EF English Proficiency Index

Summary

The EF English Proficiency Index (EF EPI) attempts to rank countries by the equity of English language skills amongst those adults who took the EF test.[2] It is the product of EF Education First, an international education company, and draws its conclusions from data collected via English tests available for free over the internet.[3][4] The index is an online survey first published in 2011[5] based on test data from 1.7 million test takers.[6] The most recent edition was released in November 2021.[7][8]

World map
World map representing different levels of English proficiency in the world in 2021.[1]
  •   Very High Proficiency
  •   High Proficiency
  •   Moderate Proficiency
  •   Low Proficiency
  •   Very Low Proficiency
  •   Not included in the report

MethodologyEdit

The EF EPI 2021 edition was calculated using test data from 2 million test takers in 2020. The test takers were self-selected. 112 countries and territories appear in this edition of the index. In order to be included, a country was required to have at least 400 test takers.[9]

ReportEdit

The report is composed of a country ranking table, several pages of analysis with graphs correlating other economic and social factors with English proficiency, and analysis of each region or continent. The 2021 report includes English proficiency levels by gender, age group, and region, within countries, and some English proficiency scores by city. The website displays portions of the report and has analysis of English skills in many countries and territories.[9]

Primary conclusionsEdit

  1. Exports per capita, Gross National Income per capita and innovation all correlate positively with English proficiency.[10]
  2. English proficiency levels are evolving at different rates in different countries, including a few countries with declining English skills.[11]
  3. Europe has the highest proficiency in English, while the Middle East averages the lowest.[12]

2021 rankingsEdit

Below are the latest country scores, proficiency bands, and rankings as published in 2021.[1]

2021 Rank Country 2021 Score 2021 Proficiency Band
1   Netherlands 663 Very High Proficiency
2   Austria 641 Very High Proficiency
3   Denmark 636 Very High Proficiency
4   Singapore 635 Very High Proficiency
5   Norway 632 Very High Proficiency
6   Belgium 629 Very High Proficiency
7   Portugal 625 Very High Proficiency
8   Sweden 623 Very High Proficiency
9   Finland 618 Very High Proficiency
10   Croatia 617 Very High Proficiency
11   Germany 616 Very High Proficiency
12   South Africa 606 Very High Proficiency
13   Luxembourg 604 Very High Proficiency
14   Serbia 599 High Proficiency
15   Romania 598 High Proficiency
16   Poland 597 High Proficiency
17   Hungary 593 High Proficiency
18   Philippines 592 High Proficiency
19   Greece 591 High Proficiency
20   Slovakia 590 High Proficiency
21   Kenya 587 High Proficiency
22   Estonia 581 High Proficiency
23   Bulgaria 580 High Proficiency
24   Lithuania 579 High Proficiency
25    Switzerland 575 High Proficiency
26   Latvia 569 High Proficiency
27   Czech Republic 563 High Proficiency
28   Malaysia 562 High Proficiency
29   Nigeria 560 High Proficiency
30   Argentina 556 High Proficiency
31   France 551 High Proficiency
32   Hong Kong 545 Moderate Proficiency
33   Spain 540 Moderate Proficiency
34   Lebanon 536 Moderate Proficiency
35   Italy 535 Moderate Proficiency
36   Moldova 532 Moderate Proficiency
37   South Korea 529 Moderate Proficiency
38   Belarus 528 Moderate Proficiency
39   Albania 527 Moderate Proficiency
40   Ukraine 525 Moderate Proficiency
41   Bolivia 524 Moderate Proficiency
42   Ghana 523 Moderate Proficiency
43   Cuba 521 Moderate Proficiency
44   Costa Rica 520 Moderate Proficiency
44   Dominican Republic 520 Moderate Proficiency
44   Paraguay 520 Moderate Proficiency
47   Chile 516 Moderate Proficiency
48   India 515 Moderate Proficiency
49   Mainland China 513 Moderate Proficiency
50   Georgia 512 Moderate Proficiency
51   Russia 511 Moderate Proficiency
52   Tunisia 510 Moderate Proficiency
53   Uruguay 509 Moderate Proficiency
54   El Salvador 508 Moderate Proficiency
55   Honduras 506 Moderate Proficiency
56   Peru 505 Moderate Proficiency
57   Macau 504 Moderate Proficiency
58   Iran 501 Moderate Proficiency
59   Armenia 499 Low Proficiency
60   Brazil 497 Low Proficiency
61   Guatemala 493 Low Proficiency
62     Nepal 492 Low Proficiency
63   Ethiopia 491 Low Proficiency
63   Pakistan 491 Low Proficiency
65   Bangladesh 490 Low Proficiency
66   Vietnam 486 Low Proficiency
67   Tanzania 485 Low Proficiency
68   Mozambique 482 Low Proficiency
69   United Arab Emirates 480 Low Proficiency
70   Turkey 478 Low Proficiency
71   Morocco 477 Low Proficiency
72   Bahrain 476 Low Proficiency
73   Panama 475 Low Proficiency
73   Venezuela 475 Low Proficiency
75   Algeria 474 Low Proficiency
76   Nicaragua 470 Low Proficiency
77   Madagascar 469 Low Proficiency
78   Japan 468 Low Proficiency
79   Qatar 467 Low Proficiency
80   Indonesia 466 Low Proficiency
81   Colombia 465 Low Proficiency
82   Sri Lanka 464 Low Proficiency
83   Mongolia 461 Low Proficiency
84   Kuwait 458 Low Proficiency
85   Egypt 455 Low Proficiency
86   Azerbaijan 451 Low Proficiency
87   Afghanistan 448 Very Low Proficiency
88   Uzbekistan 447 Very Low Proficiency
89   Syria 445 Very Low Proficiency
90   Ecuador 440 Very Low Proficiency
90   Jordan 440 Very Low Proficiency
92   Mexico 436 Very Low Proficiency
93   Myanmar 429 Very Low Proficiency
94   Angola 428 Very Low Proficiency
94   Cameroon 428 Very Low Proficiency
96   Kazakhstan 426 Very Low Proficiency
97   Cambodia 423 Very Low Proficiency
98   Sudan 421 Very Low Proficiency
99   Ivory Coast 420 Very Low Proficiency
100   Thailand 419 Very Low Proficiency
101   Kyrgyzstan 418 Very Low Proficiency
102   Oman 417 Very Low Proficiency
103   Tajikistan 405 Very Low Proficiency
104   Saudi Arabia 404 Very Low Proficiency
105   Haiti 403 Very Low Proficiency
106   Somalia 401 Very Low Proficiency
107   Iraq 399 Very Low Proficiency
108   Libya 390 Very Low Proficiency
109   Rwanda 389 Very Low Proficiency
110   Democratic Republic of Congo 386 Very Low Proficiency
111   South Sudan 363 Very Low Proficiency
112   Yemen 360 Very Low Proficiency

2021 rankings citiesEdit

City 2021 Score 2021 Proficiency Band
  Amsterdam 682 Very High Proficiency
  Copenhagen 668 Very High Proficiency
  Helsinki 659 Very High Proficiency
  Vienna 658 Very High Proficiency
  Stockholm 646 Very High Proficiency
  Porto 643 Very High Proficiency
  Johannesburg 641 Very High Proficiency
  Lisbon 638 Very High Proficiency
  Zagreb 635 Very High Proficiency
  Oslo 633 Very High Proficiency
  Budapest 628 Very High Proficiency
  Berlin 622 Very High Proficiency
  Hamburg 622 Very High Proficiency
  Warsaw 621 Very High Proficiency
  Athens 616 Very High Proficiency
  Bucharest 612 Very High Proficiency
  Belgrade 604 Very High Proficiency
  Nairobi 601 Very High Proficiency
  Brussels 598 High Proficiency
  Davao City 597 High Proficiency
  Kuala Lumpur 596 High Proficiency
  Manila 595 High Proficiency
  Paris 595 High Proficiency
  Bratislava 594 High Proficiency
  Sofia 591 High Proficiency
  Prague 590 High Proficiency
  Chennai 586 High Proficiency
  Mumbai 586 High Proficiency
  Lyon 580 High Proficiency
  Bangalore 579 High Proficiency
  Lagos 576 High Proficiency
  Milan 571 High Proficiency
  Seoul 571 High Proficiency
  Barcelona 569 High Proficiency
  Madrid 569 High Proficiency
  Buenos Aires 567 High Proficiency
  Córdoba 561 High Proficiency
  San José 553 High Proficiency
  Rome 552 High Proficiency
  Santiago 552 High Proficiency
  Hanoi 548 Moderate Proficiency
  Hyderabad 548 Moderate Proficiency
  São Paulo 546 Moderate Proficiency
  Hong Kong 545 Moderate Proficiency
  Shanghai 543 Moderate Proficiency
  Minsk 538 Moderate Proficiency
  Saint Petersburg 537 Moderate Proficiency
  Moscow 535 Moderate Proficiency
  Santo Domingo 535 Moderate Proficiency
  Accra 534 Moderate Proficiency
  Lima 532 Moderate Proficiency
  Kyiv 531 Moderate Proficiency
  Guadalajara 528 Moderate Proficiency
  Havana 534 Moderate Proficiency
  Delhi 524 Moderate Proficiency
  Beijing 523 Moderate Proficiency
  Tbilisi 523 Moderate Proficiency
  Dar Es Salaam 522 Moderate Proficiency
  Surabaya 522 Moderate Proficiency
  Addis Ababa 521 Moderate Proficiency
  Taipei 521 Moderate Proficiency
  Tirana 520 Moderate Proficiency
  Brasília 517 Moderate Proficiency
  Tokyo 516 Moderate Proficiency
  Montevideo 515 Moderate Proficiency
  Shenzen 515 Moderate Proficiency
  Tunis 515 Moderate Proficiency
  Tehran 514 Moderate Proficiency
  Rio de Janeiro 512 Moderate Proficiency
  Bandung 512 Moderate Proficiency
  Dhaka 512 Moderate Proficiency
  Monterrey 512 Moderate Proficiency
  Dubai 511 Moderate Proficiency
  Karachi 511 Moderate Proficiency
  Kazan 511 Moderate Proficiency
  San Salvador 510 Moderate Proficiency
  Jakarta 506 Moderate Proficiency
  Chengdu 505 Moderate Proficiency
  Panama City 505 Moderate Proficiency
  Caracas 504 Moderate Proficiency
  Macau 504 Moderate Proficiency
  Guangzhou 498 Low Proficiency
  Wuhan 498 Low Proficiency
  Guatemala City 497 Low Proficiency
  Maputo 493 Low Proficiency
  Algiers 492 Low Proficiency
  Ankara 489 Low Proficiency
  Medellín 489 Low Proficiency
  Bogotá 486 Low Proficiency
  Casablanca 482 Low Proficiency
  Istanbul 482 Low Proficiency
  Cairo 480 Low Proficiency
  Ho Chi Minh City 480 Low Proficiency
  Quito 480 Low Proficiency
  Managua 475 Low Proficiency
  Mexico City 475 Low Proficiency
  Doha 472 Low Proficiency
  Bangkok 471 Low Proficiency
  Nur-Sultan 470 Low Proficiency
  Almaty 466 Low Proficiency
  Tijuana 464 Low Proficiency
  Amman 460 Low Proficiency
  Baku 459 Low Proficiency
  Cali 458 Low Proficiency
  Ulaanbaatar 454 Low Proficiency
  Damascus 451 Low Proficiency
  Tashkent 446 Very Low Proficiency
  Khartoum 441 Very Low Proficiency
  Yangon 441 Very Low Proficiency
  Kabul 440 Very Low Proficiency
  Bishkek 437 Very Low Proficiency
  Luanda 436 Very Low Proficiency
  Riyadh 432 Very Low Proficiency
  Baghdad 431 Very Low Proficiency
  Jeddah 424 Very Low Proficiency
  Mogadishu 423 Very Low Proficiency
  Abidjan 421 Very Low Proficiency
  Tripoli 421 Very Low Proficiency
  Yaoundé 420 Very Low Proficiency
  Dushanbe 412 Very Low Proficiency
  Kigali 405 Very Low Proficiency
  Kinshasa 403 Very Low Proficiency
  Juba 375 Very Low Proficiency

Similar reportsEdit

The European Commission performed a language survey, SurveyLang, which tested a representative sample of 15-year-old European students on their foreign language skills. The report and data sets were released for 13 European countries in June 2012.[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "EF EPI 2021 - EF English Proficiency Index". 2021.
  2. ^ English: Who speaks English?. The Economist. Retrieved on 2011-05-29.
  3. ^ Study Offers Snapshot of Global English-Language-Learner Trends. Education Week. Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  4. ^ The EF SET powers the EF EPI. EF SET. Retrieved on 2017-10-05.
  5. ^ The EF EPI. ef.com. Retrieved on 2017-10-05.
  6. ^ Low English Levels Can Hurt Countries' Progress. New York Times. Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  7. ^ https://www.ef.com/assetscdn/WIBIwq6RdJvcD9bc8RMd/legacy/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/downloads/full-reports/v10/ef-epi-2020-english.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  8. ^ Women and managers are better at speaking English, study on proficiency finds. Business Insider. Retrieved on 2018-11-09
  9. ^ a b EF English Proficiency Index – Comparing English skills between countries – EF EPI. Ef.com. Retrieved on 2018-11-09.
  10. ^ Minh Tran: Countries with High English Proficiency Are More Innovative. Harvard Business Review. "Minh Tran is Director of Research and Partnerships for EF Education First and a member of the team that launched the EF Standard English Test." Retrieved on 2017-01-17.
  11. ^ How Well Does Your Country Speak English?. Voice of America. Retrieved on 2017-1-17.
  12. ^ Which countries are best at English as a second language?. World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 2017-1-17.
  13. ^ SurveyLang project. European Commission. Retrieved on 2012-09-20.

External linksEdit

  • Official website