Yamal (satellite constellation)

Summary

Yamal (Russian: Яма́л) is a communication and broadcasting system developed and operated by Gazprom Space Systems. Born out of the connectivity needs of the natural gas extraction giant Gazprom, the system was spun off in its own company, and opened the network to third parties and even went into the public broadcasting industry. Yamal and Russian Satellite Communications Company (RSCC)'s Ekspress constellation are the only two national satellite operators in Russia.[1]

History

During 1997, even before the launch of their first satellites (Yamal 101 and Yamal 102), Gazkom was planning the second generation. At that time, they planned 24 satellites of the second generation. This extremely aggressive plan was scaled back by 2001 with a plan to launch four 200 series satellites. The first two, Yamal 201 and Yamal 202 planned to be launched by 2001 and the second pair, Yamal 203 and Yamal 204 by 2004. Yamal 201 and Yamal 203 were identical and be positioned at the 90° East orbital position and Yamal 202 and Yamal 204 were also twinned and be positioned at the 49° East position.[2][3][4]

Yamal 101 and Yamal 102 were launched together on 6 September 1999 at 16:36:00 UTC from Baikonur Site 81/23 by a Proton-K / Blok DM-2M directly to geostationary orbit (GEO).[5][6] But a failure in the electrical system at solar panel deployment meant that Yamal 101 was lost right after the successful launch.[4][7] Thus, Gazkom registered Yamal 102 as Yamal 101. This has caused significant confusion but the records are clear that the satellite that failed was, in fact, the original Yamal 101.[4][8]

Yamal 201 and Yamal 202 were launched on 24 November 2003 at 06:22:00 UTC from Baikonur Site 81/23 by a Proton-K / Blok DM-2M directly to geostationary orbit.[9] The launch and satellite deployment was successful and both were commissioned into service.[10]

By 2007, the program delays made Gazkom move to the Yamal 301 and Yamal 302 project, cancelling both Yamal 203 and Yamal 204. Those were more advanced versions of the spacecraft they would have to replace.[4][11] But by early 2008, Energia and Gazkom enter into a disagreement over the cost and schedule of Yamal 301 and Yamal 302, which was even submitted to arbitrage. In the end, the contract with Energia is cancelled and a new Yamal-300K is hastily ordered from ISS Reshetnev for a 2009 launch date.[12]

In February 2009, Gazprom Space Systems announced a contract with Thales Alenia Space for two satellites: Yamal-401 and Yamal-402.[13] This was the first time a foreign supplier would build a satellite for domestic Russian market. After much lobby from Russian industry, the contract for the bus and integration of Yamal-401 is cancelled and awarded to ISS Reshetnev, but Thales is allowed to keep the payload supply.[14][15]

Yamal 102, on 9 August 2010, was decommissioned and sent to a graveyard orbit. The satellite lasted 4079 days (11 years and 2 months), a bit short of the design life of 12.5 years.[5][16]

Yamal-300K was launched along Luch 5B 2 November 2012, at 21:04:00 UTC from Baikonur Site 81/23 by a Proton-M / Briz-M directly to geostationary orbit.[17] The launch and satellite deployment was successful and Yamal-300K was commissioned into service.[18][19]

On 8 December 2012, at 13:13:43 UTC, a Proton-M / Briz-M launches Yamal-402 to a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO).[20] The same day, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and International Launch Services (ILS) reported an anomaly during the launch in which the Briz-M stage failed 4 minutes before scheduled shut down on its fourth burn.[21][22] On 10 December 2012, specialists from Thales Alenia Space carried out maneuvers to bring the satellite into its designated orbit after a premature separation from Briz-M.[23] On 15 December 2012, Yamal-402 was taken to its planned geostationary orbit at the altitude of 36,000 km following a series of four adjustment operations.[24] The satellite lost 4 years of fuel to compensate for lower than expected orbit injection.[25]

In 2013, Gazprom Board decides a new plan. It requires two new satellites: Yamal-501 and Yamal-601.[26] It also calls for a new seven spacecraft observation constellation of optical and radar low Earth orbit satellites called SMOTR.[27] And also requires for Gazprom Space Systems to develop its own satellite design and manufacturing capabilities.[26]

In 2014, Gazprom announces a contract with Thales Alenia Space for a new satellite, Yamal-601.[28] On 5 June 2014, Yamal 201 failed and the clients had to be moved to other satellites of the network. The satellite lasted 3846 days (10 years and 6.5 months), short of the design life of 12.5 years.[16][29][30] On 15 December 2014, at 00:16:00 UTC a Proton-M / Briz-M launches Yamal-401 directly to geostationary orbit. The launch is successful and the spacecraft is accepted into service.[31]

In 2015, history has repeated itself and the contract of Yamal-601 with Thales is cancelled and is assigned to ISS Reshetnev, but Thales is allowed to keep the payload supply, again.[32] As a result of another change of decision, Thales Alenia Space was entrusted with the construction of the Yamal-601 entire system (satellite bus + payload). In the end, Thales Alenia Space developed and built the whole Yamal-601 satellite, both satellite bus and payload.[28][33]

Yamal satellite series

Satellite Bus Payload Order Launch Launch Vehicle Intended Orbit Launch Result Launch Weight Status Remarks
Yamal 101 RSC Energia
USP
Space Systems/Loral N/A 1999-09-06 Proton-K / Blok DM-2M Geostationary orbit Success 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Failed at separation Dual launch with Yamal 102. Failed at separation.[2][3][6][7][8]
Yamal 102 RSC Energia
USP
Space Systems/Loral N/A 1999-09-06 Proton-K / Blok DM-2M Geostationary orbit Success 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Retired on 9 August 2010 Dual launch with Yamal 101.[2][3][6][7]
Yamal 201 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 2003-11-24 Proton-K / Blok DM-2M Geostationary orbit Success 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Failed on 5 June 2014 Dual launch with Yamal 202. Failed on orbit[4][7][10][11][29][30][34][35]
Yamal 202 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 2003-11-24 Proton-K / Blok DM-2M Geostationary orbit Success 1,320 kg (2,910 lb) Operational In November 2019, after 16 years of working in 49° East position the satellite was transferred to a new orbital position of 163.5° East.[36][37][38][39][40][41] Dual launch with Yamal 201.[4][7][11][34][42][43][44]
Yamal-300K Ekspress-1000HTA 2009 2012-11-02 Proton-M / Briz-M Geostationary orbit Success 1,870 kg (4,120 lb) Operational Launched along Luch 5B.[18]
Yamal-402 Spacebus-4000C3 Thales Alenia Space 2009 2012-12-08 Proton-M / Briz-M Geostationary orbit Partial failure 5,250 kg (11,570 lb) Operational Satellite lost 4 years of fuel to compensate for lower than expected orbit injection.[22][25]
Yamal-401 Ekspress-2000 Thales Alenia Space 2010 2014-12-15 Proton-M / Briz-M Geostationary orbit Success 2,976 kg (6,561 lb) Operational [14] Replaced a cancelled satellite. The satellite that this satellite replaced was also named Yamal-401.
Yamal-501 N/A N/A Planned N/A N/A Planned N/A Planned [26]
Yamal-601 Ekspress-2000 2015 Cancelled Proton-M / Briz-M Geostationary orbit Cancelled N/A Cancelled [32] Originally, the build of Yamal-601 satellite was contracted to Thales Alenia Space. Then, a change was investigated; namely, the build of the satellite's bus was suggested to be given to ISS Reshetnev, with Thales Alenia Space still providing the payload. This new Reshetnev-developed satellite (which is the satellite this table entry is about) was to be called also Yamal-601. But in the end, these plans were cancelled (thus the satellite of this entry is labeled as cancelled) and Thales Alenia Space developed an built the satellite as originally planned (see the other Yamal-601 entry which is labeled success).
Yamal 203 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 Cancelled Proton-K / Blok DM-2M Geostationary orbit Cancelled 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) Cancelled [4][7][10][11][45]
Yamal 204 RSC Energia
USP
Alcatel Space 2001 Cancelled Proton-K / Blok DM-2M Geostationary orbit Cancelled 1,320 kg (2,910 lb) Cancelled [4][7][11][42][45]
Yamal 301 RSC Energia
USP
NEC Toshiba Space/Tesat Spacecom 2003 Cancelled Proton-M / Blok DM-03 Geostationary orbit Cancelled 1,330 kg (2,930 lb) Cancelled [7][12][45][46]
Yamal 302 RSC Energia
USP
NEC Toshiba Space/Tesat Spacecom 2003 Cancelled Proton-M / Blok DM-03 Geostationary orbit Cancelled 1,330 kg (2,930 lb) Cancelled [7][12][45][47]
Yamal-401 Spacebus-4000C3 Thales Alenia Space 2009 Cancelled Proton-M / Briz-M Geostationary orbit Cancelled 4,900 kg (10,800 lb) Cancelled [13] Was cancelled. This satellite's role was replaced by another, later satellite that also was named Yamal-401.
Yamal-601 Spacebus-4000C4 Thales Alenia Space 2015 2019-05-30 Proton-M / Briz-M Geostationary orbit Success 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) Operational[36] [28][33][48] See the other Yamal-601 entry for more information about the Yamal-601 satellite project

See also

References

  1. ^ "About Company". Gazprom Space Systems. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal / Histoire / Nécessité de renouvellement" [Yamal / History / The necessity of renewal] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal / Histoire / La plate-forme universelle" [Yamal / History / The universal platform] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal / Histoire / Premier tir, premier revers" [Yamal / History / The first setbacks] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  5. ^ a b Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-K 6 septembre 1999" [September 6, 1999 Proton-K] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  6. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 101, 102". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zak, Anatoly (21 April 2016). "Yamal communication satellites". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Yamal 101". Satbeams. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  9. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-K 24 novembre 2003" [November 24, 2003 Proton-K] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 201, 203". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal / Histoire / La deuxième génération" [Yamal / History / The second generation] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Pillet, Nicolas. "Les Yamal-300" [The Yamal-300] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  13. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 401". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  14. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 401". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  15. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Yamal-400: le succès français" [Yamal-400 the French success] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  16. ^ a b "Universal Space Platform". RSC Energia. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  17. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-M 2 novembre 2012" [November 2, 2012 Proton-M] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  18. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 300K". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  19. ^ Zak, Anatoly (21 April 2016). "Yamal 300K". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  20. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-M 8 décembre 2012" [December 8, 2012 Proton-M] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  21. ^ "ILS Declares Proton Launch Anomaly". ILS. 8 December 2012.
  22. ^ a b Bergin, Chris (8 December 2012). "ILS Proton-M launches with Yamal-402 satellite". NASASpaceFlight.com.
  23. ^ "Thales Makes Second Attempt to Adjust Yamal Orbit". RIA Novosti. 10 December 2012.
  24. ^ "Troubled Russian Satellite Reaches Designated Orbit". RIA Novosti. 15 December 2012.
  25. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 402". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  26. ^ a b c "New Projects". Gazprom Space Systems. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  27. ^ "SMOTR". Gazprom Space Systems. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  28. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 601". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  29. ^ a b "Russian satellite failure leads to channels move". Digital TV Europe. 9 June 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  30. ^ a b Todd, David (10 June 2014). "Yamal 201 may have failed in orbit as customers are moved to other satellites". Seradata Space Intelligence. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  31. ^ Pillet, Nicolas. "Proton-M 15 décembre 2014" [December 15, 2014 Proton-M] (in French). Kosmonavtika. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  32. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 601". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  33. ^ a b Zak, Anatoly. "Proton launches Yamal-601". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  34. ^ a b Zak, Anatoly (9 March 2016). "Proton missions in 2003". RussiaSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  35. ^ "Yamal 201". Satbeams. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  36. ^ a b https://www.gazprom-spacesystems.ru/ru/news/9059/
  37. ^ https://www.cableman.ru/content/sputnik-yamal-601-vveli-v-ekspluatatsiyu
  38. ^ http://tv41.ru/vystavka-ibc-2019-v-amsterdame
  39. ^ Выставка «IBC-2019» в Амстердаме on YouTube
  40. ^ "Газпром космические системы / Инфраструктура".
  41. ^ "Gazprom Space Systems / Infrastructure".
  42. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 202, 204". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  43. ^ "Yamal-202 technical performance". Gazprom Space Systems. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  44. ^ "Yamal 201". Satbeams. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  45. ^ a b c d Krebs, Gunter (16 October 2015). "RKK Energiya: USP (Victoria)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  46. ^ Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 301". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  47. ^ Krebs, Gunter (17 April 2016). "Yamal 302". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  48. ^ "Newly-launched Russian telecom satellite relying on backup thrusters – Spaceflight Now".

External links

  • JSC Gazprom Space Systems