List of years in archosaur paleontology
In paleontology
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
In science
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021

The year 2018 in archosaur paleontology was eventful. Archosaurs include the only living dinosaur group — birds — and the reptile crocodilians, plus all extinct dinosaurs, extinct crocodilian relatives, and pterosaurs. Archosaur palaeontology is the scientific study of those animals, especially as they existed before the Holocene Epoch began about 11,700 years ago. The year 2018 in paleontology included various significant developments regarding archosaurs.

This article records new taxa of fossil archosaurs of every kind that have been described during the year 2018, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of archosaurs that occurred in the year 2018.

General research

Pseudosuchians

Research

  • A study on the jaw musculature and biomechanics of Venaticosuchus rusconii based on rediscovered cranial materials is published by Von Baczko (2018).[11]
  • Three differently sized braincases diagnosable as belonging to Parringtonia gracilis are described from the Triassic Manda Beds of Tanzania by Nesbitt et al. (2018).[12]
  • A study on the histology of osteoderms of Late Triassic aetosaurs from South America, including Aetosauroides scagliai, Aetobarbakinoides brasiliensis and Neoaetosauroides engaeus, is published by Cerda, Desojo & Scheyer (2018).[13]
  • Description of new skull material of Aetosauroides scagliai from the Santa Maria Supersequence (Brazil) and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of this species is published by Biacchi Brust et al. (2018).[14]
  • The first known natural endocast of an aetosaur (Neoaetosauroides engaeus) is described by von Baczko, Taborda & Desojo (2018).[15]
  • Redescription of the aetosaur species Calyptosuchus wellesi is published by Parker (2018).[16]
  • A study on the anatomy of the skeleton of Coahomasuchus chathamensis and on the phylogenetic relationships of aetosaurs is published by Hoffman, Heckert & Zanno (2018).[17]
  • A restudy of the referred material of Stagonolepis robertsoni housed at the Natural History Museum, London, evaluating the utility of this material for examining the phylogenetic relationships of S. robertsoni, is published by Parker (2018).[18]
  • Description of the forelimbs of Stagonolepis olenkae and a study on the probable use of the forelimbs by members of this species is published by Dróżdż (2018).[19]
  • New information on the bonebed from the Triassic Badong Formation in Sangzhi County (Hunan, China) preserving the majority of the known fossil material of Lotosaurus adentus is published by Hagen et al. (2018), who also reassess the provenance and age of the deposit.[20]
  • A study on the anatomy of the backbone of Poposaurus langstoni is published by Stefanic & Nesbitt (2018).[21]
  • A study on the morphology of the secondary palate in shartegosuchids, based on data from a new specimen of Shartegosuchus from the Ulan Malgait Formation (Mongolia), is published by Dollman et al. (2018).[22]
  • Description of the braincase and the brain endocast, vasculature, inner ear, and paratympanic pneumatic cavities of Steneosaurus bollensis and Cricosaurus araucanensis is published by Herrera, Leardi & Fernández (2018).[23]
  • A skull of a member of the genus Tyrannoneustes is described from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) of Germany by Waskow, Grzegorczyk & Sander (2018).[24]
  • New specimen of Neuquensuchus universitas, providing new information on the skeletal anatomy of members of the species, is described from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Bajo de la Carpa Formation (Argentina) by Lio et al. (2018).[25]
  • A redescription of the anatomy of the skull of Notosuchus terrestris is published by Barrios et al. (2018).[26]
  • A study on the anatomy of the skull of Morrinhosuchus luziae is published by Iori et al. (2018).[27]
  • A study on the anatomic structures and tooth wear related to mastication in Caipirasuchus is published by Iori & Carvalho (2018).[28]
  • A study on the taphonomy of the baurusuchid specimens (as well as non-avian theropods and titanosaur sauropod dinosaurs) from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Brazil) is published by Bandeira et al. (2018), who argue that low diversity of known theropods in the Bauru Group might be caused by preservational biases, and does not conclusively indicate that baurusuchids outcompeted theropods as top predators in this area.[29]
  • A study on the evolution of the skull morphology of baurusuchids is published by Godoy et al. (2018).[30]
  • New baurusuchid fossils are described from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Bajo de la Carpa Formation (Argentina) by Leardi, Pol & Gasparini (2018).[31]
  • A study on the bone microanatomy of Pepesuchus deiseae is published by Sena et al. (2018).[32]
  • Neosuchian crocodylomorph fossils are described from the Bathonian Peski locality in the Moscow Region (Russia) by Pashchenko et al. (2018), who note the similarity of Bathonian vertebrate faunas of the Moscow Region, United Kingdom, Western Siberia and Kyrgyzstan, which they interpret as indicative of faunal homogeneity on the territory of Laurasia.[33]
  • New fossil remains of Sarcosuchus are described from the Aptian-Albian deposits of the Tataouine Basin (Tunisia) by Dridi (2018).[34]
  • A revision of Trematochampsa taqueti and all fossil material assigned to the species is published by Meunier & Larsson (2018).[35]
  • Description of pelvic and femoral remains of allodaposuchids from the Upper Cretaceous of the Lo Hueco fossil site (Spain) is published by de Celis, Narváez & Ortega (2018).[36]
  • Fossils of a eusuchian crocodyliform are described from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Khok Kruat Formation (Thailand) by Kubo et al. (2018), representing the oldest record of Asian eusuchians reported so far.[37]
  • Description of a new skull of Susisuchus anatoceps from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil), providing new information on the anatomy of this species, and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of Susisuchus is published by Leite & Fortier (2018).[38]
  • A study on the taphonomic history of the holotype, paratypes and referred specimens of Isisfordia duncani is published by Syme & Salisbury (2018).[39]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of Thoracosaurus, Eothoracosaurus, Eosuchus, Eogavialis and Argochampsa, evaluating whether they were closely related to the gharial, is published by Lee & Yates (2018).[40]
  • A study on the length proportion of limb elements in extant and fossil alligatoroid and crocodyloid crocodylians, as well as on the correlation of limb morphology and skull shape in these groups, is published by Iijima, Kubo & Kobayashi (2018).[41]
  • New specimen of Bottosaurus harlani is described from the Rowan Fossil Quarry, a Cretaceous–Paleogene locality in Mantua Township (New Jersey, United States) by Cossette & Brochu (2018).[42]
  • A reassessment of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Asiatosuchus nanlingensis and Eoalligator chunyii is published by Wu, Li & Wang (2018), who reinstate the latter taxon as a species distinct from the former one.[43]
  • A study on the ontogenetic changes of the skull shape in extant caimans and its implications for the validity of the Miocene species Melanosuchus fisheri is published by Foth et al. (2018).[44]
  • A study on two fossil specimens of caimans from the late Pleistocene and early Holocene of Brazil, attempting to assign the fossils’ identity to one of the extant caiman species on the basis of records of their current distribution and paleoclimatic data, is published by Eduardo et al. (2018).[45]
  • A fragment of a mandible of a member of the genus Gryposuchus is described from the Miocene (≈18 Ma) Castillo Formation (Venezuela) by Solórzano, Núñez-Flores & Rincón (2018), representing the earliest record of the genus in South America reported so far.[46]
  • A revision of the type species of the genus Gryposuchus, G. jessei, is published by Souza et al. (2018).[47]
  • A revision of crocodilian fossils and taxa from the Calvert Cliffs (United States) is published by Weems (2018).[48]
  • Partial crocodylian skull from the Pleistocene of Taiwan, formerly regarded as lost during World War II, is rediscovered and redescribed by Ito et al. (2018), who assign this specimen to the genus Toyotamaphimeia.[49]
  • Fossils of large crocodylians, as well as tortoise fossils with feeding traces on them, are described from the Pleistocene of Aldabra (Seychelles) by Scheyer et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating the occurrence of a predator–prey interaction between crocodylians and giant tortoises on Aldabra during the Late Pleistocene.[50]
  • Late Quaternary fossils representing a locally extinct population of the Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) are reported from two underwater caves in the Dominican Republic by Morgan et al. (2018).[51]
  • A new large and well-preserved specimen of Prestosuchus chiniquensis is published by Roberto-da-Silva et al. (2018).[52]

New taxa

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aktiogavialis caribesi[53]

Sp. nov

Valid

Salas-Gismondi et al.

Late Miocene

Urumaco Formation

 Venezuela

Anteophthalmosuchus epikrator[54]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ristevski et al.

Early Cretaceous

Wessex Formation

 United Kingdom

A goniopholidid.

Caipirasuchus mineirus[55]

Sp. nov

Valid

Martinelli et al.

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

A sphagesaurid crocodyliform.

Dadagavialis[53]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Salas-Gismondi et al.

Early Miocene

Cucaracha Formation

 Panama

A gryposuchine gavialoid. Genus includes new species D. gunai.

Kinesuchus[56]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Filippi, Barrios & Garrido

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Bajo de la Carpa Formation

 Argentina

A peirosaurid crocodyliform. The type species is K. overoi.

Magyarosuchus[57]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ősi et al.

Early Jurassic (Toarcian)

Kisgerecse Marl Formation

 Hungary

A member of Metriorhynchoidea. The type species is M. fitosi.

Maledictosuchus nuyivijanan[58]

Sp. nov

Valid

Barrientos-Lara, Alvarado-Ortega & Fernández

Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Sabinal Formation

 Mexico

Mandasuchus[59]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Butler et al.

Triassic

Manda Formation

 Tanzania

An early member of Paracrocodylomorpha belonging to the group Loricata. The type species is M. tanyauchen.

Pagosvenator[60]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lacerda, de França & Schultz

MiddleLate Triassic

Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone of the Santa Maria Supersequence

 Brazil

A member of the family Erpetosuchidae. Genus includes new species P. candelariensis.

Portugalosuchus[61]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mateus, Puértolas-Pascual & Callapez

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Tentugal Formation

 Portugal

A member of Eusuchia, possibly the oldest known member of Crocodilia. Genus includes new species P. azenhae.

Protocaiman[62]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bona et al.

Paleocene (Danian)

Salamanca Formation

 Argentina

A relative of caimans. Genus includes new species P. peligrensis.

Roxochampsa[63]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Piacentini Pinheiro et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian–early Maastrichtian)

Adamantina Formation
Presidente Prudente Formation

 Brazil

A crocodyliform belonging to the family Itasuchidae. The type species is "Goniopholis" paulistanus Roxo (1936).

Theriosuchus morrisonensis[64]

Sp. nov

Valid

Foster

Late Jurassic

Morrison Formation

 United States
( Wyoming)

A new species of the atoposaurid Theriosuchus and the first known from North America.

Wahasuchus[65]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Saber et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Quseir Formation

 Egypt

A member of Mesoeucrocodylia of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly a neosuchian. Genus includes new species W. egyptensis.

Non-avian dinosaurs

Research

New taxa

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acantholipan[225]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Rivera-Sylva et al.

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Pen Formation

 Mexico

A member of the family Nodosauridae. Genus includes new species A. gonzalezi.

Akainacephalus[226]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wiersma & Irmis

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Kaiparowits Formation

 United States
( Utah)

A member of the family Ankylosauridae. The type species is A. johnsoni.

Known material and skeletal reconstructions in dorsal and lateral views

Anodontosaurus inceptus[227]

Sp. nov

Valid

Penkalski

Late Cretaceous

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada
( Alberta)

A member of the family Ankylosauridae.

Skull of TMP 1997.132.1, the holotype specimen of Anodontosaurus inceptus[227]

Anomalipes[228]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Yu et al.

Late Cretaceous

Wangshi Group

 China

A caenagnathid theropod. The type species is A. zhaoi.

Arkansaurus[229]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hunt & Quinn

Early Cretaceous (AlbianAptian)

Trinity Group

 United States
( Arkansas)

An ornithomimosaur theropod. Genus includes new species A. fridayi.

Avimimus nemegtensis[230]

Sp. nov

Valid

Funston et al.

Late Cretaceous

Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

An oviraptorosaurian.

Baalsaurus[231]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Calvo & Riga

Late Cretaceous (Turonian-Coniacian)

Portezuelo Formation

 Argentina

A titanosaur sauropod. The type species is B. mansillai.

Bagualosaurus[232]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pretto, Langer & Schultz

Late Triassic

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

An early member of Sauropodomorpha. Genus includes new species B. agudoensis.

Bannykus[233]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xu et al.

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Bayin-Gobi Formation

 China

An alvarezsaurian theropod. The type species is B. wulatensis.

Bayannurosaurus[234]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xu et al.

Early Cretaceous

Bayin-Gobi Formation

 China

A non-hadrosauriform ankylopollexian ornithopod. Genus includes new species B. perfectus.

Caihong[235]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hu et al.

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

A paravian theropod. The type species is C. juji.

Choconsaurus[236]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Simón, Salgado & Calvo

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Huincul Formation

 Argentina

A titanosaur sauropod. The type species is C. baileywillisi.

Choyrodon[237]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gates et al.

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Khuren Dukh Formation

 Mongolia

An iguanodontian ornithopod. The type species is C. barsboldi.

Crittendenceratops[238]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Dalman et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Fort Crittenden Formation

 United States
( Arizona)

A centrosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur belonging to the tribe Nasutoceratopsini. The type species is C. krzyzanowskii.

Diluvicursor[239]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Herne et al.

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Eumeralla Formation

 Australia

A small-bodied ornithopod. The type species is D. pickeringi.

Dryosaurus elderae[240]

Sp. nov

Valid

Carpenter & Galton

Late Jurassic

Morrison Formation

 United States
( Utah)

Dynamoterror[241]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

McDonald, Wolfe & Dooley

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

Menefee Formation

 United States
( New Mexico)

A tyrannosaurid theropod. The type species D. dynastes.

Ingentia[242]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Apaldetti et al.

Late Triassic (late NorianRhaetian)

Quebrada del Barro Formation

 Argentina

An early member of Sauropodomorpha related to Lessemsaurus. Genus includes new species I. prima.

Invictarx[243]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

McDonald & Wolfe

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

Menefee Formation

 United States
( New Mexico)

A member of the family Nodosauridae. The type species is I. zephyri.

Jinyunpelta[244]

Gen. et sp. nov

Zheng et al.

Cretaceous (AlbianCenomanian)

Liangtoutang Formation

 China

A member of the family Ankylosauridae belonging to the subfamily Ankylosaurinae. The type species is J. sinensis.

Lavocatisaurus[245]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Canudo et al.

Early Cretaceous (Aptian–early Albian)

Rayoso Formation

 Argentina

A rebbachisaurid sauropod. The type species is L. agrioensis.

Ledumahadi[246]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

McPhee et al.

Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian)

Elliot Formation

 South Africa

An early member of Sauropodiformes. The type species is L. mafube.

Liaoningotitan[247]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Zhou et al.

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A titanosauriform sauropod. The type species is L. sinensis.

Lingwulong[248]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xu et al.

Late Early to early Middle Jurassic (late ToarcianBajocian)

Yanan Formation

 China

A dicraeosaurid sauropod. The type species is L. shenqi.

Macrocollum[249]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Müller, Langer & Dias-da-Silva

Late Triassic (early Norian)

Caturrita Formation

 Brazil

An early member of Sauropodomorpha related to Unaysaurus. Genus includes new species M. itaquii.

Mansourasaurus[250]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sallam et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Quseir Formation

 Egypt

A titanosaur sauropod. The type species is M. shahinae.

Maraapunisaurus[251]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Carpenter

Late Jurassic (KimmeridgianTithonian)

Morrison Formation

 United States
 Colorado

A rebbachisaurid sauropod; a new genus for "Amphicoelias" fragillimus Cope (1878f).

Mongolostegus[252]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tumanova & Alifanov

Early Cretaceous (AptianAlbian)

Dzunbain Formation

 Mongolia

A member of Stegosauria. Genus includes new species M. exspectabilis.

Platypelta[227]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Penkalski

Late Cretaceous

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada
( Alberta)

A member of the family Ankylosauridae. Genus includes new species P. coombsi.

Skull of AMNH 5337, the holotype specimen of Platypelta coombsi[227]

Qiupanykus[253]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Qiupa Formation

 China

An alvarezsaurid theropod. The type species is Q. zhangi.

Saltriovenator[254]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Dal Sasso et al.

Early Jurassic (Sinemurian)

Saltrio Formation

 Italy

A ceratosaurian theropod. The type species is S. zanellai.

Scolosaurus thronus[227]

Sp. nov

Valid

Penkalski

Late Cretaceous

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada
( Alberta)

A member of the family Ankylosauridae.

Skull of ROM 1930, the holotype specimen of Scolosaurus thronus[227]

Sibirotitan[255]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Averianov et al.

Early Cretaceous (probably Barremian)

Ilek Formation

 Russia

A non-titanosaurian somphospondyl sauropod. Genus includes new species S. astrosacralis.

Tratayenia[256]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Porfiri et al.

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Bajo de la Carpa Formation

 Argentina

A megaraptoran theropod. Genus includes new species T. rosalesi.

Volgatitan[257]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Averianov & Efimov

Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian)

 Russia
( Ulyanovsk Oblast)

A titanosaur sauropod related to members of the group Lognkosauria. The type species is V. simbirskiensis.

Weewarrasaurus[258]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bell et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Griman Creek Formation

 Australia

A small-bodied non-iguanodontian ornithopod. The type species is W. pobeni.

Xiyunykus[233]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xu et al.

Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian?)

Tugulu Group

 China

An alvarezsaurian theropod. The type species is X. pengi.

Yizhousaurus[259]

Gen. et sp. nov

Zhang et al.

Early Jurassic

Lufeng Formation

 China

An early member of Sauropodiformes. The type species is Y. sunae.

Birds

Research

  • Dinosaur-like ossification pattern of skull bones (formation of the ossification centres of the prefrontal and postorbital) is reported in bird embryos by Smith-Paredes et al. (2018).[260]
  • A study evaluating whether eggs of early birds from the Mesozoic could have borne the weight of incubating adults is published by Deeming & Mayr (2018).[261]
  • A study on the formation of the pygostyle in extant birds and its evolution in Mesozoic birds is published by Rashid et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that the lack of pygostyle in Zhongornis haoae and other juvenile Mesozoic birds does not necessarily indicate that they are intermediate species in the long- to short-tailed evolutionary transition, and that feathered coelurosaur tail preserved in Burmese amber which was described by Xing et al. (2016)[262] might be avian.[263]
  • A study on the anatomy of the braincase of birds and non-avian dinosaurs, evaluating whether there is a link between changes in brain anatomy and loss of flight, is published by Gold & Watanabe (2018).[264]
  • A study on the preservation potential of feather keratin in the fossil record is published by Schweitzer et al. (2018).[265]
  • Description of 31 samples of Cretaceous amber from Myanmar that contain feathers, providing new information on the morphology and variability of rachis-dominated feathers of Cretaceous birds, is published by Xing et al. (2018).[266]
  • A pseudoscorpion attached to barbules of a contour feather, possibly documenting a phoretic association between pseudoscorpions and Mesozoic birds, is described from the Cretaceous amber from Myanmar by Xing, McKellar & Gao (2018).[267]
  • A redescription of the bird trackway originally labeled Aquatilavipes anhuiensis from the Lower Cretaceous Qiuzhuang Formation (Anhui, China) is published by Xing et al. (2018), who transfer this ichnospecies to the ichnogenus Koreanaornis.[268]
  • Early Cretaceous (Aptian) bird footprints are described from the Kitadani Formation (Japan) by Imai, Tsukiji & Azuma (2018).[269]
  • New avian ichnospecies Ignotornis canadensis is described from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Gates Formation (Canada) by Buckley, McCrea & Xing (2018).[270]
  • Ignotornid tracks are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Jiangsu (China) by Xing et al. (2018), representing the first known record of the ichnogenus Goseongornipes from China.[271]
  • The twelfth specimen of Archaeopteryx, the oldest reported so far, is described by Rauhut, Foth & Tischlinger (2018).[272]
  • A study on the geometric properties of the wing bones of Archaeopteryx is published by Voeten et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that Archaeopteryx was able to actively use its wings to take to the air (using a different flight stroke than used by extant birds).[273]
  • Gastrolith masses preserved in five specimens of Jeholornis will be described by O'Connor et al. (2018).[274]
  • A new confuciusornithid specimen, most similar to Eoconfuciusornis zhengi but also sharing traits with Confuciusornis, will be described from the Upper Cretaceous Huajiying Formation (China) by Navalón et al. (2018).[275]
  • A study on the morphology of the skull of Confuciusornis sanctus is published by Elżanowski, Peters & Mayr (2018).[276]
  • An exceptionally-preserved specimen of Confuciusornis, preserving elaborate plumage patterning, is described from the Lower Cretaceous deposits in Fengning County (Hebei Province, China) estimated to be equivalent with the Dawangzhangzi Member of the Yixian Formation by Li et al. (2018).[277]
  • An articulated skeleton of an enantiornithine bird preserved in the Cretaceous amber from Myanmar is described by Xing et al. (2018).[278]
  • An early juvenile enantiornithine specimen, providing new information on the osteogenesis in members of Enantiornithes, is described from the Lower Cretaceous Las Hoyas deposits of Spain by Knoll et al. (2018).[279]
  • A study evaluating the capacity of the enantiornithines Concornis lacustris and Eoalulavis hoyasi to use intermittent flight (alternating flapping and gliding phases) is published by Serrano et al. (2018).[280]
  • A study on the morphology and diversity of enantiornithine coracoids from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation (Dzharakuduk locality, Uzbekistan) is published by Panteleev (2018).[281]
  • O’Connor et al. (2018) propose criteria for identifying medullary bone in fossils, and report probable medullary bone from a pengornithid enantiornithine specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation (China).[282]
  • A specimen of Archaeorhynchus spathula with extensive soft tissue preservation, revealing a tail morphology previously unknown in Mesozoic birds and an exceptional occurrence of fossilized lung tissue, is described from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation (China) by Wang et al. (2018).[283]
  • Wang et al. (2018) report the presence of distinct salt gland fossa on the frontal of a bird similar to Iteravis huchzermeyeri and Gansus zheni from the Lower Cretaceous Sihedang locality (Jiufotang Formation, China); the authors also consider I. huchzermeyeri and G. zheni to be probably synonymous.[284]
  • Abundant black flies, thought to have inhabited the same environments as Cretaceous ornithurine birds and most likely fed on them, are described from the Santonian Taimyr amber (Russia) by Perkovsky, Sukhomlin & Zelenkov (2018), who use these insects as an indicator of a bird community, and argue that advanced ornithuromorph birds might have originated at higher latitudes.[285]
  • Field et al. (2018) report new specimens and previously overlooked elements of the holotype of Ichthyornis dispar, and generate a nearly complete three-dimensional reconstruction of the skull of this species.[286]
  • A study on the impact of the widespread destruction of forests during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event on bird evolution, as indicated by ancestral state reconstructions of neornithine ecology and inferences about enantiornithine ecology, is published by Field et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that the global forest collapse at the end of the Cretaceous caused extinction of predominantly tree-dwelling birds, while bird groups that survived the extinction and gave rise to extant birds were non-arboreal.[287]
  • A study on the evolution of the anatomy of the crown-bird skull is published by Felice & Goswami (2018), who also present a hypothetical reconstruction of the ancestral crown-bird skull.[288]
  • A study on the dietary behavior of four species of the moa and their interactions with parasites based on data from their coprolites is published by Boast et al. (2018).[289]
  • A study on the seeds preserved in moa coprolites is published by Carpenter et al. (2018), who question the hypothesis that some of the largest-seeded plants of New Zealand were dispersed by moas.[290]
  • A study on the genetic and morphological diversity of the emus, including extinct island populations, is published by Thomson et al. (2018).[291]
  • A study on the timing of first human arrival in Madagascar, as indicated by evidence of prehistoric human modification of multiple elephant bird postcranial elements, is published by Hansford et al. (2018).[292]
  • A study on the anatomy of the brains of elephant birds Aepyornis maximus and A. hildebrandti, and on its implications for inferring the ecology and behaviour of these birds, is published by Torres & Clarke (2018).[293]
  • A model of development of bony pseudoteeth of the odontopterygiform birds is proposed by Louchart et al. (2018).[294]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the taxa assigned to the family Vegaviidae by Agnolín et al. (2017)[295] is published by Mayr et al. (2018).[296]
  • A study on the adaptations for filter-feeding (other than beak shape) in the feeding apparatus of modern ducks, evaluating whether they could be also found in the skull of Presbyornis, is published by Zelenkov & Stidham (2018), who argue that Presbyornis most likely was a poorly specialized filter-feeder.[297]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the species Chendytes lawi and the Labrador duck (Camptorhynchus labradorius) is published by Buckner et al. (2018).[298]
  • Schmidt (2018) interprets more than 1000 large, near-circular gravel mounds from western New South Wales (Australia) as likely to be nest mounds constructed by an extinct bird, similar to the malleefowl but larger.[299]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of Foro panarium is published by Field & Hsiang (2018), who consider this species to be a stem-turaco.[300]
  • Petralca austriaca, originally thought to be an auk, is reinterpreted as a member of Gaviiformes by Göhlich & Mayr (2018).[301]
  • Redescription of the anatomy of the fossil penguin Madrynornis mirandus and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of this species is published by Degrange, Ksepka & Tambussi (2018).[302]
  • Fossil material attributed to the extinct Hunter Island penguin (Tasidyptes hunteri) is reinterpreted as assemblage of remains from three extant penguin species by Cole et al. (2018).[303]
  • A study on the history of penguin colonization of the Vestfold Hills (Antarctica), indicating that penguins started colonizing the northern Vestfold Hills around 14.6 thousand years before present, is published by Gao et al. (2018).[304]
  • A study on the history of active and abandoned Adélie penguin colonies at Cape Adare (Antarctica), based on new excavations and radiocarbon dating, is published by Emslie, McKenzie & Patterson (2018).[305]
  • A study on the mummified Adélie penguin carcasses and associated sediments from the Long Peninsula (East Antarctica), and on their implications for inferring the causes of the abandonment of numerous penguin sub‐colonies in this area during the 2nd millennium, is published by Gao et al. (2018).[306]
  • New bird fossils, including the first reported tarsometatarsus of the plotopterid Tonsala hildegardae are described from the late Eocene/early Oligocene Makah Formation and the Oligocene Pysht Formation (Washington State, United States) by Mayr & Goedert (2018), who name a new plotopterid subfamily Tonsalinae.[307]
  • A well-preserved scapula of a plotopterid, enabling the reconstruction of the triosseal canal in plotopterids, is described from the Oligocene Jinnobaru Formation (Japan) by Ando & Fukata (2018).[308]
  • Fossil remains of the spectacled cormorant (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus) are described from the upper Pleistocene of Shiriya (northeast Japan) by Watanabe, Matsuoka & Hasegawa (2018).[309]
  • Extinct lowland kagu (Rhynochetos orarius) is reinterpreted as synonymous with extant kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus) by Theuerkauf & Gula (2018).[310]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the Rodrigues owl and Mauritius owl is published by Louchart et al. (2018).[311]
  • Fossils of the barn owl (Tyto alba) are described from the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star Cave system (South Africa) by Kruger & Badenhorst (2018), who also evaluate how these bird bones were introduced into the Dinaledi Chamber.[312]
  • New fossils of stem-mousebirds belonging to the family Sandcoleidae, providing new information on the anatomy of members of this family, are described from the Eocene of the Messel pit (Germany) by Mayr (2018).[313]
  • Partial skeleton of an early member of Coraciiformes of uncertain generic and specific assignment, showing several previously unknown features of the skull and vertebral column of early coraciiforms, is described from the Lower Eocene (53.5–51.5 million years old) London Clay (United Kingdom) by Mayr & Walsh (2018).[314]
  • New phorusrhacid fossils are described from the Pleistocene of Uruguay by Jones et al. (2018), providing evidence of survival of phorusrhacids until the end of the Pleistocene.[315]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the extinct Cuban macaw (Ara tricolor) is published by Johansson et al. (2018).[316]
  • A study on an ancient DNA of scarlet macaws recovered from archaeological sites in Chaco Canyon and the contemporaneous Mimbres area of New Mexico is published by George et al. (2018), who report low genetic diversity in this sample, and interpret their findings as indicating that people at an undiscovered Pre-Hispanic settlement dating between 900 and 1200 CE managed a macaw breeding colony outside their endemic range.[317]
  • A study on the bird fossils from the Olduvai Gorge site (Tanzania) and their implications for inferring the environmental context of the site during the Oldowan-Acheulean transitional period is published by Prassack et al. (2018).[318]
  • A study on the bird fossil assemblage from the Pleistocene of the Rio Secco Cave (north-eastern Italy) and its implications for the palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of the site is published by Carrera et al. (2018).[319]
  • Oswald & Steadman (2018) report nearly 500 (probably late Pleistocene) bird fossils collected on New Providence (The Bahamas) in 1958 and 1960.[320]
  • A study on the fossils of Pleistocene birds collected on Picard Island (Seychelles) in 1987 is published by Hume, Martill & Hing (2018).[321]
  • A revision of non-passeriform landbird fossils from the Pleistocene of Shiriya (northeast Japan) is published by Watanabe, Matsuoka & Hasegawa (2018).[322]
  • Description of Late Pleistocene bird fauna from Buso Doppio del Broion Cave (Berici Hills, Italy), including fossils of the snowy owl and the northern hawk-owl (considered to be markers of a colder climate than the present one) and the first Italian Pleistocene fossil remains of the Eurasian wren and the black redstart, is published by Carrera et al. (2018).[323]
  • Bird eggshell fragments are described from the Fitterer Ranch locality within the Oligocene Brule Formation (North Dakota, United States) by Lawver & Boyd (2018), who name a new ootaxon Metoolithus jacksonae.[324]

New taxa

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aquila claudeguerini[325]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mourer‑Chauviré & Bonifay

Early Pleistocene

 France

A species of Aquila.

Ardenna davealleni[326]

Sp. nov

Valid

Tennyson & Mannering

Pliocene

 New Zealand

A species of Ardenna.

Chenoanas asiatica[327]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zelenkov et al.

Middle Miocene

 China
 Mongolia

A duck.

Cinclosoma elachum[328]

Sp. nov

Valid

Nguyen, Archer & Hand

Miocene

Riversleigh World Heritage Area

 Australia

A quail-thrush.

Ducula tihonireasini[329]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rigal, Kirch & Worthy

Holocene

 French Polynesia

An imperial pigeon.

Eogranivora[330]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Zheng et al.

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

An early member of Ornithuromorpha. Genus includes new species E. edentulata.

Gettyia[331]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Atterholt, Hutchison & O’Connor

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Two Medicine Formation

 United States
( Montana)

A member of Enantiornithes belonging to the family Avisauridae. The type species is "Avisaurus" gloriae Varricchio & Chiappe (1995).

Jinguofortis[332]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang, Stidham & Zhou

Early Cretaceous

Dabeigou Formation

 China

A basal member of Pygostylia, probably a relative of Chongmingia. Genus includes new species J. perplexus.

Kischinskinia[333]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Volkova & Zelenkov

Early Miocene

 Russia

A passerine belonging to the group Certhioidea. Genus includes new species K. scandens.

Litorallus[334]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mather et al.

Early Miocene (Altonian)

Bannockburn Formation

 New Zealand

A rail. The type species is L. livezeyi.

Mirarce[331]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Atterholt, Hutchison & O’Connor

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Kaiparowits Formation

 United States
( Utah)

A member of Enantiornithes belonging to the family Avisauridae. The type species is M. eatoni.

Muriwaimanu[335]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Mayr et al.

Late Paleocene

Waipara Greensand

 New Zealand

An early penguin; a new genus for "Waimanu" tuatahi Ando, Jones & Fordyce in Slack et al. (2006).

Pandion pannonicus[336]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kessler

Late Oligocene

 Hungary

A species of Pandion.

Panraogallus[337]

Gen. et sp. nov

Li et al.

Late Miocene

Liushu Formation

 China

A member of the family Phasianidae. The type species is P. hezhengensis.

Priscaweka[334]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mather et al.

Early Miocene (Altonian)

Bannockburn Formation

 New Zealand

A rail. The type species is P. parvales.

Rallus gracilipes[338]

Sp. nov

Valid

Takano & Steadman

Late Pleistocene

 The Bahamas

A rail, a species of Rallus.

Romainvillia kazakhstanensis[339]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zelenkov

Late Eocene

Kustovskaya Formation

 Kazakhstan

A member of Anseriformes belonging to the family Romainvillidae.

Scolopax mira ohyamai [340]

Subsp. nov.

Valid

Matsuoka & Hasegawa

Late Pleistocene

 Japan

An extinct subspecies of the Amami woodcock (Scolopax mira).

Sequiwaimanu[335]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mayr et al.

Middle Paleocene

Waipara Greensand

 New Zealand

An early penguin. Genus includes new species S. rosieae.

Vanellus liffyae[341]

Sp. nov.

Valid

De Pietri et al.

Late Pliocene

 Australia

A species of Vanellus.

Vorombe[342]

Gen. et comb. nov

Hansford & Turvey

Holocene

 Madagascar

An elephant bird. The type species is "Aepyornis" titan Andrews (1894).

Winnicavis[343]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Bocheński et al.

Oligocene (Rupelian)

Menilite Formation

 Poland

A passerine of uncertain phylogenetic placement, approximately the size of a great tit. The type species is W. gorskii.

Yangavis[344]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang & Zhou

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Yixian Formation

 China

A member of the family Confuciusornithidae. Genus includes new species Y. confucii.

Zygodactylus grandei[345]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Smith, DeBee & Clarke

Early Eocene

Green River Formation

 United States
( Wyoming)

A member of the family Zygodactylidae.

Pterosaurs

Research

New taxa

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alcione[363]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Longrich, Martill & Andres

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Ouled Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A member of the family Nyctosauridae. The type species is A. elainus.

Barbaridactylus[363]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Longrich, Martill & Andres

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Ouled Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A member of the family Nyctosauridae. The type species is B. grandis.

Caelestiventus[364]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Britt et al.

Late Triassic (probably late Norian or Rhaetian)

Nugget Sandstone

 United States
( Utah)

A relative of Dimorphodon. Genus includes new species C. hanseni.

Klobiodon[365]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

O’Sullivan & Martill

Middle Jurassic (Bathonian)

Taynton Limestone Formation

 United Kingdom

A member of the family Rhamphorhynchidae. The type species is K. rochei.

Mistralazhdarcho[366]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Vullo et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

 France

A member of the family Azhdarchidae. Genus includes new species M. maggii.

Serradraco[367]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Rigal, Martill & Sweetman

Early Cretaceous (late Valanginian or early Hauterivian)

Upper Tunbridge Wells Sand Formation

 United Kingdom

A pterodactyloid pterosaur; a new genus for "Pterodactylus" sagittirostris Owen (1874).

Simurghia[363]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Longrich, Martill & Andres

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Ouled Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A member of the family Nyctosauridae. The type species is S. robusta.

Tethydraco[363]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Longrich, Martill & Andres

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Ouled Abdoun Basin

 Morocco

A member of the family Pteranodontidae. The type species is T. regalis.

Vesperopterylus[368]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

et al.

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A member of the family Anurognathidae. Genus includes new species V. lamadongensis.

Xericeps [369]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Martill et al.

Cretaceous (Albian or early Cenomanian)

Kem Kem Beds

 Morocco

A member of Azhdarchoidea. The type species is X. curvirostris.

Other archosaurs

Research

  • A study on the anatomy of Teleocrater rhadinus is published by Nesbitt et al. (2018).[370]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of lagerpetid dinosauromorphs is published by Müller, Langer & Dias-da-Silva (2018).[371]
  • New specimen of Dromomeron romeri (potentially representing the youngest known lagerpetid in North America, if not worldwide) is described from the Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation (Arizona, United States) by Marsh (2018).[372]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of Pisanosaurus mertii is published by Agnolín & Rozadilla (2018), who interpret the taxon as a likely silesaurid.[373]
  • Reevaluation of Caseosaurus crosbyensis and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of the species is published by Baron & Williams (2018).[374]
  • Fossils of a member of the genus Smok of uncertain specific assignment are described from the Upper Triassic Marciszów site (southern Poland) by Niedźwiedzki & Budziszewska-Karwowska (2018).[375]

New taxa

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Soumyasaurus[376]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sarıgül, Agnolín & Chatterjee

Late Triassic

Tecovas Formation

 United States
( Texas)

A member of Dinosauriformes, probably a member of the family Silesauridae. The type species is S. aenigmaticus.

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