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## Summary

In geometry, the 16-cell is the regular convex 4-polytope (four-dimensional analogue of a Platonic solid) with Schläfli symbol {3,3,4}. It is one of the six regular convex 4-polytopes first described by the Swiss mathematician Ludwig Schläfli in the mid-19th century. It is also called C16, hexadecachoron, or hexdecahedroid [sic?] .

16-cell
(4-orthoplex) Schlegel diagram
(vertices and edges)
TypeConvex regular 4-polytope
4-orthoplex
4-demicube
Schläfli symbol{3,3,4}
Coxeter diagram       Cells16 {3,3} Faces32 {3} Edges24
Vertices8
Vertex figure Octahedron
Petrie polygonoctagon
Coxeter groupB4, [3,3,4], order 384
D4, order 192
DualTesseract
Propertiesconvex, isogonal, isotoxal, isohedral, regular, Hanner polytope
Uniform index12

It is a part of an infinite family of polytopes, called cross-polytopes or orthoplexes, and is analogous to the octahedron in three dimensions. It is Coxeter's $\beta _{4}$ polytope. Conway's name for a cross-polytope is orthoplex, for orthant complex. The dual polytope is the tesseract (4-cube), which it can be combined with to form a compound figure. The 16-cell has 16 cells as the tesseract has 16 vertices.

## Geometry

The 16-cell is the second in the sequence of 6 convex regular 4-polytopes (in order of size and complexity).[a]

Each of its 4 successor convex regular 4-polytopes can be constructed as the convex hull of a polytope compound of multiple 16-cells: the 16-vertex tesseract as a compound of two 16-cells, the 24-vertex 24-cell as a compound of three 16-cells, the 120-vertex 600-cell as a compound of fifteen 16-cells, and the 600-vertex 120-cell as a compound of seventy-five 16-cells.[b]

Regular convex 4-polytopes
Symmetry group A4 B4 F4 H4
Name 5-cell

Hyper-tetrahedron
5-point

16-cell

Hyper-octahedron
8-point

8-cell

Hyper-cube
16-point

24-cell

24-point

600-cell

Hyper-icosahedron
120-point

120-cell

Hyper-dodecahedron
600-point

Schläfli symbol {3, 3, 3} {3, 3, 4} {4, 3, 3} {3, 4, 3} {3, 3, 5} {5, 3, 3}
Coxeter mirrors
Mirror dihedrals 𝝅/3 𝝅/3 𝝅/3 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/3 𝝅/3 𝝅/4 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/4 𝝅/3 𝝅/3 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/3 𝝅/4 𝝅/3 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/3 𝝅/3 𝝅/5 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/5 𝝅/3 𝝅/3 𝝅/2 𝝅/2 𝝅/2
Graph
Vertices 5 tetrahedral 8 octahedral 16 tetrahedral 24 cubical 120 icosahedral 600 tetrahedral
Edges 10 triangular 24 square 32 triangular 96 triangular 720 pentagonal 1200 triangular
Faces 10 triangles 32 triangles 24 squares 96 triangles 1200 triangles 720 pentagons
Cells 5 tetrahedra 16 tetrahedra 8 cubes 24 octahedra 600 tetrahedra 120 dodecahedra
Tori 1 5-tetrahedron 2 8-tetrahedron 2 4-cube 4 6-octahedron 20 30-tetrahedron 12 10-dodecahedron
Inscribed 120 in 120-cell 675 in 120-cell 2 16-cells 3 8-cells 25 24-cells 10 600-cells
Great polygons 2 squares x 3 4 rectangles x 4 4 hexagons x 4 12 decagons x 6 100 irregular hexagons x 4
Petrie polygons 1 pentagon 1 octagon 2 octagons 2 dodecagons 4 30-gons 20 30-gons
Long radius $1$  $1$  $1$  $1$  $1$  $1$
Edge length ${\sqrt {\tfrac {5}{2}}}\approx 1.581$  ${\sqrt {2}}\approx 1.414$  $1$  $1$  ${\tfrac {1}{\phi }}\approx 0.618$  ${\tfrac {1}{\phi ^{2}{\sqrt {2}}}}\approx 0.270$
Short radius ${\tfrac {1}{4}}$  ${\tfrac {1}{2}}$  ${\tfrac {1}{2}}$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{2}}}\approx 0.707$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {\phi ^{4}}{8}}}\approx 0.926$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {\phi ^{4}}{8}}}\approx 0.926$
Area $10\left({\tfrac {5{\sqrt {3}}}{8}}\right)\approx 10.825$  $32\left({\sqrt {\tfrac {3}{4}}}\right)\approx 27.713$  $24$  $96\left({\sqrt {\tfrac {3}{16}}}\right)\approx 41.569$  $1200\left({\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{4\phi ^{2}}}\right)\approx 198.48$  $720\left({\tfrac {\sqrt {25+10{\sqrt {5}}}}{8\phi ^{4}}}\right)\approx 90.366$
Volume $5\left({\tfrac {5{\sqrt {5}}}{24}}\right)\approx 2.329$  $16\left({\tfrac {1}{3}}\right)\approx 5.333$  $8$  $24\left({\tfrac {\sqrt {2}}{3}}\right)\approx 11.314$  $600\left({\tfrac {\sqrt {2}}{12\phi ^{3}}}\right)\approx 16.693$  $120\left({\tfrac {15+7{\sqrt {5}}}{4\phi ^{6}{\sqrt {8}}}}\right)\approx 18.118$
4-Content ${\tfrac {\sqrt {5}}{24}}\left({\tfrac {\sqrt {5}}{2}}\right)^{4}\approx 0.146$  ${\tfrac {2}{3}}\approx 0.667$  $1$  $2$  ${\tfrac {{\text{Short}}\times {\text{Vol}}}{4}}\approx 3.863$  ${\tfrac {{\text{Short}}\times {\text{Vol}}}{4}}\approx 4.193$

### Coordinates

Disjoint squares
xy plane
( 0, 1, 0, 0) ( 0, 0,-1, 0)
( 0, 0, 1, 0) ( 0,-1, 0, 0)
wz plane
( 1, 0, 0, 0) ( 0, 0, 0,-1)
( 0, 0, 0, 1) (-1, 0, 0, 0)

The 16-cell is the 4-dimensional cross polytope, which means its vertices lie in opposite pairs on the 4 axes of a (w, x, y, z) Cartesian coordinate system.

The eight vertices are (±1, 0, 0, 0), (0, ±1, 0, 0), (0, 0, ±1, 0), (0, 0, 0, ±1). All vertices are connected by edges except opposite pairs. The edge length is 2.

The vertex coordinates form 6 orthogonal central squares lying in the 6 coordinate planes. Squares in opposite planes that do not share an axis (e.g. in the xy and wz planes) are completely disjoint (they do not intersect at any vertices).[c]

The 16-cell constitutes an orthonormal basis for the choice of a 4-dimensional reference frame, because its vertices exactly define the four orthogonal axes.

### Structure

The Schläfli symbol of the 16-cell is {3,3,4}, indicating that its cells are regular tetrahedra {3,3} and its vertex figure is a regular octahedron {3,4}. There are 8 tetrahedra, 12 triangles, and 6 edges meeting at every vertex. Its edge figure is a square. There are 4 tetrahedra and 4 triangles meeting at every edge.

The 16-cell is bounded by 16 cells, all of which are regular tetrahedra.[e] It has 32 triangular faces, 24 edges, and 8 vertices. The 24 edges bound 6 orthogonal central squares lying on great circles in the 6 coordinate planes (3 pairs of completely orthogonal[f] great squares). At each vertex, 3 great squares cross perpendicularly. The 6 edges meet at the vertex the way 6 edges meet at the apex of a canonical octahedral pyramid.[d] The 6 orthogonal central planes of the 16-cell can be divided into 4 orthogonal central hyperplanes (3-spaces) each forming an octahedron with 3 orthogonal great squares.

### Rotations A 3D projection of a 16-cell performing a simple rotation A 3D projection of a 16-cell performing a double rotation

Rotations in 4-dimensional Euclidean space can be seen as the composition of two 2-dimensional rotations in completely orthogonal planes. The 16-cell is a simple frame in which to observe 4-dimensional rotations, because each of the 16-cell's 6 great squares has another completely orthogonal great square (there are 3 pairs of completely orthogonal squares).[c] Many rotations of the 16-cell can be characterized by the angle of rotation in one of its great square planes (e.g. the xy plane) and another angle of rotation in the completely orthogonal great square plane (the wz plane).[j] Completely orthogonal great squares have disjoint vertices: 4 of the 16-cell's 8 vertices rotate in one plane, and the other 4 rotate independently in the completely orthogonal plane.[g]

In 2 or 3 dimensions a rotation is characterized by a single plane of rotation; this kind of rotation taking place in 4-space is called a simple rotation, in which only one of the two completely orthogonal planes rotates (the angle of rotation in the other plane is 0). In the 16-cell, a simple rotation in one of the 6 orthogonal planes moves only 4 of the 8 vertices; the other 4 remain fixed. (In the simple rotation animation above, all 8 vertices move because the plane of rotation is not one of the 6 orthogonal basis planes.)

In a double rotation both sets of 4 vertices move, but independently: the angles of rotation may be different in the 2 completely orthogonal planes. If the two angles happen to be the same, a maximally symmetric isoclinic rotation takes place.[q] In the 16-cell an isoclinic rotation by 90 degrees of any pair of completely orthogonal square planes takes every square plane to its completely orthogonal square plane.[r]

### Constructions

#### Octahedral dipyramid

Octahedron $\beta _{3}$  16-cell $\beta _{4}$

Orthogonal projections to skew hexagon hyperplane

The simplest construction of the 16-cell is on the 3-dimensional cross polytope, the octahedron. The octahedron has 3 perpendicular axes and 6 vertices in 3 opposite pairs (its Petrie polygon is the hexagon). Add another pair of vertices, on a fourth axis perpendicular to all 3 of the other axes. Connect each new vertex to all 6 of the original vertices, adding 12 new edges. This raises two octahedral pyramids on a shared octahedron base that lies in the 16-cell's central hyperplane. Stereographic projection of the 16-cell's 6 orthogonal central squares onto their great circles. Each circle is divided into 4 arc-edges at the intersections where 3 circles cross perpendicularly. Notice that each circle has one Clifford parallel circle that it does not intersect. Those two circles pass through each other like adjacent links in a chain.

The octahedron that the construction starts with has three perpendicular intersecting squares (which appear as rectangles in the hexagonal projections). Each square intersects with each of the other squares at two opposite vertices, with two of the squares crossing at each vertex. Then two more points are added in the fourth dimension (above and below the 3-dimensional hyperplane). These new vertices are connected to all the octahedron's vertices, creating 12 new edges and three more squares (which appear edge-on as the 3 diameters of the hexagon in the projection), and three more octahedra.[h]

Something unprecedented has also been created. Notice that each square no longer intersects with all of the other squares: it does intersect with four of them (with three of the squares crossing at each vertex now), but each square has one other square with which it shares no vertices: it is not directly connected to that square at all. These two separate perpendicular squares (there are three pairs of them) are like the opposite edges of a tetrahedron: perpendicular, but non-intersecting. They lie opposite each other (parallel in some sense), and they don't touch, but they also pass through each other like two perpendicular links in a chain (but unlike links in a chain they have a common center). They are an example of Clifford parallel planes, and the 16-cell is the simplest regular polytope in which they occur. Clifford parallelism[l] of objects of more than one dimension (more than just curved lines) emerges here and occurs in all the subsequent 4-dimensional regular polytopes, where it can be seen as the defining relationship among disjoint regular 4-polytopes and their concentric parts. It can occur between congruent (similar) polytopes of 2 or more dimensions. For example, as noted above all the subsequent convex regular 4-polytopes are compounds of multiple 16-cells; those 16-cells are Clifford parallel polytopes.

#### Tetrahedral constructions  The 16-cell has two Wythoff constructions from regular tetrahedra, a regular form and alternated form, shown here as nets, the second represented by tetrahedral cells of two alternating colors. The alternated form is a lower symmetry construction of the 16-cell called the demitesseract.

Wythoff's construction replicates the 16-cell's characteristic 5-cell in a kaleidoscope of mirrors. Every regular 4-polytope has its characteristic 4-orthoscheme, an irregular 5-cell.[s] There are three regular 4-polytopes with tetrahedral cells: the 5-cell, the 16-cell, and the 600-cell. Although all are bounded by regular tetrahedron cells, their characteristic 5-cells (4-orthoschemes) are different tetrahedral pyramids, all based on the same characteristic irregular tetrahedron. They share the same characteristic tetrahedron (3-orthoscheme) and characteristic right triangle (2-orthoscheme) because they have the same kind of cell.[t]

Characteristics of the 16-cell
edge arc dihedral
𝒍 ${\sqrt {2}}\approx 1.414$  90° ${\tfrac {\pi }{2}}$  120° ${\tfrac {2\pi }{3}}$
𝟀 ${\sqrt {\tfrac {2}{3}}}\approx 0.816$  60″ ${\tfrac {\pi }{3}}$  60° ${\tfrac {\pi }{3}}$
𝝓 ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{2}}}\approx 0.707$  45″ ${\tfrac {\pi }{4}}$  45° ${\tfrac {\pi }{4}}$
𝟁 ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{6}}}\approx 0.408$  30″ ${\tfrac {\pi }{6}}$  60° ${\tfrac {\pi }{3}}$
$_{0}R^{3}/l$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {3}{4}}}\approx 0.866$  60° ${\tfrac {\pi }{3}}$  90° ${\tfrac {\pi }{2}}$
$_{1}R^{3}/l$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{4}}}=0.5$  45° ${\tfrac {\pi }{4}}$  90° ${\tfrac {\pi }{2}}$
$_{2}R^{3}/l$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{12}}}\approx 0.289$  30° ${\tfrac {\pi }{6}}$  90° ${\tfrac {\pi }{2}}$
$_{0}R^{4}/l$  $1$
$_{1}R^{4}/l$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{2}}}\approx 0.707$
$_{2}R^{4}/l$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{3}}}\approx 0.577$
$_{3}R^{4}/l$  ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{4}}}=0.5$

The characteristic 5-cell of the regular 16-cell is represented by the Coxeter-Dynkin diagram        , which can be read as a list of the dihedral angles between its mirror facets. It is an irregular tetrahedral pyramid based on the characteristic tetrahedron of the regular tetrahedron. The regular 16-cell is subdivided by its symmetry hyperplanes into 384 instances of its characteristic 5-cell that all meet at its center.

The characteristic 5-cell (4-orthoscheme) has four more edges than its base characteristic tetrahedron (3-orthoscheme), joining the four vertices of the base to its apex (the fifth vertex of the 4-orthoscheme, at the center of the regular 16-cell).[u] If the regular 16-cell has unit radius edge and edge length 𝒍 = ${\sqrt {2}}$ , its characteristic 5-cell's ten edges have lengths ${\sqrt {\tfrac {2}{3}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{6}}}$  (the exterior right triangle face, the characteristic triangle 𝟀, 𝝓, 𝟁), plus ${\sqrt {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{12}}}$  (the other three edges of the exterior 3-orthoscheme facet the characteristic tetrahedron, which are the characteristic radii of the regular tetrahedron), plus $1$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{3}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$  (edges which are the characteristic radii of the regular 16-cell). The 4-edge path along orthogonal edges of the orthoscheme is ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{6}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$ , ${\sqrt {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$ , first from a 16-cell vertex to a 16-cell edge center, then turning 90° to a 16-cell face center, then turning 90° to a 16-cell tetrahedral cell center, then turning 90° to the 16-cell center.

#### Helical construction A 4-dimensional ring of 8 face-bonded tetrahedra, seen in the Boerdijk–Coxeter helix, bounded by three eight-edge circular paths of different colors, cut and laid out flat in 3-dimensional space. It contains an isocline axis (not shown), a geodesic circle of circumference 8𝝅 that twists through all four dimensions and visits all 8 vertices.[o] The two blue-blue-yellow triangles at either end of the cut ring are the same object. Net and orthogonal projection

A 16-cell can be constructed (three different ways) from two Boerdijk–Coxeter helixes of eight chained tetrahedra, each bent in the fourth dimension into a ring. The two circular helixes spiral around each other, nest into each other and pass through each other forming a Hopf link. The 16 triangle faces can be seen in a 2D net within a triangular tiling, with 6 triangles around every vertex. The purple edges represent the Petrie polygon of the 16-cell. The eight-cell ring of tetrahedra contains three octagrams of different colors, eight-edge circular paths that wind twice around the 16-cell on every third vertex of the octagram. The orange and yellow edges are two four-edge halves of one octagram, which join their ends to form a Möbius strip.

Thus the 16-cell can be decomposed into two cell-disjoint circular chains of eight tetrahedrons each, four edges long, one spiraling to the right (clockwise) and the other spiraling to the left (counterclockwise). The left-handed and right-handed cell rings fit together, nesting into each other and entirely filling the 16-cell, even though they are of opposite chirality. This decomposition can be seen in a 4-4 duoantiprism construction of the 16-cell:         or        , Schläfli symbol {2}⨂{2} or s{2}s{2}, symmetry [4,2+,4], order 64.

Three eight-edge paths (of different colors) spiral along each eight-cell ring, making 90° angles at each vertex. (In the Boerdijk–Coxeter helix before it is bent into a ring, the angles in different paths vary, but are not 90°.) Three paths (with three different colors and apparent angles) pass through each vertex. When the helix is bent into a ring, the segments of each eight-edge path (of various lengths) join their ends, forming a Möbius strip eight edges long along its single-sided circumference of 8𝝅, and one edge wide.[p] The six four-edge halves of the three eight-edge paths each make four 90° angles, but they are not the six orthogonal great squares: they are open-ended squares, four-edge 360° helices whose open ends are antipodal vertices. The four edges come from four different great squares, and are mutually orthogonal. Combined end-to-end in pairs of the same chirality, the six four-edge paths make three eight-edge Möbius loops, helical octagrams. Each octagram is both a Petrie polygon of the 16-cell, and the helical track along which all eight vertices rotate together, in one of the 16-cell's distinct isoclinic rotations.[v]

Five ways of looking at the same skew octagram[w]
Edge path Petrie polygon 16-cell Discrete fibration Isocline chords
Octagram{8/3} Octagram{8/1} Coxeter plane B4 Octagram{8/2}=2{4} Octagram{8/4}=4{2}

The eight 2 edges of the edge-path of an isocline.[x] Skew octagon of eight 2 edges. The 16-cell has 3 of these 8-vertex circuits. All 24 2 edges and the four 4 orthogonal axes.[y] Two completely orthogonal (disjoint) great squares of 2 edges.[g] Eight 4 chords of an isocline (doubled).[z]

Each eight-edge helix is a skew octagram{8/3} that winds twice around the 16-cell and visits every vertex before closing into a loop. Its eight edges are the circular path-near-edges of an isocline, a geodesic arc on which vertices move during an isoclinic rotation.[q] The isoclines connect opposite vertices of face-bonded tetrahedral cells,[o] which are also opposite vertices (antipodal vertices) of the 16-cell, so the isoclines have 4 chords.[z] The isocline winds around the 16-cell twice (720°) the way the edges of the octagram{8/3} wind around twice, passing alongside each of the 2 edges once,[x] and alongside each of the 4 orthogonal axes of the 16-cell twice.[y] The isocline makes a circle of circumference 8𝝅.[p]

The eight-cell ring is chiral: there is a right-handed form which spirals clockwise, and a left-handed form which spirals counterclockwise. The 16-cell contains one of each, so it also contains a left and a right isocline; the isocline is the circular axis around which the eight-cell ring twists. Each isocline visits all eight vertices of the 16-cell.[ac] Each eight-cell ring contains half of the 16 cells, but all 8 vertices; the two rings share the vertices, as they nest into each other and fit together. They also share the 24 edges, though left and right octagram helices are different eight-edge paths.[ad]

Because there are three pairs of completely orthogonal great squares,[c] there are three congruent ways to compose a 16-cell from two eight-cell rings. The 16-cell contains three left-right pairs of eight-cell rings in different orientations, with each cell ring containing its axial isocline.[v] Each left-right pair of isoclines is the track of a left-right pair of distinct isoclinic rotations: the rotations in one pair of completely orthogonal invariant planes of rotation.[g] At each vertex, there are three great squares and six octagram isoclines that cross at the vertex and share a 16-cell axis chord.[ae]

### As a configuration

This configuration matrix represents the 16-cell. The rows and columns correspond to vertices, edges, faces, and cells. The diagonal numbers say how many of each element occur in the whole 16-cell. The nondiagonal numbers say how many of the column's element occur in or at the row's element.

${\begin{bmatrix}{\begin{matrix}8&6&12&8\\2&24&4&4\\3&3&32&2\\4&6&4&16\end{matrix}}\end{bmatrix}}$

## Tessellations

One can tessellate 4-dimensional Euclidean space by regular 16-cells. This is called the 16-cell honeycomb and has Schläfli symbol {3,3,4,3}. Hence, the 16-cell has a dihedral angle of 120°. Each 16-cell has 16 neighbors with which it shares a tetrahedron, 24 neighbors with which it shares only an edge, and 72 neighbors with which it shares only a single point. Twenty-four 16-cells meet at any given vertex in this tessellation.

The dual tessellation, the 24-cell honeycomb, {3,4,3,3}, is made of regular 24-cells. Together with the tesseractic honeycomb {4,3,3,4} these are the only three regular tessellations of R4.

## Projections

orthographic projections
Coxeter plane B4 B3 / D4 / A2 B2 / D3
Graph
Dihedral symmetry   
Coxeter plane F4 A3
Graph
Dihedral symmetry [12/3] Projection envelopes of the 16-cell. (Each cell is drawn with different color faces, inverted cells are undrawn)

The cell-first parallel projection of the 16-cell into 3-space has a cubical envelope. The closest and farthest cells are projected to inscribed tetrahedra within the cube, corresponding with the two possible ways to inscribe a regular tetrahedron in a cube. Surrounding each of these tetrahedra are 4 other (non-regular) tetrahedral volumes that are the images of the 4 surrounding tetrahedral cells, filling up the space between the inscribed tetrahedron and the cube. The remaining 6 cells are projected onto the square faces of the cube. In this projection of the 16-cell, all its edges lie on the faces of the cubical envelope.

The cell-first perspective projection of the 16-cell into 3-space has a triakis tetrahedral envelope. The layout of the cells within this envelope are analogous to that of the cell-first parallel projection.

The vertex-first parallel projection of the 16-cell into 3-space has an octahedral envelope. This octahedron can be divided into 8 tetrahedral volumes, by cutting along the coordinate planes. Each of these volumes is the image of a pair of cells in the 16-cell. The closest vertex of the 16-cell to the viewer projects onto the center of the octahedron.

Finally the edge-first parallel projection has a shortened octahedral envelope, and the face-first parallel projection has a hexagonal bipyramidal envelope.

## 4 sphere Venn diagram

A 3-dimensional projection of the 16-cell and 4 intersecting spheres (a Venn diagram of 4 sets) are topologically equivalent.

 .mw-parser-output .tmulti .multiimageinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{margin:1px;float:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader{clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center{text-align:center}@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{justify-content:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle .thumbcaption{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow>.thumbcaption{text-align:center}}     The 16 cells ordered by number of intersecting spheres (from 0 to 4)     (see all cells and k-faces)  4 sphere Venn diagram and 16-cell projection in the same orientation

## Symmetry constructions

The 16-cell's symmetry group is denoted B4.

There is a lower symmetry form of the 16-cell, called a demitesseract or 4-demicube, a member of the demihypercube family, and represented by h{4,3,3}, and Coxeter diagrams         or      . It can be drawn bicolored with alternating tetrahedral cells.

It can also be seen in lower symmetry form as a tetrahedral antiprism, constructed by 2 parallel tetrahedra in dual configurations, connected by 8 (possibly elongated) tetrahedra. It is represented by s{2,4,3}, and Coxeter diagram:        .

It can also be seen as a snub 4-orthotope, represented by s{21,1,1}, and Coxeter diagram:         or      .

With the tesseract constructed as a 4-4 duoprism, the 16-cell can be seen as its dual, a 4-4 duopyramid.

Name Coxeter diagram Schläfli symbol Coxeter notation Order Vertex figure
Regular 16-cell         {3,3,4} [3,3,4] 384
Demitesseract
Quasiregular 16-cell
=
=
h{4,3,3}
{3,31,1}
[31,1,1] = [1+,4,3,3] 192
Alternated 4-4 duoprism      2s{4,2,4} [[4,2+,4]] 64
Tetrahedral antiprism         s{2,4,3} [2+,4,3] 48
Alternated square prism prism         sr{2,2,4} [(2,2)+,4] 16
Snub 4-orthotope         =       s{21,1,1} [2,2,2]+ = [21,1,1]+ 8
4-fusil
{3,3,4} [3,3,4] 384
{4}+{4} or 2{4} [[4,2,4]] = [8,2+,8] 128
{3,4}+{ } [4,3,2] 96

{4}+2{ } [4,2,2] 32

{ }+{ }+{ }+{ } or 4{ } [2,2,2] 16

## Related complex polygons

The Möbius–Kantor polygon is a regular complex polygon 3{3}3,    , in $\mathbb {C} ^{2}$  shares the same vertices as the 16-cell. It has 8 vertices, and 8 3-edges.

The regular complex polygon, 2{4}4,    , in $\mathbb {C} ^{2}$  has a real representation as a 16-cell in 4-dimensional space with 8 vertices, 16 2-edges, only half of the edges of the 16-cell. Its symmetry is 42, order 32. In B4 Coxeter plane, 2{4}4 has 8 vertices and 16 2-edges, shown here with 4 sets of colors. The 8 vertices are grouped in 2 sets (shown red and blue), each only connected with edges to vertices in the other set, making this polygon a complete bipartite graph, K4,4.

## Related uniform polytopes and honeycombs

The regular 16-cell and tesseract are the regular members of a set of 15 uniform 4-polytopes with the same B4 symmetry. The 16-cell is also one of the uniform polytopes of D4 symmetry.

The 16-cell is also related to the cubic honeycomb, order-4 dodecahedral honeycomb, and order-4 hexagonal tiling honeycomb which all have octahedral vertex figures.

It belongs to the sequence of {3,3,p} 4-polytopes which have tetrahedral cells. The sequence includes three regular 4-polytopes of Euclidean 4-space, the 5-cell {3,3,3}, 16-cell {3,3,4}, and 600-cell {3,3,5}), and the order-6 tetrahedral honeycomb {3,3,6} of hyperbolic space.

It is first in a sequence of quasiregular polytopes and honeycombs h{4,p,q}, and a half symmetry sequence, for regular forms {p,3,4}.