Republic of China Marine Corps functions as a branch of the Navy.

The ship prefix for ROCN combatants is ROCS (Republic of China Ship); an older usage is CNS (Chinese Navy Ship).

Organization

Republic of China Navy Command Headquarters

The Navy CHQs (中華民國國防部海軍司令部) is subordinate to the General Staff, the Minister of Defense, and the ROC President.

  • Internal units: Personnel, Combat Readiness & Training, Logistics, Planning, Combat Systems, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
  • Naval Fleets Command (艦隊指揮部)
1st Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Kuang Hua VI-class missile boat at Suao naval base
2nd Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Kuang Hua VI-class missile boat
3rd Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Hai Ou-class missile boat (Dvora class)
4th Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Hai Ou-class missile boat (Dvora class)
5th Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 11 Kuang Hua VI-class missile boat[2][3]
  • Hai Feng Shore Based Anti-ship Missile Group (海鋒大隊), operates 6 batteries of fixed/mobile HF-2 anti-ship missiles.
  • 7th Hai Feng Shore Based Anti-ship Missile Squadron (海鋒大隊第七中隊), Haulien, Eastern Taiwan.[4][5][6]
  • Naval Aviation, at Pingtung, will receive 12 P-3C 2013/2014.
  • 1st ASW Aviation Group
  • 133rd Squadron: S-2T, at Pingtung.
  • 134th Squadron: S-2T, at Pingtung.
  • 2nd ASW Aviation Group
  • 701st Helicopter Squadron (Light), S-70C(M)-1, at Hualien.
  • 702nd Helicopter Squadron (Light), S-70C(M)-2, at Tsoying.
  • 501st Helicopter Squadron (Light), 500MD ASW, at Tsoying.
  • Maintenance Group
  • 1st Maintenance Squadron (Pingtung)
  • 2nd Maintenance Squadron (Tsoying)
  • 3rd Maintenance Squadron (Hualien)
  • Marine Corps Command (陸戰隊指揮部)
  • Education, Training and Doctrine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展司令部)
  • Logistics Command (後勤司令部)
  • Naval Academy, Hydrographic & Oceanographic Bureau, Shipbuilding Development Center, Communication Systems, General Service.

Sources:[7][8][9]

History

ROC (Taiwan) Navy
Flag of Republic of China Navy
Leadership
Ministry of Defense
Commands
Republic of China Marine Corps
Personnel
Rank insignia
Equipment
Ships
History and Traditions
Naval history of China
Orders, Decorations and Medals
List of orders, decorations and medals
Order of Blue Sky and White Sun

1914–1949

ROCN delegation in Washington D.C., 1930.

The precursor to the modern ROC Navy was established as the Ministry of the Navy in the Provisional Government of the Republic of China in 1911 following the overthrow of the Qing dynasty. During the period of warlordism that scarred China in the 1920s and 1930s the ROCN remained loyal to the Kuomintang government of Sun Yat-sen instead of the warlord government in Beijing which fell to the nationalist government in the 1928 northern campaign and between the civil war with the Communist Party and 1937 Japanese invasion of Northeast China. During that time and throughout World War II, the ROCN concentrated mainly on riverine warfare as the poorly equipped ROCN was not a match to Imperial Japanese Navy over ocean or coast.[10]

Following World War II, a number of Japanese destroyers and decommissioned U.S. ships were transferred to the ROC Navy. During the Chinese Civil War, the ROCN was involved in the protection of supply convoys and the withdrawal of the ROC Government and over 1 million refugees to Taiwan in 1949. The subsequent reorganization and reestablishment of the Navy after evacuation to Taiwan is referenced in the lyrics of the post 1949 ROC Navy Song "The New Navy" (新海軍).

1949–Present

Following the relocation of the ROC government to Taiwan, the ROCN was involved in a number of commando attack escorts, evacuation and transport of more displaced soldiers and later to provide patrols and resupply operations to Kinmen and Matsu in the Taiwan Strait and South China Sea offshore islands.

Since the 1990s the Navy has grown in importance as the emphasis of the ROC's military doctrine moves towards countering a possible People's Republic of China (PRC) blockade, as well as offshore engagement. The ROCN has been working hard to expand its capability in electronic and anti-submarine warfare, as well as the replacement of its current antiquated fleet.[8] However local shipbuilder CSBC still lacks the technology to build modern submarines.[11]

Rank and rating insignia

Officers
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Taiwan Republic of China
(Edit)
No equivalent Taiwan-navy-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-8.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-7.svg No equivalent Taiwan-navy-OF-5.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-4.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-3.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-2.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-1a.svg None.svg
Full Admiral
一級上將
Admiral
二級上將
Vice admiral
中將
Rear admiral
少將[note 1]
Captain
上校[note 1]
Commander
中校
Lieutenant commander
少校
Lieutenant
上尉
Lieutenant (junior grade)
中尉
Ensign
少尉
Officer cadet
軍校生
Pinyin Yījí Shàngjiàng Èrjí Shàngjiàng Zhōngjiàng Shaojiàng Shàngxiào Zhōngxiào Shàoxiào Shàngwèi Zhōngwèi Shàowèi Jūnxiào shēng
Non-commissioned
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Taiwan Republic of China
(Edit)
Taiwan-Navy-OR-9.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-8.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-7.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-6.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-5.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-4.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-3.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-2.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-1.svg
Command master chief petty officer
一等士官長
Master chief petty officer
二等士官長
Senior chief petty officer
三等士官長
Chief Petty Officer
上士
Petty Officer 1st Class
中士
Petty Officer 2nd Class
下士
Seaman
上等兵
Seaman apprentice
一等兵
Seaman recruit
二等兵
Pinyin Yīděng Shìguān zhǎng Èrděng Shìguān zhǎng Sānděng Shìguān zhǎng Shàngshi Zhōngshi Xiàshi Shàngděng Bīng Yīděng Bīng Èrděng Bīng

Equipment

Traditionally, most ROCN equipment is purchased from the United States, though several ships have been built domestically under licence or through domestic development. The ROCN has also purchased Lafayette-class frigates from France and Zwaardvis-class submarines from the Netherlands as well as four U.S. Kidd-class (renamed Keelung) destroyers originally intended for Iran.

Despite the ROCN refurbishing and extending the service life of its vessels and equipment, it has suffered from procurement difficulties due to pressures exerted by the PRC. It has only two useful submarines. The U.S. has approved sales of eight new diesel powered submarines but lacks the manufacturing capability to make the engines; at the same time, threats from the PRC prevent the necessary technology transfer from other countries. Furthermore, the Legislative Yuan did not approve the budget and thereby slowed the opportunity to procure the badly needed underwater defense capability.

In 2003 the US Government suggested buying four Nazario Sauro-class refurbished submarines from Italy, that reportedly agreed to sell them plus an additional four other submarines, following their decommissioning by the Italian Navy. However, Taipei rejected the offer, saying it wanted new submarines.

On 12 September 2007, an arms notification was sent to the United States Congress concerning an order for 12 P-3C Orion patrol aircraft and 3 "spare aircraft", along with an order for 144 SM-2 Block IIIA surface-to-air missiles.[12] A contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin to refurbish the 12 P-3C Orion aircraft for the ROC on 13 March 2009, with deliveries to start in 2012.[13]

In 2008, the ROCN set out to acquire an improved anti-ship capability. On 26 August, an arms notification was sent to Congress for an order for 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II missiles for the 12 P-3C.[14] At least a portion of these missiles will be installed on the navy's Hai Lung-class submarines.

On 29 January 2010, the U.S. government announced 5 notifications to the U.S. Congress for arms sales to the ROC. In the contracts total 6.392 billion USD, ROC Navy will get 2 Osprey-class minehunters for 105 million USD, 25 Link 16 terminals on ships for 340 millions, 10 ship- and 2 air-launched Harpoon L/II for 37 million USD.[15][16]

The ROC Navy already has 95 older Harpoon missiles in its inventory for the 8 Knox-class frigates, 22 newer RGM-84L for the 4 Kidd-class destroyers, 32 sub-launched Harpoon II on order for the 2 Hai Lung-class submarines, and with 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II anti-ship missile on order for the 12 P-3Cs, plus the newly announced 10 ship-launched and 2 air-launched Harpoon II/L sales.[17]

On 31 August 2010, it was announced for next year's defense budget, ROCN planned to lease 1 or 2 more Newport-class tank landing ships (LST) from the United States, but the 900-ton stealth corvette plan was put on hold, due to lack of funds.[18] That same year, On 29 September, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution, authorizing the U.S. Government for the sale of 1 more Osprey-class minehunter to the ROC.[19]

Other ongoing local upgrade programs include locally designed and built Ching Chiang class of 12 patrol ships that were designed back in the 1990s to carry 4 HF-1 anti-ship missiles on board but only the lead ship of the class had them. Since 2006, 7 ships of this class were upgraded to carry 4 HF-2/3 with W-160 fire control radar from Wu Chin III program (as well as Honeywell H-930 MCS CDS stripped from 7 retired Yang class Wu Chin 3 anti-air warfare destroyers). In 2010 more ships of this class were undergoing this same upgrade program but using CSIST produced fire control radars instead. Currently 4 different variants exist within this class, the original Ching Chiang patrol ship constructed with 4 HF-1 (1 existing in this configuration).

On 29 December 2010, 2 LSTs (中肇、中治戰車登陸艦) and 4 remaining of Adjutant-class coastal minehunters were retired.[20]

In 2011, the navy retired several vessels. On 31 October, all 8 PCL in the 124th Fleet were retired.[21] On 28 December, the 2 Lung Jiang-class (PSMM Mk5) guided missile patrol boats (PGG 601 and PPG 602) of the 131st Fleet were retired from ROC Navy service, after entering service in 1978 and 1981 respectively.[22]

On 15 April 2014, the Defence Minister Yen Ming announced that the United States will help Taiwan to build its own diesel-electric attack submarines (SSKs). Taiwan is looking to build eight submarines indigenously whilst also actively seeking to purchase diesel-electric submarines from other nations. The submarines would greatly improve the Navy's defensive capabilities.[23] It has been reported that in November 2014 Taiwan will announce a 20-year modernisation plan to replace the entire fleet. The plan is for four destroyers of 10,000 tons, 10–15 frigates of 3,000 tons, new amphibious ships and 4–8 submarines of 1,200–3,000 tons. The submarines may be built with a foreign partner but the surface ships would all be domestic designs.[24][25]

In April 2018, President of the United States Donald Trump approved the license necessary for American firms to sell Taiwan the technology needed to build its own submarines.[26]

USS Taylor (FFG-50), 2014

In June 2018, two Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates of the US Navy, ex-USS Taylor (FFG-50) and ex-USS Gary (FFG-51), were handed over to the Government of Taiwan for the Republic of China Navy. The transfer cost was an estimated US$177 million. The transfer of the ships includes the advanced AN/SQR-19 Multi-Function Towed array sonar. Taiwan had previously been blocked from acquiring the AN/SQR-19, and the transfer of the system points to an anti-submarine focus in line with the Knox-class frigates they will likely replace.[27]

In July 2018, it was reported[28] that company from India and defense contractor from Japan have submitted design proposals for Indigenous Defense Submarine program[29] alongside two companies from America and another two from Europe.[30]

In April 2019, it was reported that years ago North Korea offered to sell Air-independent propulsion technology to Taiwan's military. In the report by UPMEDIA it was stated that submarine expert was sent to North Korea to confirm the claims made about the offered AIP technology which was confirmed, but due to fears of breaking UN sanctions the North Korean offer was declined.[31][32]

Submarine fleet

Class Picture Type Boats Displacement[a] Note
Submarines (2 in Service)
Chien Lung-class Hai Lung-class  Netherlands /
diesel-electric submarine
Hai Lung (Sea Dragon) (SS-793)
Hai Hu (Sea Tiger) (SS-794)
2,660 tonnes Based on Zwaardvis-class submarine. These are also known by the lead ship's name as the: Hai Lung-class.
Hai Shih-class Hai Shih-class  United States /
diesel-electric submarine
Hai Shih (Sea Lion) (SS-791)
Hai Bao (Sea Leopard) (SS-792)
2,420 tonnes Training

Surface fleet

Class Picture Type Boats Displacement[a] Note
Destroyers (4 in service)
Kee Lung-class Kee-Lung-class  United States / destroyer ROCS Tso Ying (DDG-1803)
ROCS Su Ao (DDG-1802)
ROCS Kee Lung (DDG-1801)
ROCS Ma Kong (DDG-1805)
9,783 tonnes
Frigates (22 in service)
Cheng Kung-class Cheng Kung-class  Republic of China / frigate ROCS Cheng Kung (PFG2-1101)
ROCS Cheng Ho (PFG2-1103)
ROCS Chi Kuang (PFG2-1105)
ROCS Yueh Fei (PFG2-1106)
ROCS Tzu I (PFG2-1107)
ROCS Pan Chao (PFG2-1108)
ROCS Chang Chien (PFG2-1109)
ROCS Tian Dan (PFG2-1110)
ROCS Ming Chuan (PFG-1112)
ROCS Feng Jia (PFG-1115)
4,105 tonnes Eight licensed ships based on US Oliver Hazard Perry-class built. Two Additional ex US Navy Ships purchased[33][34][35]
Chi Yang-class Chi Yang-class  United States / frigate ROCS Fong Yang (FFG-933)
ROCS Fen Yang (FFG-934)
ROCS Lan Yang (FFG-935)
ROCS Hwai Yang (FFG-937)
ROCS Ning Yang (FFG-938)
ROCS Yi Yang (FFG-939)
4,260 tonnes Ex-Knox-class
Kang Ding-class Kang Ding-class  France / frigate ROCS Kang Ding (FFG-1202)
ROCS Si Ning (FFG-1203)
ROCS Wu Chang (FFG-1205)
ROCS Di Hua (FFG-1206)
ROCS Kun Ming (FFG-1207)
ROCS Chen De (FFG-1208)
3,600 tonnes French-built La Fayette-class
Fast Attack Missile Crafts (31 in service)
Kuang Hua VI-class Kuang Hua VI-class  Republic of China / missile boat FACG-60~66, 68~75, 77~84, 86~93 186.5 tonnes Delivery began 2003
Patrol Ships (12 in service) & Corvette (1 in service)
Ching Chiang-class Ching Chiang-class  Republic of China / patrol ship ROCS Ching Chiang (PG-603)
ROCS Dan Chiang (PG-605)
ROCS Sing Chiang (PG-606)
ROCS Feng Chiang (PG-607)
ROCS Tzeng Chiang (PG-608)
ROCS Kao Chiang (PG-609)
ROCS Jin Chiang (PG-610)
ROCS Hsiang Chiang (PG-611)
ROCS Tze Chiang (PG-612)
ROCS Po Chiang (PG-614)
ROCS Chang Chiang (PG-615)
ROCS Chu Chiang (PG-617)
500 tonnes Delivery began 2003
Tuo Chiang-Class Tuo Chiang-class  Republic of China / corvette Tuo Chiang (PGG-618) 600 tonnes on 14 March 2014.[36]
Minesweepers (9 in service)
Yung Feng-class "Yung Feng"-class  Germany / minesweeper ROCS Yung Feng (MHC-1301)
ROCS Yung Chia (MHC-1302)
ROCS Yung Nien (MHC-1303)
ROCS Yung Shun (MHC-1305)
558.3 tonnes MWW-50 class, built anew in Germany
Yung Yang-class Yung Yang-class  United States / minesweeper ROCS Yung Yang (MSO-1306)
ROCS Yung Tzu (MSO-1307)
ROCS Yung Ku (MSO-1308)
ROCS Yung Ku (MSO-1308)
ROCS Yung Teh (MSO-1309)
735 tonnes ex-Aggressive class
Yung Ching-class Yung Ching-class  United States / minesweeper ROCS Yung Jin (MHC-1310)
ROCS Yung An (MHC-1311)
893 tonnes ex-Osprey class
Amphibious Ships (9 in service)
Newport-class Newport-class  United States / tank landing ship ROCS Chung Ho (LST-232)
ROCS Chung Ping (LST-233)
8,450 tonnes ex-USN USS Manitowoc (LST-1180) and USS Sumter (LST-1181)
Chung Hai-class Chung Hai-class  United States / tank landing ship ROCS Chung Chiang (LST-205)
ROCS Chung Shing (LST-208)
ROCS Chung Chih (LST-218)
ROCS Chung Ming (LST-227)
ROCS Chung Ye (LST-231)
4,080 tonnes Landing Ship, Tank (LST-1)
Kaohsiung-class Kaohsiung-class  United States /
amphibious command ship
ROCS Kao Hsiung (LCC-1) 3,698 tonnes ex-USS Dukes County (LST-735) LST-542 class tank landing ship
Hsu Hai-class Hsu Hai-class  United States / dock landing ship ROCS Hsu Hai (LSD-193) 13,700 tonnes ex-USS Pensacola (LSD-38) Anchorage-class dock landing ship

Auxiliary fleet

Class Picture Type Boats Displacement[a] Note
Auxiliary Ships (10 in service)
Pan Shi-class Pan Shi-class  Republic of China /
fast combat support ship
ROCS Pan Shi (AOE-532) 20,895 tonnes AOE-532
Wu Yi-class Wu Yi-class  Republic of China /
fast combat support ship
ROCS Wu Yi (AOE-530) 17,000 tonnes AOE-530
Ta Kuan-class Da Kuan-class  Italy / research ship ROCS Da-Kuan (AGS-1601) 3,200 tonnes oceanographic measurement
Ta Hu-class Ta Hu-class  United States /
rescue and salvage ship
ROCS Ta Hu (ARS-552)
ROCS Ta Twen (ARS-556)
1,975 tonnes ARS-552 (ex-USS Grapple)
Ta Tung-class Ta Tung-class  United States / fleet tug ROCS ATF-551
ROCS ATF-553
ROCS ATF-554
ROCS ATF-555
ROCS ATF-563
1,680 tonnes ATF-548 (ex-USS Chickasaw)

Aircraft

Aircraft Origin Type In service[37] Notes
Fixed-wing
Lockheed P-3C Orion  United States Maritime patrol aircraft 12 Re-built ex-US Navy aircraft and replaced ROCN Grumman S-2 Trackers
Lockheed EP-3E Orion  United States signals reconnaissance 3 Spare P-3C airframes acquired for future conversion to EP-3E Aries I of II platform
Helicopters
Sikorsky S-70C(M)-1/2 Thunderhawk  United States SAR ASW Naval utility helicopter 19 Out of 10+11 ordered
Hughes 500MD/ASW Defender  United States ASW Naval utility helicopter 9 Out of original 13 ordered

Armament

Name Origin Type Notes
Surface-to-air missile
Sky Sword I Republic of China short-range IR guided Shipboard deployment with Sea Oryx system.
Sky Sword II Republic of China beyond-visual-range missile Unknown number of TC-2N, to be fielded on Tuo Jiang Block II corvettes.
RIM-66 Standard United States of America medium range surface to air missile. 97 RIM-66B Standard-1MR delivered in 1993, 207 RIM-66B Standard-1MR delivered in 1994, 204 RIM-66B Standard-1MR delivered in 2001[38]
RIM-67 Standard United States of America medium-long range surface to air missile. 148 Standard Missile-2MR delivered in 2005, 144 Standard Missile-2MR delivered in 2008, 16 Standard Missile-2MR ordered in 2017[38]
Anti-ship missile
AGM-84 Harpoon United States anti-ship missile (183) AGM-84’s – (60) 84L’s[38]
Hsiung Feng II Republic of China anti-ship missile with secondary ground attack capability Unknown, in mass production[39]
Hsiung Feng III Republic of China Supersonic anti-ship missile with secondary ground attack capability Unknown, in mass production
CIWS
Phalanx CIWS United States 20mm gun based close in weapons system 7 Mk-15 delivered in 1989, 6 Mk-15 delivered in 1996, 1 Mk15 delivered in 2014, 13 Mk15 delivered in 2016, 11 Mk15 delivered in 2018[38]
Torpedoes
Mark 46 torpedo United States lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedo 100 delivered in 1992, 150 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 1994, 110 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 1998, 90 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 2000, 41 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 2001[38]
Mark 48 torpedo United States Heavyweight submarine launched torpedo 46 ordered in 2018[38]
SUT torpedo Germany Heavyweight multirole torpedo 200 delivered in 1998 from Indonesian production line[38]

Marine Corps

Republic of China Marine Corps:

Gallery

Bases

SuAo Bay Panorama
ROCN Xinbin Camp with 205
Anchor in Entrance Road of Zhongzheng Naval Base
  • Tsoying Naval Base – 1st Naval District HQ, largest naval base in Taiwan and naval airfield near Kaohsiung
  • Tsoying Naval Airfield and Naval Yard – Tsoying District
  • Makung Naval Base (Makung, Pescadores) – 2nd Naval District HQ – home to attack squadrons, training centre and naval yard
  • Keelung Naval Base, Keelung – 3rd Naval District HQ, home to northern patrol and transport squadrons and small naval yard
  • Suao Naval Base, Su-ao, Yilan – East Coast Command and supports Keelung Naval Base

All remaining bases are small naval stations supporting PCL class small patrol boats and Fast Attack Boat:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Rank of flotilla (區艦隊) commanders

References

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External links

  • ROC Navy website
  • Globalsecurity.org report on the ROC Navy


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