2021 Japanese general election

Summary

General elections were held in Japan on 31 October 2021,[2] as required by the constitution. Voting took place in all constituencies in order to elect members to the House of Representatives, the lower house of the National Diet. As the constitution requires the cabinet to resign in the first Diet session after a general election, the elections will also lead to a new election for Prime Minister in the Diet, and the appointment of a new cabinet, although ministers may be re-appointed. The election was the first general election of the Reiwa era.

2021 Japanese general election

← 2017 31 October 2021 Next →

All 465 seats in the House of Representatives
233 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout55.97% (Increase2.29pp)
  First party Second party Third party
 
Fumio Kishida 20211005.jpg
Yukio Edano In front of Tenjin Twin Building (2020.10.18).jpg
Ichiro_Matsui_2022.jpg
Leader Fumio Kishida Yukio Edano Ichirō Matsui
Party LDP CDP Innovation
Leader since 29 September 2021 11 September
2020[a]
12 December 2015
Leader's seat Hiroshima-1st Saitama-5th Did not contest
(Mayor of Osaka)
Last election 33.28%, 284 seats New party[b] 6.07%, 11 seats
Seats won 259 96 41
Seat change Decrease25 New party[b] Increase30
Popular vote 19,914,883 11,491,997 8,050,830
Percentage 34.66% 20.00% 14.01%
Swing Increase1.38pp New party[b] Increase7.94pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Natsuo Yamaguchi.jpg
Yuichiro Tamaki IMG 5649-1 20160903 (cropped).jpg
Kazuo Shii in SL Square in 2017.jpg
Leader Natsuo Yamaguchi Yuichiro Tamaki Kazuo Shii
Party Komeito DPP Communist
Leader since 8 September 2009 18 December
2020
24 November 2000
Leader's seat Did not contest
(Councillor)
Kagawa-2nd Minami-Kantō PR
Last election 12.51%, 29 seats New party 7.90%, 12 seats
Seats won 32 11 10
Seat change Increase3 New party[c] Decrease2
Popular vote 7,114,282 2,593,255 4,166,076
Percentage 12.38% 4.51% 7.25%
Swing Decrease0.13pp New party Decrease0.65pp

  Seventh party Eighth party
 
Taro Yamamoto 202006 (cropped).jpg
Mizuho Fukushima 2010.jpg
Leader Tarō Yamamoto Mizuho Fukushima
Party Reiwa Social Democratic
Leader since 1 April 2019 22 February
2020
Leader's seat Tokyo PR[1] Did not contest
(Councillor)
Last election New party 1.69%, 2 seats
Seats won 3 1
Seat change New party Decrease1
Popular vote 2,215,648 1,018,588
Percentage 3.86% 1.77%
Swing New party Increase0.08pp

2021 JAPAN GENERAL ELECTION, winner vote share.svg
Results of the election, shaded according to vote strength

Prime Minister before election

Fumio Kishida
(First Kishida Cabinet)
LDP

Prime Minister after election

Fumio Kishida
(Second Kishida Cabinet)
LDP

The election followed a tumultuous period in Japanese politics which saw the sudden resignation of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2020 due to health issues and the short premiership of his successor Yoshihide Suga, who stepped down as leader of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) after only about a year in office due to poor approval ratings. The period since the previous general election in 2017 also saw the consolidation of much of the country's centre-left into a newly strengthened Constitutional Democratic Party (CDP) and the forming of the left-wing populist party Reiwa Shinsengumi led by former actor Taro Yamamoto.

The LDP, led by new Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, maintained a comfortable majority despite losing seats.[3][4] The primary two left-wing opposition parties, the CDP and the Japanese Communist Party, both underperformed expectations and lost seats relative to their standings in the chamber immediately before the election. The CDP's poor results led to the resignation of party leader Yukio Edano shortly after the election. The Osaka-based conservative party Ishin no Kai gained 30 seats, becoming the third-largest party in the chamber.

BackgroundEdit

Following the 2017 general election, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) continued to find itself in a dominant position as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe led the party to a third consecutive victory, the first for a single Prime Minister since 1953.[5] While the LDP's strong showing seemed to suggest momentum for Abe's long-held goal of revising the anti-war Article 9 of the Constitution, the prospect for revision was thwarted due to procedural obstacles in the Diet from opposition parties and the ruling coalition losing its two-thirds majority in the House of Councillors in the 2019 election.[6]

Resignation of Shinzo Abe and election of Yoshihide SugaEdit

Abe's approval ratings suffered in 2018 as several favoritism scandals dominated media coverage, however he was still re-elected as President of the LDP in September 2018 and became the longest-serving Prime Minister in Japanese history on 19 November 2019 and the longest-serving consecutive Prime Minister on 24 August 2020.[7] However, Abe shocked observers when he announced on 28 August 2020 that he would resign the premiership due to a sudden resurgence of his ulcerative colitis.[8] Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga was elected the next President of the LDP in September 2020 and succeeded Abe as Prime Minister days later.[9]

Opposition party consolidationEdit

Meanwhile, Japan's many opposition parties remained fractured and disunited. The Constitutional Democratic Party, seeking to establish itself as the primary centre-left opposition party against the LDP, merged with majorities of the Democratic Party for the People and the Social Democratic Party as well as several independent lawmakers in late 2020, officially re-organizing as a new party while retaining the same name and Yukio Edano as leader.[10] Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike's national party Kibō no Tō was dissolved in May 2018 after it merged with the Democratic Party to form the Democratic Party for the People, while Koike herself was re-elected in a landslide in 2020 as an independent.[11][12] The period since 2017 also saw the creation of Reiwa Shinsengumi, a left-wing populist party formed by former actor Taro Yamamoto, whose central policy position is abolition of the consumption tax.[13]

Suga's popularity falls and cabinet failureEdit

While beginning office relatively popular, Prime Minister Suga's approval ratings gradually worsened due to public dissatisfaction over his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, including Japan's slow vaccine rollout compared to the rest of the developed world, and his management of the delayed 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games.[14][15] The LDP lost three Diet by-elections in April 2021 and also failed to win an outright majority in the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly election in July despite winning the most seats. Analysts attributed the losses to Suga's low approval ratings.[16]

Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics and COVID-19 surgeEdit

When the Olympics were eventually held in July to August 2021, public sentiment rose as Japanese athletes secured a record haul of Olympic medals.[17] However, this did not translate into an upturn in Suga's personal ratings as the event coincided with a state of emergency while COVID-19 cases in Japan continued to surge from the Delta variant.[18] By the time the Tokyo Olympics ended, the country experienced more than a million cases.[19][20] In a Asahi Shimbun poll taken at the end of the Olympics, the Cabinet's approval ratings fell to an all-time low of 28%, even though 56% of the public agreed that hosting the Olympics was the right decision[21] signifying concern over the government's inability to handle the COVID-19 pandemic.[22] As a result, the government's pandemic response is likely to be one of the election issues.[23]

Although Suga claimed there is no evidence that the Olympics contributed to a surge in daily cases in Tokyo and other parts of Japan, experts, including the government's chief medical adviser believe the Games undermined official messaging on virus rules and encouraged people to become complacent.[24]

2021 LDP leadership election and resignation of SugaEdit

Following the Olympics, speculation rose that several LDP lawmakers, such as former ministers Sanae Takaichi,[25] Seiko Noda,[26] 2020 leadership candidate Fumio Kishida[26] and party policy chief Hakubun Shimomura[27] were preparing to run for the LDP leadership against Suga when his term as party president ends in September, in the lead up to the election.[25] The defeat of candidate Hachiro Okonogi, who is Suga's associate, in the Yokohama mayoral election on 22 August added pressure on the prime minister and increased speculation about his political future.[26]

On 3 September, Suga announced that he would not run for re-election for the LDP leadership citing low approval ratings, paving the way for a new LDP leader and Prime Minister to take the party into the general election.[28] On 29 September, former foreign minister and centrist candidate Fumio Kishida defeated three other candidates and became the new leader of the LDP.[29] He was elected by the Diet as the 100th Prime Minister of Japan on 4 October.[30]

Opposition forms common policy platformEdit

On 8 September, the Constitutional Democratic Party (CDP), Social Democratic Party (SDP), Japanese Communist Party (JCP) and Reiwa Shinsengumi formed a joint policy platform and an anti-LDP civil coalition for the upcoming election.[31] The platform covered six areas: constitutionalism, measures to tackle the coronavirus pandemic, reducing economic disparities, transitioning to a decarbonized society, gender equality and government transparency.[32] Policies in the platform included:

  • Opposition to constitutional revision proposed by the LDP that would expand government powers
  • Cuts in consumption tax rate and increasing tax burden on the wealthy
  • Shutting down nuclear power plants and opposition for a planned integrated resort and casino development proposals
  • New inquiries into a series of political scandals involving the LDP, including scandals of former Prime Ministers Shinzo Abe and Yoshihide Suga[33]

As part of the agreement, members of the 4 parties involved withdrew from running in several of the single-seat constituencies to avoid vote splitting. The Japanese Communist Party withdrew 22 candidates in total, with only 106 candidates running for the JCP in total. This number was the lowest amount of candidates fielded by the JCP since the first election following Japan's electoral reform in 1996.[34] Taro Yamamoto from Reiwa Shinsengumi withdrew from his race in the single member Tokyo 8th district for the CDP's Harumi Yoshida, choosing instead to run in the Tokyo PR block.[35] Reiwa Shinsengumi withdrew 7 candidates to avoid vote splitting amongst the opposition, accounting for 40% of its planned slate of candidates.[36]

Formation, then withdrawal of First no KaiEdit

On 4 October, the regional Tokyo-based political party Tomin First no Kai announced that it had created a new national party called First no Kai.[37] The party said that it planned to enter candidates for single-seat constituencies in Tokyo, and said that while current Governor of Tokyo Yuriko Koike will not be running, she will cooperate with the party.[38] First no Kai will be led by Chiharu Araki, a member of the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly who is also leader of Tomin First no Kai.[39][40][41]

However, on 15 October, the party said they would not be fielding any candidates for the election and would concentrate on the next election instead.[42] Analysts believed that Kishida's bringing forward of the election gave little time for recruitment of candidates, thus leading to the decision to sit out this election.[43]

Election dateEdit

Under the post-occupation interpretation[clarification needed] of Article 7 of the Constitution, the cabinet may instruct the Emperor to dissolve the House of Representatives for a snap election. Elections must be held within 40 days after dissolution.[44] The only time since the Second World War that the House of Representatives was not dissolved before the end of its term was in 1976. If the House of Representatives completes a full four-year term, the election must be held within 30 days before that,[45] unless the Diet is invoked, in session or about to be closed at the time. The previous House of Representatives' term ended on 21 October.[46]

An extraordinary session of the National Diet was necessary in early October to elect the new prime minister. Depending on when that Diet session closed and if and when the new cabinet dissolved the House of Representatives, possible election dates ranged from late October to 14 November without dissolution or up to 28 November with dissolution. Since the election was held in late October, the 2021 election was the first in post-war history to be held not only at, but after the actual end of term (21 October).[47][48]

On 4 October, the newly-elected prime minister Fumio Kishida scheduled the election for 31 October, with dissolution of the House of Representatives on 14 October, the final day of the extraordinary Diet session and campaigning set to begin on 19 October.[46]

Previous considerationsEdit

With the resignation of Shinzo Abe in 2020 from his position as prime minister due to health issues, speculation rose of the possibility that a snap election would be held before the end of the full term, but this in fact did not happen.[49] Before the resignation announcement of Yoshihide Suga in 2021, the government did consider a plan to hold a general election on 17 October, several days before the expiration of the four-year term for House of Representatives members, government sources said on 30 August.[50]

Party manifestosEdit

Liberal Democratic PartyEdit

The LDP manifesto, titled "Create a new era together with you" was released on 12 October and included:[51][52]

  • Wealth redistribution to revive the Japanese economy and empowering the middle class
  • Tax breaks for corporations willing to raise wages
  • Advance administrative reforms to facilitate digitalization
  • Massive investment in science and technology, and funds for university research
  • Secure robust supply chains for critical materials, such as rare earths
  • Electronic COVID-19 vaccine passports
  • Continued development of nuclear fusion power generation, and expansion of renewable energy to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050
  • Expanding support for small and medium businesses hit by the COVID-19 pandemic
  • Offer subsidies for enterprises if they move into new industries
  • Constitutional amendment including the proposed Japanese constitutional referendum to specifically mentioning the Self-Defense Forces in Article 9 of the Constitution and establishing a provision granting the Cabinet stronger powers in an emergency
  • Raising Japan's defense budget “above two percent” of gross domestic product (GDP) and enhancing Japan's defense capabilities
  • Support Taiwan's bid to join the CPTPP agreement and WHO observer status
  • Promoting further nuclear disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation[53]

Observers commented that Prime Minister Kishida's promises during his LDP leadership campaign were missing from the manifesto, and the manifesto was heavily influenced by LDP's conservative figures like Sanae Takaichi, Akira Amari and ex-prime minister Shinzo Abe.[52]

Constitutional Democratic PartyEdit

On 13 October, the CDPJ added into its manifesto:[54][55]

  • Allowing couples to adopt different surnames
  • Equality laws for LGBTQ people
  • Laws recognising same-sex marriage
  • Supplementary budget worth more than ¥30 trillion and cash handouts of ¥120,000 to low-income individuals
  • Temporary cuts in consumption tax rate from 10% to 5%
  • Changing the corporate tax into a progressive system
  • Raising the ceiling for income tax on rich individual
  • Raise capital gains tax to 25% by 2023 in principle and eventually to 30%
  • Realizing carbon neutrality without relying on nuclear power, and 100% renewable energy by 2050
  • Expanding public support for housing, education, health care, nurseries and elderly care
  • Better conditions for medical professionals by a ¥200,000 salary bonus, increasing staff at public health centers and expanding PCR testing
  • Revision to the U.S.–Japan Status of Forces Agreement[53]
  • Halt construction work related to the relocation of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Okinawa[53]
  • Enter Japan into Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons as an observer[53]

KomeitoEdit

Komeito policies included:[53]

  • Enter Japan into Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons as an observer
  • Expanded subsidies to raise the wages of employees working at small businesses
  • Resume the Go To Travel domestic tourism stimulus program
  • No building of new nuclear power plants and decarbonization through thermal power
  • Allowing couples to adopt different surnames

Japanese Communist PartyEdit

On 12 October, the JCP announced its manifesto, including the following proposals:[55]

  • Cash handouts of ¥100,000 to middle-income households
  • Raise the minimum wage, currently averaging at ¥930, to ¥1,500 per hour
  • Lower the consumption tax to 5%
  • Increase the existing government target of 46% cuts in carbon emissions by fiscal year 2030, to 50% and 60%

Nippon Ishin no KaiEdit

The Nippon Ishin no Kai manifesto featured pledges including:[56][57]

  • Reform of social insurance and pension system, with the introduction of a universal basic income of ¥60,000 per month, with additional supplements for non-coupled elderly
  • Reform of income tax and social insurance fee, replacing the current system with a two-tiered income tax
  • Deregulation of the workforce, allowing for compensated dismissals
  • Reform of the social medical insurance system from age-based subsidy rates to income-based cost subsidies
  • Universal access to free education from preschool to university, written within the constitution
  • Introduction of the "2:1 rule", requiring two pieces of regulation to be removed per introduction of any new industrial regulation
  • Deregulation of protected industries such as ridesharing, finance and agriculture
  • Separate surnames for married couples
  • Same-sex marriage legalisation
  • Maintaining current emission reduction targets with consideration of carbon pricing schemes
  • Legislating Osaka as the vice-capital of Japan
  • Push for further devolution with merger of prefectures into states (dōshūsei), while allocating the consumption tax as a regional tax
  • Constitutional amendments including: Universal free education, devolution, and the establishment of constitutional courts
  • Maintaining agnate succession of the Imperial throne while considering re-royalisation of former Imperial household members.
  • Repealing the 1%GDP cap on defence spending and the establishment of a national intelligence organisation
  • Promotion of free trade, especially within the Asia-pacific region
  • Add hospital capacity for COVID-19 treatment[58]
  • Temporary cuts in consumption tax rate from 10% to 5%, with tax rates set to 8% after two years[59]
  • 30% reduction in diet members, and a 30% cut in member's compensation
  • Contributions reform prohibiting corporate and organisational donations to political parties and candidates
  • Establishment of a public documents bureau, digitalisation of all public document, and maintaining edit records through utilisation of blockchain technology

Opinion pollsEdit

The charts below depict party identification polling for the next Japanese general election using a 15-poll moving average.

 
  LDP
  CDP
  DP
  Komeito
  JCP
  Nippon Ishin no Kai
  DPP
  SDP
  LP
  Reiwa Shinsengumi
  Kibō no Tō
  N-Koku
 
  CDP
  DP
  Komeito
  JCP
  Nippon Ishin no Kai
  DPP
  SDP
  LP
  Reiwa Shinsengumi
  Kibō no Tō
  N-Koku

CandidatesEdit

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numbers of candidates by party[60]
Party Before election Const. PR Total
LDP 276 277 310 336
CDP 109 214 239 240
Komei 29 9 44 53
JCP 12 105 40 130
Ishin 11 94 96 96
DPFP 8 21 27 27
Reiwa 1 12 21 21
SDP 1 9 15 15
N-Koku 1 27 11 30
Others 1 9 14 23
Ind. 0 80 80
Total 461 857 817 1,051

ResultsEdit

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Constituency Cartogram

Many polls had predicted a weakened LDP or even a complete loss of government control in the elections,[61] with one poll by The Japan Times suggesting the party would lose around 40 seats. Though the LDP did lose 25 seats compared to the previous elections, they comfortably maintained their single-party majority in the Diet.[62][63]

The opposition coalition of CDP, JCP, SDP, and Reiwa Shinsengumi failed to increase its seat share, suffering a net loss of thirteen seats compared to the outgoing parliament. The CDP itself remained the largest opposition party, finishing second with 96 seats; although this marked an increase on the 55 seats won by the original CDP in the 2017 elections, the party had held 109 seats going into the elections following the merger with the Democratic Party for the People. The JCP lost two seats going from 12 to 10, the SDP kept it's one constituency seat in Okinawa, and Reiwa Shinsengumi increased its seats from one prior to the election to three.

The Osaka-based Nippon Ishin no Kai saw a strong third-place finish with 41 seats, a net gain of 30. The party won all seats in Osaka prefecture, except for four where they did not stand a candidate. The party also finished first in the Kinki Proportional Block.[64]

 
PartyProportionalConstituencyTotal
seats
+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
Liberal Democratic Party19,914,88334.667227,626,23548.08187259–25
Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan11,492,09520.003917,215,62129.965796New
Nippon Ishin no Kai8,050,83014.01254,802,7938.361641+30
Komeito7,114,28212.3823872,9311.52932+3
Japanese Communist Party4,166,0767.2592,639,6314.59110–1
Democratic Party for the People2,593,3964.5151,246,8122.17611New
Reiwa Shinsengumi2,215,6483.863248,2800.4303New
Social Democratic Party1,018,5881.770313,1930.5511–1
NHK Party796,7881.390150,5420.2600New
Shiji Seitō Nashi46,1420.08000
Japan First Party33,6610.0609,4490.0200New
Yamato Party16,9700.03015,0910.0300New
New Party to Strengthen Corona Countermeasures by Change of Government6,6200.0100New
Kunimori Conservative Party29,3060.0500New
Love Earth Party5,3500.0100New
Party for Japanese Kokoro4,5520.01000
Reform Future Party3,6980.0100New
Renewal Party2,7500.0000New
Party for a Successful Japan1,6300.0000New
Independents2,269,1683.951212–10
Total57,465,979100.0017657,457,032100.002894650
Valid votes57,465,97997.5857,457,03297.55
Invalid/blank votes1,425,3662.421,443,2272.45
Total votes58,891,345100.0058,900,259100.00
Registered voters/turnout105,224,10355.97105,224,10355.98
Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications

By prefectureEdit

Prefecture Total
seats
Seats won
LDP CDP Ishin Komeito DPP JCP SDP Ind.
Aichi 15 11 3 1
Akita 3 2 1
Aomori 3 3
Chiba 13 9 4
Ehime 4 4
Fukui 2 2
Fukuoka 11 8 2 1
Fukushima 5 2 3
Gifu 5 5
Gunma 5 5
Hiroshima 7 5 1 1
Hokkaido 12 6 5 1
Hyōgo 12 8 1 1 2
Ibaraki 7 5 1 1
Ishikawa 3 3
Iwate 3 2 1
Kagawa 3 1 1 1
Kagoshima 4 2 1 1
Kanagawa 18 11 7
Kōchi 2 2
Kumamoto 4 3 1
Kyoto 6 2 2 1 1
Mie 4 3 1
Miyagi 6 4 2
Miyazaki 3 2 1
Nagano 5 4 1
Nagasaki 4 3 1
Nara 3 1 1 1
Niigata 6 2 3 1
Ōita 3 2 1
Okayama 5 4 1
Okinawa 4 2 1 1
Osaka 19 15 4
Saga 2 2
Saitama 15 12 3
Shiga 4 4
Shimane 2 2
Shizuoka 8 5 2 1
Tochigi 5 4 1
Tokushima 2 1 1
Tokyo 25 15 8 1 1
Tottori 2 2
Toyama 3 3
Wakayama 3 2 1
Yamagata 3 3
Yamaguchi 4 4
Yamanashi 2 2
Total 289 187 57 16 9 6 1 1 12

By PR blockEdit

PR block Total
seats
Seats won
LDP % CDP % Ishin % Komeito % JCP % DPP % RS %
Chūgoku 11 6 43.4% 2 18.4% 1 9.2% 2 14.0% 0 5.5% 0 9.2% 0 3.0%
Hokkaido 8 4 33.6% 3 26.6% 0 8.4% 1 11.5% 0 8.1% 0 2.9% 0 4.0%
Hokuriku–Shinetsu 11 6 41.8% 3 22.0% 1 10.3% 1 9.2% 0 6.4% 0 3.8% 0 3.2%
Kinki (Kansai) 28 8 25.7% 3 11.6% 10 33.9% 3 12.3% 2 7.8% 1 3.2% 1 3.1%
Kyushu 20 8 35.7% 4 20.1% 2 8.6% 4 16.5% 1 5.8% 1 4.4% 0 3.9%
Northern Kanto 19 7 35.2% 5 22.5% 2 10.0% 3 13.3% 1 7.2% 1 4.8% 0 3.9%
Shikoku 6 3 39.2% 1 17.2% 1 10.2% 1 13.7% 0 6.4% 0 7.2% 0 3.1%
Southern Kanto 22 9 34.9% 5 22.3% 3 11.7% 2 11.5% 1 7.2% 1 5.2% 1 4.1%
Tohoku 13 6 39.5% 4 24.1% 1 6.3% 1 11.1% 1 7.1% 0 4.8% 0 3.5%
Tokai 21 9 37.4% 5 22.1% 2 10.3% 3 11.7% 1 6.1% 1 5.7% 0 4.1%
Tokyo 17 6 31.0% 4 20.1% 2 13.3% 2 11.1% 2 10.4% 0 4.7% 1 5.6%
Total 176 72 39 25 23 9 5 3

RepresentativesEdit

Members of House of Representatives elected from single-seat constituencyEdit

 LDP   Komei   CDP   Ishin   DPFP   JCP   SDP   Independent 

Hokkaido 1st Daiki Michishita 2nd Kenko Matsuki 3rd Hirohisa Takagi 4th Hiroyuki Nakamura 5th Yoshiaki Wada
6th Kuniyoshi Azuma 7th Yoshitaka Itō 8th Seiji Osaka 9th Tatsumaru Yamaoka 10th Hisashi Inatsu
11th Kaori Ishikawa 12th Arata Takebe
Aomori 1st Akinori Eto 2nd Junichi Kanda 3rd Jiro Kimura
Iwate 1st Takeshi Shina 2nd Shunichi Suzuki 3rd Takashi Fujiwara
Miyagi 1st Tōru Doi 2nd Sayuri Kamata 3rd Akihiro Nishimura 4th Shintaro Ito 5th Jun Azumi
6th Itsunori Onodera
Akita 1st Hiroyuki Togashi 2nd Takashi Midorikawa 3rd Nobuhide Minorikawa
Yamagata 1st Toshiaki Endo 2nd Norikazu Suzuki 3rd Ayuko Kato
Fukushima 1st Emi Kaneko 2nd Takumi Nemoto 3rd Kōichirō Genba 4th Shinji Oguma 5th Masayoshi Yoshino
Ibaraki 1st Nobuyuki Fukushima[Ind 1][65] 2nd Fukushiro Nukaga 3rd Yasuhiro Hanashi 4th Hiroshi Kajiyama 5th Satoshi Asano
6th Ayano Kunimitsu 7th Keiko Nagaoka
Tochigi 1st Hajime Funada 2nd Akio Fukuda 3rd Kazuo Yana 4th Tsutomu Sato 5th Toshimitsu Motegi
Gunma 1st Yasutaka Nakasone 2nd Toshirō Ino 3rd Hiroyoshi Sasagawa 4th Tatsuo Fukuda 5th Yūko Obuchi
Saitama 1st Hideki Murai 2nd Yoshitaka Shindō 3rd Hitoshi Kikawada 4th Yasushi Hosaka 5th Yukio Edano
6th Atsushi Oshima 7th Hideyuki Nakano 8th Masahiko Shibayama 9th Taku Otsuka 10th Susumu Yamaguchi
11th Ryuji Koizumi 12th Toshikazu Morita 13th Shinako Tsuchiya 14th Hiromi Mitsubayashi 15th Ryosei Tanaka
Chiba 1st Kaname Tajima 2nd Takayuki Kobayashi 3rd Hirokazu Matsuno 4th Yoshihiko Noda 5th Kentaro Sonoura
6th Hiromichi Watanabe 7th Ken Saitō 8th Satoshi Honjō 9th Sōichirō Okuno 10th Motoo Hayashi
11th Eisuke Mori 12th Yasukazu Hamada 13th Hisashi Matsumoto
Kanagawa 1st Gō Shinohara 2nd Yoshihide Suga 3rd Kenji Nakanishi 4th Yuki Waseda 5th Manabu Sakai
6th Naoki Furukawa 7th Keisuke Suzuki 8th Kenji Eda 9th Hirofumi Ryu 10th Kazunori Tanaka
11th Shinjiro Koizumi 12th Tomoko Abe 13th Hideshi Futori 14th Jiro Akama 15th Taro Kono
16th Yūichi Goto 17th Karen Makishima 18th Daishiro Yamagiwa
Yamanashi 1st Shinichi Nakatani 2nd Noriko Horiuchi
Tokyo 1st Miki Yamada 2nd Kiyoto Tsuji 3rd Jin Matsubara 4th Masaaki Taira 5th Yoshio Tezuka
6th Takayuki Ochiai 7th Akira Nagatsuma 8th Harumi Yoshida 9th Issei Yamagishi 10th Hayato Suzuki
11th Hakubun Shimomura 12th Mitsunari Okamoto 13th Shin Tsuchida 14th Midori Matsushima 15th Mito Kakizawa[Ind 2][66]
16th Hideo Ōnishi 17th Katsuei Hirasawa 18th Naoto Kan 19th Yoshinori Suematsu 20th Seiji Kihara
21st Kiyoshi Odawara 22nd Tatsuya Ito 23rd Masanobu Ogura 24th Kōichi Hagiuda 25th Shinji Inoue
Niigata 1st Chinami Nishimura 2nd Kenichi Hosoda 3rd Hiroaki Saitō 4th Makiko Kikuta 5th Ryuichi Yoneyama[Ind 3]
6th Mamoru Umetani
Toyama 1st Hiroaki Tabata 2nd Eishun Ueda 3rd Keiichiro Tachibana
Ishikawa 1st Takuo Komori 2nd Hajime Sasaki 3rd Shoji Nishida
Fukui 1st Tomomi Inada 2nd Tsuyoshi Takagi
Nagano 1st Kenta Wakabayashi 2nd Mitsu Shimojo 3rd Yōsei Ide 1st Shigeyuki Goto 5th Ichiro Miyashita
Gifu 1st Seiko Noda 2nd Yasufumi Tanahashi 3rd Yoji Muto 4th Shunpei Kaneko 5th Keiji Furuya
Shizuoka 1st Yōko Kamikawa 2nd Tatsunori Ibayashi 3rd Nobuhiro Koyama 4th Yōichi Fukazawa 5th Goshi Hosono[Ind 4][67]
6th Takaaki Katsumata 7th Minoru Kiuchi 8th Kentarō Genma
Aichi 1st Hiromichi Kumada 2nd Motohisa Furukawa 3rd Shoichi Kondo 4th Shōzō Kudo 5th Kenji Kanda
6th Hideki Niwa 7th Junji Suzuki 8th Tadahiko Ito 9th Yasumasa Nagasaka 10th Tetsuma Esaki
11th Tetsuya Yagi 12th Kazuhiko Shigetoku 13th Kensuke Ōnishi 14th Sōichirō Imaeda 1st Yukinori Nemoto
Mie 1st Norihisa Tamura 2nd Hideto Kawasaki 3rd Katsuya Okada 4th Eikei Suzuki
Shiga 1st Fujitaka Ōoka 2nd Kenichiro Ueno 3rd Nobuhide Takemura 4th Hiroo Kotera
Kyoto 1st Yasushi Katsume 2nd Seiji Maehara 3rd Kenta Izumi 4th Keiro Kitagami[Ind 5][65] 5th Taro Honda
6th Kazunori Yamanoi
Osaka 1st Hidetaka Inoue 2nd Tadashi Morishima 3rd Shigeki Sato 4th Teruo Minobe 5th Tōru Kunishige
6th Shinichi Isa 7th Takemitsu Okushita 8th Jōji Uruma 9th Yasushi Adachi 10th Taku Ikeshita
11th Hiroshi Nakatsuka 12th Fumitake Fujita 13th Ryohei Iwatani 14th Hitoshi Aoyagi 15th Yasuto Urano
16th Kazuo Kitagawa 17th Nobuyuki Baba 18th Takashi Endo 19th Nobuhisa Ito
Hyōgo 1st Nobuhiko Isaka 2nd Kazuyoshi Akaba 3rd Yoshihiro Seki 4th Hisayuki Fujii 5th Koichi Tani
6th Koichiro Ichimura 7th Kenji Yamada 8th Hiromasa Nakano 9th Yasutoshi Nishimura 10th Kisabro Tokai
11th Takeaki Matsumoto 12th Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Nara 1st Sumio Mabuchi 2nd Sanae Takaichi 3rd Taido Tanose[Ind 6][66]
Wakayama 1st Shuhei Kishimoto 2nd Masatoshi Ishida 3rd Toshihiro Nikai
Tottori 1st Shigeru Ishiba 2nd Ryosei Akazawa
Shimane 1st Hiroyuki Hosoda 2nd Yasuhiro Takami
Okayama 1st Ichiro Aizawa 2nd Takashi Yamashita 3rd Shojiro Hiranuma[Ind 7][68] 4th Gaku Hashimoto 5th Katsunobu Kato
Hiroshima 1st Fumio Kishida 2nd Hiroshi Hiraguchi 3rd Tetsuo Saito 4th Masayoshi Shintani 5th Minoru Terada
6th Koji Sato 7th Fumiaki Kobayashi
Yamaguchi 1st Masahiro Kōmura 2nd Nobuo Kishi 3rd Yoshimasa Hayashi 4th Shinzo Abe
Tokushima 1st Hirobumi Niki[Ind 8][65] 2nd Shunichi Yamaguchi
Kagawa 1st Junya Ogawa 2nd Yuichiro Tamaki 3rd Keitaro Ohno
Ehime 1st Akihisa Shiozaki 2nd Seiichiro Murakami 3rd Takumi Ihara 4th Junji Hasegawa
Kōchi 1st Gen Nakatani 2nd Masanao Ozaki
Fukuoka 1st Takahiro Inoue 2nd Makoto Oniki 3rd Atsushi Koga 4th Hideki Miyauchi 5th Kaname Tsutsumi
6th Jiro Hatoyama 7th Satoshi Fujimaru 8th Tarō Asō 9th Rintaro Ogata[Ind 9][65] 10th Takashi Kie
11th Ryota Takeda
Saga 1st Kazuhiro Haraguchi 2nd Hiroshi Ogushi
Nagasaki 1st Hideko Nishioka 2nd Ryūshō Kato 3rd Yaichi Tanigawa 4th Seigo Kitamura
Kumamoto 1st Minoru Kihara 2nd Daisuke Nishino[Ind 10][69] 3rd Tetsushi Sakamoto 4th Yasushi Kaneko
Ōita 1st Shuji Kira[Ind 11][65] 2nd Seishiro Etō 3rd Takeshi Iwaya
Miyazaki 1st Sō Watanabe 2nd Taku Etō 3rd Yoshihisa Furukawa
Kagoshima 1st Takuma Miyaji 2nd Satoshi Mitazono 3rd Takeshi Noma 4th Hiroshi Moriyama
Okinawa 1st Seiken Akamine 2nd Kunio Arakaki 3rd Aiko Shimajiri 4th Kosaburo Nishime

By-electionEdit

Year Month and date District Winner Party Vacancy Party Notes
2022 TBD Yamaguchi-4th Shinzo Abe LDP Abe was assassinated on 8 July 2022.

Members of House of Representatives elected from proportional representation blockEdit

 LDP   Komei   CDP   Ishin   DPFP   JCP   Reiwa 

Hokkaido Tohoku Northern Kanto Southern Kanto Tokyo Hokurikushinetsu Tokai Kinki Chugoku Shikoku Kyushu
1 Takako Suzuki Jun Tsushima Asako Omi Tsuyoshi Hoshino Kei Takagi Eiichiro Washio Shuhei Aoyama Kē Miki Rintaro Ishibashi Yūji Yamamoto Masahiro Imamura
2 Kureha Ōtsuki Akiko Okamoto Takao Fujioka Kazuma Nakatani Shunsuke Ito Kazuya Kondo Yutaka Banno Shinsuke Okuno Toshifumi Kojima Takuya Hirai Seiichi Suetsugu
3 Koichi Watanabe Kenya Akiba Atsushi Nonaka Akira Amari Yohei Matsumoto Shuichi Takatori Taku Ishii Yuichiro Wada Michiyoshi Yunoki Yoichi Shiraishi Hirotake Yasuoka
4 Yutaka Arai Ichiro Kanke Keiichi Ishii Ryuna Kanemura Tsukasa Abe Isato Kunisada Hiroyuki Miyazawa Akira Yanagimoto Toshiko Abe Masayasu Yamasaki Masakazu Hamachi
5 Hidemichi Sato Manabu Terata Hideki Makihara Masatoshi Akimoto Yōsuke Takagi Takashi Shinohara Yoshinori Ōguchi Yuzuru Takeuchi Akira Hirabayashi Masazumi Gotoda Kazuchika Iwata
6 Manabu Horii Kenichi Shoji Kishirō Nakamura Noriko Furuya Akira Kasai Hirohiko Izumida Masaharu Nakagawa Shu Sakurai Emiko Takagai Tomoyo Yoshida Hajime Yoshikawa
7 Hiroshi Kamiya Yoshitami Kameoka Ryo Sawada Hajime Yatagawa Takao Ochi Toyofumi Yoshida Kazumi Sugimoto Hiroki Sumiyoshi Shunji Yuhara Shunsuke Takei
8 Yūko Nakagawa Ichirō Ozawa Yoshinori Tadokoro Hidehiro Mitani Yōsuke Suzuki Hiromasa Nakagawa Yoshitaka Ikeda Masaki Ōgushi Seiki Soramoto Hiroki Abe
9 Katsutoshi Kaneda Yasuko Komiyama Yoichiro Aoyagi Kenji Wakamiya Ichiro Tsukada Ryū Shionoya Kenji Horii Mio Sugita Nobuhiro Yoshida
10 Chizuko Takahashi Tetsuya Shiokawa Kazuo Shii Banri Kaieda Takeshi Kōzu Tsunehiko Yoshida Keiji Kokuta Shōgo Azemoto Yasushi Furukawa
11 Kentarō Uesugi Akimasa Ishikawa Hiroyuki Yoshiie Taisuke Ono Shunsuke Mutai Takamoto Nakagawa Sachiko Horiba Masaki Kusaka Katsuhiko Yamada
12 Atsushi Hayasaka Keiichi Koshimizu Kenta Fujimaki Akihisa Nagashima Nobuko Motomura Shigeki Kobayashi Kōnosuke Kokuba
13 Yūki Baba Kiyoshi Igarashi Norihiro Nakayama Tarō Yamamoto Wataru Ito Tomoko Ukishima Takaaki Tamura
14 Yūnosuke Sakamoto Hideo Tsunoda Kōichi Kasai Ken Tanaka Hiroyuki Moriyama Yasukuni Kinjō
15 Kazuyuki Nakane Katsuhito Nakajima Toru Miyamoto Shu Watanabe Ryota Endo Masahisa Miyazaki
16 Hideaki Takahashi Atsushi Suzuki Hirotaka Ishihara Masataka Ishihara Hideyuki Tanaka Shuji Inatomi
17 Yoshihiro Suzuki Hiroaki Kadoyama Masako Ōkawara Maki Misaki Yūichirō Ichitani Yasuhiro Ozato
18 Yamato Aoyama Makoto Yamazaki Takeru Yoshikawa Kōichi Munekiyo Shinji Nagatomo
19 Takahiro Fukushige Tomohiro Yamamoto Yoshio Maki Kiyoshige Maekawa Gōsei Yamamoto
20 Ryo Tagaya Sakon Yamamoto Yoko Wanibuchi Kumiko Yoshida
21 Yoshiharu Asakawa Lack of a list Takeshi Miyamoto
22 Yoshitaka Sakurada Yasuhiro Nakagawa[70] Hisashi Tokunaga
23 Kotaro Ikehata
24 Masahito Moriyama
25 Masayuki Akagi
26 Alex Saito
27 Tomu Tanigawa
28 Akiko Ōishi

Independent politicianEdit

  1. ^ After Fukushima was elected, he joined Yūshi no Kai.
  2. ^ After Kakizawa was elected, the Liberal Democratic Party made him an additional official candidate.
  3. ^ He remained an independent politician and joined parliamentary group「the Constitutional Democratic Party」.
  4. ^ After Hosono was elected, He joined the Liberal Democratic Party.
  5. ^ After Kitagami was elected, He joined Yūshi no Kai.
  6. ^ After Tanose was elected, the Liberal Democratic Party made him an additional official candidate.
  7. ^ After Hiranuma was elected, He joined the Liberal Democratic Party.
  8. ^ After Niki was elected, He joined Yūshi no Kai.
  9. ^ After Ogata was elected, He joined Yūshi no Kai.
  10. ^ After Nishino was elected, He joined the Liberal Democratic Party.
  11. ^ After Kira was elected, He joined Yūshi no Kai.

ReactionsEdit

The results were disappointing for Japan's left-wing opposition parties, who had sought to capitalize on the high disapproval ratings of LDP administrations in 2020–2021. The two largest opposition parties, the CDP and the JCP, both lost seats compared to the outgoing parliament, despite their unified candidate agreement and joint policy platform.[71] CDP leader Yukio Edano announced two days after the election that he would resign as leader following the party's performance, triggering a leadership election.[72]

The right-wing populist Nippon Ishin no Kai gained 30 seats, receiving strong support in its home region of Osaka.[64] Ishin no Kai became the third-largest party in the chamber, which was seen by observers as a sign of voter dissatisfaction with both the ruling coalition and traditional opposition parties.[73]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Constitutional Democratic Party is a new party founded in September 2020 following a merger between the CDP, a majority of the former Democratic Party for the People and some independent Diet members. The new party voted to retain the CDP name as well as Edano as leader.
  2. ^ a b c The current CDP was formed in 2020 by a merger of the original CDP (which won 55 seats in 2017) and the Democratic Party for the People, the formal successor to Kibō no Tō (which had won 50 seats in 2017). Some former members of both Kibō no Tō and the DPFP had objected to the successive mergers and did not join the new CDP; going into the 2021 elections, the new CDP held 109 seats.
  3. ^ The Democratic Party merged with Kibō no Tō in May 2018, forming the Democratic Party for the People. The majority of the DPFP later merged with the Constitutional Democratic Party in September 2020, however 14 members refused to merge and instead formed a new party retaining the DPFP name and branding.

Further readingEdit

  • Pekkanen, Robert J.; Reed, Steven R.; Smith, Daniel M. (eds.). 2022. Japan Decides 2021: The Japanese General Election. Springer.

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Japanese general election, 2021 at Wikimedia Commons