Hindus (Hindustani: [ˈɦɪndu](listen); /ˈhɪnduːz,hɪndʊz/) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu (Indus) River. By the 16th century CE, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims.[a][b] In DN Jha’s essay “Looking for a Hindu identity”, he writes: “No Indians described themselves as Hindus before the fourteenth century” and “Hinduism was a creation of the colonial period and cannot lay claim to any great antiquity”. He further wrote “The British borrowed the word ‘Hindu’ from India, gave it a new meaning and significance, [and] reimported it into India as a reified phenomenon called Hinduism.” In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant, whose use today may be considered derogatory.
The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local Indian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it may have developed post-8th century CE after the Muslim invasions and medieval Hindu–Muslim wars. A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and Bengali. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati, Kabir and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma (Hinduism) and contrasted it with Turaka dharma (Islam). The Christianfriar Sebastiao Manrique used the term 'Hindu' in a religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for groups such as Turks, Mughals and Arabs, who were adherents of Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon.[c]
The word Hindu is an exonym. This word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean".[d] It was used as the name of the Indus River and also referred to its tributaries. The actual term 'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus (Sanskrit: Sindhu)", more specifically in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I. The Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hi[n]dush, referring to northwestern India. The people of India were referred to as Hinduvān (Hindus) and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama. The term 'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind likewise referred to the country of India.
Hindu culture in Bali, Indonesia. The Krishna-Arjuna sculpture inspired by the Bhagavad Gita in Denpasar (top), and Hindu dancers in traditional dress.
Among the earliest known records of 'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country.
Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, and the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term 'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, and retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The 'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous 'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that 'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially: 'Indian', 'indigenous, local', virtually 'native'. Slowly, the Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders.
The text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", and at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords;" however, the date of this text is unclear and considered by most scholars to be more recent. In Islamic literature, 'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word 'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word 'hindu' to mean 'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion". The poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks (Muslims) in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together; Each makes fun of the other's religion (dhamme)." One of the earliest uses of word 'Hindu' in religious context in a European language (Spanish), was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of 'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word 'Hindu' partly implies a religious identity in contrast to 'Turks' or Islamic religious identity. The term Hindu was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century BengaliGaudiya Vaishnava texts, including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to contrast Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas (foreigners) or Mlecchas (barbarians), with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma".
One of the earliest but ambiguous uses of the word Hindu is, states Arvind Sharma, in the 'Brahmanabad settlement' which Muhammad ibn Qasim made with non-Muslims after the Arab invasion of northwestern Sindh region of India, in 712 CE. The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists of the region. In the 11th-century text of Al Biruni, Hindus are referred to as "religious antagonists" to Islam, as those who believe in rebirth, presents them to hold a diversity of beliefs, and seems to oscillate between Hindus holding a centralist and pluralist religious views. In the texts of Delhi Sultanate era, states Sharma, the term Hindu remains ambiguous on whether it means people of a region or religion, giving the example of Ibn Battuta's explanation of the name "Hindu Kush" for a mountain range in Afghanistan. It was so called, wrote Ibn Battuta, because many Indian slaves died there of snow cold, as they were marched across that mountain range. The term Hindu there is ambivalent and could mean geographical region or religion.
The term Hindu appears in the texts from the Mughal Empire era. It broadly refers to non-Muslims. Pashaura Singh states, "in Persian writings, Sikhs were regarded as Hindu in the sense of non-Muslim Indians".Jahangir, for example, called the Sikh Guru Arjan a Hindu:
There was a Hindu named Arjan in Gobindwal on the banks of the Beas River. Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. [...] When Khusraw stopped at his residence, [Arjan] came out and had an interview with [Khusraw]. Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here and there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus and which they consider lucky. [...]
— Emperor Jahangir, Jahangirnama, 27b-28a (Translated by Wheeler Thackston)[e]
Colonial-era usage (18th to 20th century)
The distribution of Indian religions in British India (1909). The upper map shows distribution of Hindus, the lower of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.
During the colonial era, the term Hindu had connotations of native religions of India, that is religions other than Christianity and Islam. In early colonial era Anglo-Hindu laws and British India court system, the term Hindu referred to people of all Indian religions as well as two non-Indian religions: Judaism and Zoroastrianism. In the 20th century, personal laws were formulated for Hindus, and the term 'Hindu' in these colonial 'Hindu laws' applied to Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs in addition to denominational Hindus.[f]
Beyond the stipulations of British law, colonial orientalists and particularly the influential Asiatick Researches founded in the 18th century, later called The Asiatic Society, initially identified just two religions in India – Islam, and Hinduism. These orientalists included all Indian religions such as Buddhism as a subgroup of Hinduism in the 18th century. These texts called followers of Islam as Mohamedans, and all others as Hindus. The text, by the early 19th century, began dividing Hindus into separate groups, for chronology studies of the various beliefs. Among the earliest terms to emerge were Seeks and their College (later spelled Sikhs by Charles Wilkins), Boudhism (later spelled Buddhism), and in the 9th volume of Asiatick Researches report on religions in India, the term Jainism received notice.
According to Pennington, the terms Hindu and Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India. The various sub-divisions and separation of subgroup terms were assumed to be result of "communal conflict", and Hindu was constructed by these orientalists to imply people who adhered to "ancient default oppressive religious substratum of India", states Pennington. Followers of other Indian religions so identified were later referred Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains and distinguished from Hindus, in an antagonistic two-dimensional manner, with Hindus and Hinduism stereotyped as irrational traditional and others as rational reform religions. However, these mid-19th-century reports offered no indication of doctrinal or ritual differences between Hindu and Buddhist, or other newly constructed religious identities. These colonial studies, states Pennigton, "puzzled endlessly about the Hindus and intensely scrutinized them, but did not interrogate and avoided reporting the practices and religion of Mughal and Arabs in South Asia", and often relied on Muslim scholars to characterise Hindus.
In contemporary era, the term Hindus are individuals who identify with one or more aspects of Hinduism, whether they are practising or non-practicing or Laissez-faire. The term does not include those who identify with other Indian religions such as Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism or various animist tribal religions found in India such as Sarnaism. The term Hindu, in contemporary parlance, includes people who accept themselves as culturally or ethnically Hindu rather than with a fixed set of religious beliefs within Hinduism. One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu.
Hindus subscribe to a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but have no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, nor a single founding prophet; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist. Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". A Hindu may, by his or her choice, draw upon ideas of other Indian or non-Indian religious thought as a resource, follow or evolve his or her personal beliefs, and still identify as a Hindu.
When we think of the Hindu religion, unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.
Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, Hindus share philosophical concepts, such as but not limiting to dharma, karma, kama, artha, moksha and samsara, even if each subscribes to a diversity of views. Hindus also have shared texts such as the Vedas with embedded Upanishads, and common ritual grammar (Sanskara (rite of passage)) such as rituals during a wedding or when a baby is born or cremation rituals. Some Hindus go on pilgrimage to shared sites they consider spiritually significant, practice one or more forms of bhakti or puja, celebrate mythology and epics, major festivals, love and respect for guru and family, and other cultural traditions. A Hindu could:
practice any one of the various forms of yoga systems in order to achieve moksha – that is freedom in current life (jivanmukti) or salvation in after-life (videhamukti);
practice bhakti or puja for spiritual reasons, which may be directed to one's guru or to a divine image. A visible public form of this practice is worship before an idol or statue. Jeaneane Fowler states that non-Hindu observers often confuse this practice as "stone or idol-worship and nothing beyond it", while for many Hindus, it is an image which represents or is symbolic manifestation of a spiritual Absolute (Brahman). This practice may focus on a metal or stone statue, or a photographic image, or a linga, or any object or tree (pipal) or animal (cow) or tools of one's profession, or sunrise or expression of nature or to nothing at all, and the practice may involve meditation, japa, offerings or songs. Inden states that this practice means different things to different Hindus, and has been misunderstood, misrepresented as idolatry, and various rationalisations have been constructed by both Western and native Indologists.
In the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" has been used in some places to denote persons professing any of these religions: Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism or Sikhism. This however has been challenged by the Sikhs and by neo-Buddhists who were formerly Hindus. According to Sheen and Boyle, Jains have not objected to being covered by personal laws termed under 'Hindu', but Indian courts have acknowledged that Jainism is a distinct religion.
The Republic of India is in the peculiar situation that the Supreme Court of India has repeatedly been called upon to define "Hinduism" because the Constitution of India, while it prohibits "discrimination of any citizen" on grounds of religion in article 15, article 30 foresees special rights for "All minorities, whether based on religion or language". As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as distinct from the Hindu majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". Thus, the Supreme Court was forced to consider the question whether Jainism is part of Hinduism in 2005 and 2006.
History of Hindu identity
Starting after the 10th century and particularly after the 12th century Islamic invasion, states Sheldon Pollock, the political response fused with the Indic religious culture and doctrines. Temples dedicated to deity Rama were built from north to south India, and textual records as well as hagiographic inscriptions began comparing the Hindu epic of Ramayana to regional kings and their response to Islamic attacks. The Yadava king of Devagiri named Ramacandra, for example states Pollock, is described in a 13th-century record as, "How is this Rama to be described.. who freed Varanasi from the mleccha (barbarian, Turk Muslim) horde, and built there a golden temple of Sarngadhara". Pollock notes that the Yadava king Ramacandra is described as a devotee of deity Shiva (Shaivism), yet his political achievements and temple construction sponsorship in Varanasi, far from his kingdom's location in the Deccan region, is described in the historical records in Vaishnavism terms of Rama, a deity Vishnu avatar. Pollock presents many such examples and suggests an emerging Hindu political identity that was grounded in the Hindu religious text of Ramayana, one that has continued into the modern times, and suggests that this historic process began with the arrival of Islam in India.
Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya has questioned the Pollock theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence. According to Chattopadhyaya, the Hindu identity and religious response to Islamic invasion and wars developed in different kingdoms, such as wars between Islamic Sultanates and the Vijayanagara kingdom (Karnataka), and Islamic raids on the kingdoms in Tamil Nadu. These wars were described not just using the mythical story of Rama from Ramayana, states Chattopadhyaya, the medieval records used a wide range of religious symbolism and myths that are now considered as part of Hindu literature. This emergence of religious with political terminology began with the first Muslim invasion of Sindh in the 8th century CE, and intensified 13th century onwards. The 14th-century Sanskrit text, Madhuravijayam, a memoir written by Gangadevi, the wife of Vijayanagara prince, for example describes the consequences of war using religious terms,
I very much lament for what happened to the groves in Madhura,
The coconut trees have all been cut and in their place are to be seen,
rows of iron spikes with human skulls dangling at the points,
In the highways which were once charming with anklets sound of beautiful women,
are now heard ear-piercing noises of Brahmins being dragged, bound in iron-fetters,
The waters of Tambraparni, which were once white with sandal paste,
are now flowing red with the blood of cows slaughtered by miscreants,
Earth is no longer the producer of wealth, nor does Indra give timely rains,
The God of death takes his undue toll of what are left lives if undestroyed by the Yavanas [Muslims],
The Kali age now deserves deepest congratulations for being at the zenith of its power,
gone is the sacred learning, hidden is refinement, hushed is the voice of Dharma.
The historiographic writings in Telugu language from the 13th- and 14th-century Kakatiya dynasty period presents a similar "alien other (Turk)" and "self-identity (Hindu)" contrast. Chattopadhyaya, and other scholars, state that the military and political campaign during the medieval era wars in Deccan peninsula of India, and in the north India, were no longer a quest for sovereignty, they embodied a political and religious animosity against the "otherness of Islam", and this began the historical process of Hindu identity formation.[g]
Andrew Nicholson, in his review of scholarship on Hindu identity history, states that the vernacular literature of Bhakti movement sants from 15th to 17th century, such as Kabir, Anantadas, Eknath, Vidyapati, suggests that distinct religious identities, between Hindus and Turks (Muslims), had formed during these centuries. The poetry of this period contrasts Hindu and Islamic identities, states Nicholson, and the literature vilifies the Muslims coupled with a "distinct sense of a Hindu religious identity".
Hindu identity amidst other Indian religions
Hindus celebrating their major festivals, Holi (top) and Diwali.
Scholars state that Hindu, Buddhist and Jain identities are retrospectively-introduced modern constructions. Inscriptional evidence from the 8th century onwards, in regions such as South India, suggests that medieval era India, at both elite and folk religious practices level, likely had a "shared religious culture", and their collective identities were "multiple, layered and fuzzy". Even among Hinduism denominations such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism, the Hindu identities, states Leslie Orr, lacked "firm definitions and clear boundaries".
Overlaps in Jain-Hindu identities have included Jains worshipping Hindu deities, intermarriages between Jains and Hindus, and medieval era Jain temples featuring Hindu religious icons and sculpture. Beyond India, on Java island of Indonesia, historical records attest to marriages between Hindus and Buddhists, medieval era temple architecture and sculptures that simultaneously incorporate Hindu and Buddhist themes, where Hinduism and Buddhism merged and functioned as "two separate paths within one overall system", according to Ann Kenney and other scholars. Similarly, there is an organic relation of Sikhs to Hindus, states Zaehner, both in religious thought and their communities, and virtually all Sikhs' ancestors were Hindus. Marriages between Sikhs and Hindus, particularly among Khatris, were frequent. Some Hindu families brought up a son as a Sikh, and some Hindus view Sikhism as a tradition within Hinduism, even though the Sikh faith is a distinct religion.
Julius Lipner states that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs is a modern phenomena, but one that is a convenient abstraction. Distinguishing Indian traditions is a fairly recent practice, states Lipner, and is the result of "not only Western preconceptions about the nature of religion in general and of religion in India in particular, but also with the political awareness that has arisen in India" in its people and a result of Western influence during its colonial history.
Scholars such as Fleming and Eck state that the post-Epic era literature from the 1st millennium CE amply demonstrate that there was a historic concept of the Indian subcontinent as a sacred geography, where the sacredness was a shared set of religious ideas. For example, the twelve Jyotirlingas of Shaivism and fifty-one Shaktipithas of Shaktism are described in the early medieval era Puranas as pilgrimage sites around a theme. This sacred geography and Shaiva temples with same iconography, shared themes, motifs and embedded legends are found across India, from the Himalayas to hills of South India, from Ellora Caves to Varanasi by about the middle of 1st millennium. Shakti temples, dated to a few centuries later, are verifiable across the subcontinent. Varanasi as a sacred pilgrimage site is documented in the Varanasimahatmya text embedded inside the Skanda Purana, and the oldest versions of this text are dated to 6th to 8th-century CE.
The idea of twelve sacred sites in Shiva Hindu tradition spread across the Indian subcontinent appears not only in the medieval era temples but also in copper plate inscriptions and temple seals discovered in different sites. According to Bhardwaj, non-Hindu texts such as the memoirs of Chinese Buddhist and Persian Muslim travellers attest to the existence and significance of the pilgrimage to sacred geography among Hindus by later 1st millennium CE.
According to Fleming, those who question whether the term Hindu and Hinduism are a modern construction in a religious context present their arguments based on some texts that have survived into the modern era, either of Islamic courts or of literature published by Western missionaries or colonial-era Indologists aiming for a reasonable construction of history. However, the existence of non-textual evidence such as cave temples separated by thousands of kilometers, as well as lists of medieval era pilgrimage sites, is evidence of a shared sacred geography and existence of a community that was self-aware of shared religious premises and landscape. Further, it is a norm in evolving cultures that there is a gap between the "lived and historical realities" of a religious tradition and the emergence of related "textual authorities". The tradition and temples likely existed well before the medieval era Hindu manuscripts appeared that describe them and the sacred geography. This, states Fleming, is apparent given the sophistication of the architecture and the sacred sites along with the variance in the versions of the Puranic literature. According to Diana L. Eck and other Indologists such as André Wink, Muslim invaders were aware of Hindu sacred geography such as Mathura, Ujjain, and Varanasi by the 11th century. These sites became a target of their serial attacks in the centuries that followed.
The Hindus have been persecuted during the medieval and modern era. The medieval persecution included waves of plunder, killing, destruction of temples and enslavement by Turk-Mongol Muslim armies from central Asia. This is documented in Islamic literature such as those relating to 8th century Muhammad bin-Qasim, 11th century Mahmud of Ghazni, the Persian traveler Al Biruni, the 14th century Islamic army invasion led by Timur, and various Sunni Islamic rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. There were occasional exceptions such as Akbar who stopped the persecution of Hindus, and occasional severe persecution such as under Aurangzeb,[h] who destroyed temples, forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam and banned the celebration of Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali.
Christophe Jaffrelot states that modern Hindu nationalism was born in Maharashtra, in the 1920s, as a reaction to the Islamic Khilafat Movement wherein Indian Muslims championed and took the cause of the Turkish Ottoman sultan as the Caliph of all Muslims, at the end of the World War I. Hindus viewed this development as one of divided loyalties of Indian Muslim population, of pan-Islamic hegemony, and questioned whether Indian Muslims were a part of an inclusive anti-colonial Indian nationalism. The Hindu nationalism ideology that emerged, states Jeffrelot, was codified by Savarkar while he was a political prisoner of the British colonial empire.
Chris Bayly traces the roots of Hindu nationalism to the Hindu identity and political independence achieved by the Maratha confederacy, that overthrew the Islamic Mughal empire in large parts of India, allowing Hindus the freedom to pursue any of their diverse religious beliefs and restored Hindu holy places such as Varanasi. A few scholars view Hindu mobilisation and consequent nationalism to have emerged in the 19th century as a response to British colonialism by Indian nationalists and neo-Hinduism gurus. Jaffrelot states that the efforts of Christian missionaries and Islamic proselytizers, during the British colonial era, each of whom tried to gain new converts to their own religion, by stereotyping and stigmatising Hindus to an identity of being inferior and superstitious, contributed to Hindus re-asserting their spiritual heritage and counter cross examining Islam and Christianity, forming organisations such as the Hindu Sabhas (Hindu associations), and ultimately a Hindu-identity driven nationalism in the 1920s.
The colonial era Hindu revivalism and mobilisation, along with Hindu nationalism, states Peter van der Veer, was primarily a reaction to and competition with Muslim separatism and Muslim nationalism. The successes of each side fed the fears of the other, leading to the growth of Hindu nationalism and Muslim nationalism in the Indian subcontinent. In the 20th century, the sense of religious nationalism grew in India, states van der Veer, but only Muslim nationalism succeeded with the formation of the West and East Pakistan (later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh), as "an Islamic state" upon independence. Religious riots and social trauma followed as millions of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and Sikhs moved out of the newly created Islamic states and resettled into the Hindu-majority post-British India. After the separation of India and Pakistan in 1947, the Hindu nationalism movement developed the concept of Hindutva in second half of the 20th century.
The Hindu nationalism movement has sought to reform Indian laws, that critics say attempts to impose Hindu values on India's Islamic minority. Gerald Larson states, for example, that Hindu nationalists have sought a uniform civil code, where all citizens are subject to the same laws, everyone has equal civil rights, and individual rights do not depend on the individual's religion. In contrast, opponents of Hindu nationalists remark that eliminating religious law from India poses a threat to the cultural identity and religious rights of Muslims, and people of Islamic faith have a constitutional right to Islamic shariah-based personal laws. A specific law, contentious between Hindu nationalists and their opponents in India, relates to the legal age of marriage for girls. Hindu nationalists seek that the legal age for marriage be eighteen that is universally applied to all girls regardless of their religion and that marriages be registered with local government to verify the age of marriage. Muslim clerics consider this proposal as unacceptable because under the shariah-derived personal law, a Muslim girl can be married at any age after she reaches puberty.
Hindu nationalism in India, states Katharine Adeney, is a controversial political subject, with no consensus about what it means or implies in terms of the form of government and religious rights of the minorities.
According to Pew Research, there are over 1.2 billion Hindus worldwide (15% of world's population), with over 94.3% of them concentrated in India. Along with Christians (31.5%), Muslims (23.2%) and Buddhists (7.1%), Hindus are one of the four major religious groups of the world.
Over 3 million Hindus are found in Bali Indonesia, a culture whose origins trace back to ideas brought by Tamil Hindu traders to Indonesian islands in the 1st millennium CE. Their sacred texts are also the Vedas and the Upanishads. The Puranas and the Itihasa (mainly Ramayana and the Mahabharata) are enduring traditions among Indonesian Hindus, expressed in community dances and shadow puppet (wayang) performances. As in India, Indonesian Hindus recognise four paths of spirituality, calling it Catur Marga. Similarly, like Hindus in India, Balinese Hindus believe that there are four proper goals of human life, calling it Catur Purusartha – dharma (pursuit of moral and ethical living), artha (pursuit of wealth and creative activity), kama (pursuit of joy and love) and moksha (pursuit of self-knowledge and liberation).
^Flood (1996, p. 6) adds: "(...) 'Hindu', or 'Hindoo', was used towards the end of the eighteenth century by the British to refer to the people of 'Hindustan', the people of northwest India. Eventually 'Hindu' became virtually equivalent to an 'Indian' who was not a Muslim, Sikh, Jain or Christian, thereby encompassing a range of religious beliefs and practices. The '-ism' was added to Hindu in around 1830 to denote the culture and religion of the high-caste Brahmans in contrast to other religions, and the term was soon appropriated by Indians themselves in the context of building a national identity opposed to colonialism, though the term 'Hindu' was used in Sanskrit and Bengali hagiographic texts in contrast to 'Yavana' or Muslim as early as the sixteenth century".
^von Stietencron (2005, p. 229): For more than 100 years the word Hindu (plural) continued to denote the Indians in general. But when, from AD 712 onwards, Muslims began to settle permanently in the Indus valley and to make converts among low-caste Hindus, Persian authors distinguished between Hindus and Muslims in India: Hindus were Indians other than Muslim. We know that Persian scholars were able to distinguish a number of religions among the Hindus. But when Europeans started to use the term Hindoo, they applied it to the non-Muslim masses of India without those scholarly differentiations.
^Despite the commonplace use of the term "Hindu" for the followers of the Hindu religion, the term also continues to designate a cultural identity, the ownership of India's millennia-old cultural heritage. Arvind Sharma notes that the exclusivist conception of religion was foreign to India, and Indians did not yield to it during the centuries of Muslim rule but only under the British colonial rule. Resistance to the exclusivist conception led to Savarkar's Hindutva, where Hinduism was seen both as a religion and a culture.Hindutva is a national Hindu-ness, by which a Hindu is one born in India and behaves like a Hindu. M. S. Golwalkar even spoke of "Hindu Muslims," meaning "Hindu by culture, Muslim by religion."
^Flood (2008, p. 3): The Indo-Aryan word Sindhu means "river", "ocean".
^Prince Khusrau, Jahangir son, mounted a challenge to the emperor within the first year of his reign. The rebellion was put down and all the collaborators executed. (Pashaura Singh, 2005, pp. 31–34)
^Lorenzen (2010), p. 29: "When it comes to early sources written in Indian languages (and also Persian and Arabic), the word 'Hindu' is used in a clearly religious sense in a great number of texts at least as early as the sixteenth century. (...) Although al-Biruni's original Arabic text only uses a term equivalent to the religion of the people of India, his description of Hindu religion is in fact remarkably similar to those of nineteenth-century European orientalists. For his part Vidyapati, in his Apabhransha text Kirtilata, makes use of the phrase 'Hindu and Turk dharmas' in a clearly religious sense and highlights the local conflicts between the two communities. In the early sixteenth century texts attributed to Kabir, the references to 'Hindus' and to 'Turks' or 'Muslims' (musalamans) in a clearly religious context are numerous and unambiguous."
^See also "Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records"; more links at the bottom of that page. For Muslim historian's record on major Hindu temple destruction campaigns, from 1193 to 1729 AD, see Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pages 283–319
^"Hindu Countries 2021". World Population Review. 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
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^"The Global Religious Landscape – Hinduism". A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010. Pew Research Foundation. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
^"Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
^"Központi Statisztikai Hivatal". Nepszamlalas.hu. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
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^"Hindu population in Bangladesh grew by 1 per cent in 2015: Report". The Economic Times. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
^BANGLADESH 2012 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT, US State Department (2012), page 2
^Indonesia: Religious Freedoms Report 2010, US State Department (2011), Quote: "The Ministry of Religious Affairs estimates that 10 million Hindus live in the country and account for approximately 90 percent of the population in Bali. Hindu minorities also reside in Central and East Kalimantan, the city of Medan (North Sumatra), South and Central Sulawesi, and Lombok (West Nusa Tenggara). Hindu groups such as Hare Krishna and followers of the Indian spiritual leader Sai Baba are present in small numbers. Some indigenous religious groups, including the "Naurus" on Seram Island in Maluku Province, incorporate Hindu and animist beliefs, and many have also adopted some Protestant teachings."
^Indonesia International Religious Freedom Report 2005 – US State Department, Quote: "The Hindu association Parishada Hindu Dharma Indonesia (PHDI) estimates that 18 million Hindus live in the country, a figure that far exceeds the government estimate of 4 million. Hindus account for almost 90 percent of the population in Bali."
^United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom – Indonesia". unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
^Two years after it counted population, Pakistan silent on minority numbers, The Indian Express, 7 January 2020. "[Mangla] Sharma estimates Hindu population in Pakistan at nearly one crore and Sikhs at 40,000."
^"2014 Religious Landscape Study – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". 12 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
^Department of Census and Statistics,The Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka-2011
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^Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Numbers – Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012. ISBN 978-2-02-419434-7.
^UK Government (27 March 2009). "Religion in England and Wales 2011". Office of National Statistics (11 December 2012). Retrieved 7 September 2014.
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^Hatcher 2015, pp. 4–5, 69–71, 150–152. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHatcher2015 (help)
^Bowker 2000. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBowker2000 (help)
^Harvey 2001, p. xiii. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHarvey2001 (help)
^ abcde"Chapter 1 Global Religious Populations" (PDF). January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013.
^Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-20778-3, page ix-xliii
^RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0-679-41078-2, pages 1-11 and Preface
^Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5
^Moriz Winternitz (1996). A History of Indian Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xv–xvi. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3.
^Yajna, a Comprehensive Survey. Gyanshruti, Srividyananda. Yoga Publications Trust. 2007. p. 338. ISBN 978-81-86336-47-2.
^Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography(PDF). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
^Lloyd Ridgeon (2003). Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-134-42935-6., Quote: "It is often said that Hinduism is very ancient, and in a sense this is true (...). It was formed by adding the English suffix -ism, of Greek origin, to the word Hindu, of Persian origin; it was about the same time that the word Hindu, without the suffix -ism, came to be used mainly as a religious term. (...) The name Hindu was first a geographical name, not a religious one, and it originated in the languages of Iran, not of India. (...) They referred to the non-Muslim majority, together with their culture, as 'Hindu'. (...) Since the people called Hindu differed from Muslims most notably in religion, the word came to have religious implications, and to denote a group of people who were identifiable by their Hindu religion. (...) However, it is a religious term that the word Hindu is now used in English, and Hinduism is the name of a religion, although, as we have seen, we should beware of any false impression of uniformity that this might give us."
^ abcdefghiPennington, Brian K. (2005), Was Hinduism Invented?: Britons, Indians, and the Colonial Construction of Religion, Oxford University Press, pp. 111–118, ISBN 978-0-19-803729-3
^Herbst, Philip (1997), The color of words: an encyclopaedic dictionary of ethnic bias in the United States, Intercultural Press, pp. 106–107, ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1, Hindu, Hindoo A term borrowed from the Persian word Hindu ... Hindu is used today for an adherent of Hinduism, the common religion of India. ... Hindoo is listed in dictionaries as a variant spelling, but it is one that may lend itself to derogatory use.; Dasgupta, Shamita Das (1998), A patchwork shawl: chronicles of South Asian women in America, Rutgers University Press, p. 121, ISBN 0-8135-2518-7, I faced repeated and constant racial slurs at school, from "nigger" to "injun" to "Hindoo." I, as one of the few children of color, was the equal opportunity target.; University of South Dakota, English Department (1989), "link to article", South Dakota Review, University of South Dakota: 27, On the streets, too, simple slur words like "Hindoo" and "Paki" – used almost with impunity in the seventies – underscore how language includes or excludes.
^Rosenblatt, Roger (1999), Consuming desires: consumption, culture, and the pursuit of happiness, Island Press, p. 81, ISBN 1-55963-535-5, For example, even though the majority of these newcomers were, in fact, practicing Hindus, by the mid-1960s, anti-immigration agitators had dropped the use of Hindoo as choice slur.; Bhatia, Sunil; Ram, Anjali (2004), "Culture, hybridity, and the dialogical self: Cases of the South Asian diaspora", Mind, Culture, and Activity, 11 (3): 224–240, doi:10.1207/s15327884mca1103_4, S2CID 144892736, Not being able to live up to the 'unattainable' images of 'Charlie's Angels' and the golden-girls of 'The Brady Bunch,' and facing 'repeated and constant' racial slurs at school such as 'nigger,' 'injun,' and 'hindoo,' combined with a lack of role models ...; Yule, Valerie (1989), "Children's dictionaries: spelling and pronunciation", English Today, 5 (1): 13–17, doi:10.1017/S0266078400003655, I suspect the answer may be the long tradition of using that sort of 'simplified spelling' to indicate the speech of vulgar and low types of people. Nevertheless, there is a sort of visual onomatopoeia; a Hindu has dignity, while a Hindoo seems slightly ridiculous..
^ abcdeSheldon Pollock (1993), Rāmāyaṇa and political imagination in India, Journal of Asian studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, pages 266–269
^ abcBrajadulal Chattopadhyaya (1998), Representing the other?: Sanskrit sources and the Muslims (eighth to fourteenth century), Manohar Publications, ISBN 978-81-7304-252-2, pages 92–103, Chapter 1 and 2
^ abO'Connell, Joseph T. (July–September 1973). "The Word 'Hindu' in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Texts". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 93 (3): 340–344. doi:10.2307/599467. JSTOR 599467.
^ abArvind Sharma (2002), On Hindu, Hindustān, Hinduism and Hindutva Numen, Vol. 49, Fasc. 1, pages 5–9
^Arvind Sharma (2002), On Hindu, Hindustān, Hinduism, and Hindutva Numen, Vol. 49, Fasc. 1, page 9
^Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), page 37
^Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pages 29–31
^Wheeler Thackston (1999), Translator and editor, The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-512718-8, page 59
^ abGauri Viswanathan (1998), Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, and Belief, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-05899-3, page 78
^Bhagat, Ram. "Hindu-Muslim Tension in India: An Interface between census and Politics during Colonial India" (PDF). iussp.org. IIPS. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
^"Archive of All Colonial India documents". arrow.latrobe.edu.au. The Centre for Data Digitisation and Analysis at The Queen's University of Belfast. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
^Bryan Turner (2010), The New Blackwell Companion to the Sociology of Religion, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-4051-8852-4, pages 424–425
^ abMartin E. Marty (1 July 1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. pp. 270–271. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9.
^James Minahan (2012), Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1, pages 97–99
^Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, page 8
^Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, page 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."
^Lester Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, ISBN 978-0-12-369503-1, Academic Press, 2008
^MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see page 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu."
^Knott, Kim (1998). Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-285387-5.
^Supreme Court of India 1966 AIR 1119, Sastri Yagnapurushadji vs Muldas Brudardas Vaishya Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine (pdf), page 15, 14 January 1966
^ abFrazier, Jessica (2011). The Continuum companion to Hindu studies. London: Continuum. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0.
^Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0-8135-4068-9, pages 93–94
^Rajbali Pandey (2013), Hindu Saṁskāras: Socio-religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0396-1, pages 15–36
^Flood, Gavin (7 February 2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-631-21535-6 – via Google Books.
^Muller, F. Max. Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga; Naya and Vaiseshika. 1899. This classic work helped to establish the major classification systems as we know them today. Reprint edition: (Kessinger Publishing: February 2003) ISBN 978-0-7661-4296-1.
^Tattwananda, Swami (1984). Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship (First revised ed.). Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd. This work gives an overview of many different subsets of the three main religious groups in India.
^TS Rukmani (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-3232-9, pages 61–74
^ abcJeaneane Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-60-8, pages 41–44
^Stella Kramrisch (1958), Traditions of the Indian Craftsman, The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 71, No. 281, pages 224–230
^Ronald Inden (2001), Imagining India, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-21358-7, pages 110–115
^India-Constitution:Religious rights Article 25:"Explanation II: In sub-Clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion"
^Tanweer Fazal (1 August 2014). "Nation-state" and Minority Rights in India: Comparative Perspectives on Muslim and Sikh Identities. Routledge. pp. 20, 112–114. ISBN 978-1-317-75179-3.
^ abKevin Boyle; Juliet Sheen (7 March 2013). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. Routledge. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-1-134-72229-7.
^para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, Uttar Pradesh v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21 August 2006, Supreme Court of India
^Sheldon Pollock (1993), Rāmāyaṇa and political imagination in India, Journal of Asian studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, pages 261–297
^ abBrajadulal Chattopadhyaya (2004), Other or the Others? in The World in the Year 1000 (Editors: James Heitzman, Wolfgang Schenkluhn), University Press of America, ISBN 978-0-7618-2561-6, pages 303–323
^ abBrajadulal Chattopadhyaya (2004), Other or the Others? in The World in the Year 1000 (Editors: James Heitzman, Wolfgang Schenkluhn), University Press of America, ISBN 978-0-7618-2561-6, pages 306–307
^the terms were Persians, Tajikas or Arabs, and Turushkas or Turks, states Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya (2004), Other or the Others? in The World in the Year 1000 (Editors: James Heitzman, Wolfgang Schenkluhn), University Press of America, ISBN 978-0-7618-2561-6, pages 303–319
^Cynthia Talbot (2000), Beyond Turk and Hindu: Rethinking Religious Identities in Islamicate South Asia (Editors: David Gilmartin, Bruce B. Lawrence), University Press of Florida, ISBN 978-0-8130-2487-5, pages 291–294
^Talbot, Cynthia (October 1995). "Inscribing the other, inscribing the self: Hindu-Muslim identities in pre-colonial India". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 37 (4): 701–706. doi:10.1017/S0010417500019927. JSTOR 179206.
^ abAndrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7, pages 198–199
^ abLeslie Orr (2014), Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-535672-4, pages 42, 204
^Paul Dundas (2002), The Jains, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-26605-5, pages 6–10
^K Reddy (2011), Indian History, Tata McGraw Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-132923-1, page 93
^Margaret Allen (1992), Ornament in Indian Architecture, University of Delaware Press, ISBN 978-0-87413-399-8, page 211
^Trudy King et al (1996), Historic Places: Asia and Oceania, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6, page 692
^Ann Kenney et al (2003), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2779-3, pages 24–25
^ abcRobert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7607-0712-8, page 409
^Surinder M. Bhardwaj (1983). Hindu Places of Pilgrimage in India: A Study in Cultural Geography. University of California Press. pp. 58–79. ISBN 978-0-520-04951-2.
^André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 154–161, 203–205. ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8.
^André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 162–163, 184–186. ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8.
^Victoria Schofield (2010). Afghan Frontier: At the Crossroads of Conflict. Tauris. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-84885-188-7.
^Sachau, Edward (1910). Alberuni's India, Vol. 1. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. p. 22., Quote: "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people."
^Tapan Raychaudhuri; Irfan Habib (1982). Cambridge Economic History of India Vol-1. Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-81-250-2730-0., Quote: "When Timur invaded India in 1398–99, collection of slaves formed an important object for his army. 100,000 Hindu slaves had been seized by his soldiers and camp followers. Even a pious saint had gathered together fifteen slaves. Regrettably, all had to be slaughtered before the attack on Delhi for fear that they might rebel. But after the occupation of Delhi the inhabitants were brought out and distributed as slaves among Timur's nobles, the captives including several thousand artisans and professional people."
^Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson. p. 105. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.
^Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.
^ abDavid N. Lorenzen (2006). Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History. Yoda. p. 50. ISBN 978-81-902272-6-1.
^Abraham Eraly (2000), Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2 pages 398–399
^Avari 2013, p. 115: citing a 2000 study, writes "Aurangzeb was perhaps no more culpable than most of the sultans before him; they desecrated the temples associated with Hindu power, not all temples. It is worth noting that, in contrast to the traditional claim of hundreds of Hindu temples having been destroyed by Aurangzeb, a recent study suggests a modest figure of just fifteen destructions."
In contrast to Avari, the historian Abraham Eraly estimates Aurangzeb era destruction to be significantly higher; "in 1670, all temples around Ujjain were destroyed"; and later, "300 temples were destroyed in and around Chitor, Udaipur and Jaipur" among other Hindu temples destroyed elsewhere in campaigns through 1705.
The persecution during the Islamic period targeted non-Hindus as well. Avari writes, "Aurangzeb's religious policy caused friction between him and the ninth Sikh guru, Tegh Bahadur. In both Punjab and Kashmir the Sikh leader was roused to action by Aurangzeb's excessively zealous Islamic policies. Seized and taken to Delhi, he was called upon by Aurangzeb to embrace Islam and, on refusal, was tortured for five days and then beheaded in November 1675. Two of the ten Sikh gurus thus died as martyrs at the hands of the Mughals. (Avari (2013), page 155)
^Kiyokazu Okita (2014). Hindu Theology in Early Modern South Asia: The Rise of Devotionalism and the Politics of Genealogy. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-19-870926-8.
^Kate Brittlebank (1997). Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu Domain. Oxford University Press. pp. 12, 34–35. ISBN 978-0-19-563977-3.
^Funso S. Afọlayan (2004). Culture and Customs of South Africa. Greenwood. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-313-32018-7.
^Singh, Sherry-Ann (2005). "Hinduism and the State in Trinidad". Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. 6 (3): 353–365. doi:10.1080/14649370500169987. S2CID 144214455.
^Derek R. Peterson; Darren R. Walhof (2002). The Invention of Religion: Rethinking Belief in Politics and History. Rutgers University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-8135-3093-2.
^Paul A. Marshall (2000). Religious Freedom in the World. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-7425-6213-4.
^Grim, B. J.; Finke, R. (2007). "Religious Persecution in Cross-National Context: Clashing Civilizations or Regulated Religious Economies?". American Sociological Review. 72 (4): 633–658. doi:10.1177/000312240707200407. S2CID 145734744., Quote: "Hindus are fatally persecuted in Bangladesh and elsewhere."
^"Hindus from Pakistan flee to India, citing religious persecution". The Washington Post. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
^ abChristophe Jaffrelot (2007), Hindu Nationalism: A Reader, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13098-9, pages 13–15
^ abGail Minault (1982), The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-05072-2, pages 1–11 and Preface section
^Amalendu Misra (2004), Identity and Religion, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0-7619-3226-0, pages 148–188
^CA Bayly (1985), The pre-history of communialism? Religious conflict in India 1700–1860, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, pages 186–187, 177–203
^Christophe Jaffrelot (2007), Hindu Nationalism: A Reader, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13098-9, pages 6–7
^Antony Copley (2000), Gurus and their followers: New religious reform movements in Colonial India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-564958-1, pages 4–5, 24–27, 163–164
^Hardy, F. "A radical assessment of the Vedic heritage" in Representing Hinduism: The Construction of Religious and National Identity, Sage Publ., Delhi, 1995.
^Christophe Jaffrelot (2007), Hindu Nationalism: A Reader, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13098-9, pages 13
^ abPeter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-08256-4, pages 11–14, 1–24
^Peter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-08256-4, pages 31, 99, 102
^Jawad Syed; Edwina Pio; Tahir Kamran; et al. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-1-349-94966-3.
^Farahnaz Ispahani (2017). Purifying the Land of the Pure: A History of Pakistan's Religious Minorities. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–37. ISBN 978-0-19-062167-4.
^Peter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-08256-4, pages 26–32, 53–54
^Ram-Prasad, C. "Contemporary political Hinduism" in Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-21535-2
^ abGJ Larson (2002), Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-21480-5, pages 55–56
^John Mansfield (2005), The Personal Laws or a Uniform Civil Code?, in Religion and Law in Independent India (Editor: Robert Baird), Manohar, ISBN 978-81-7304-588-2, page 121-127, 135–136, 151–156
^ abSylvia Vatuk (2013), Adjudicating Family Law in Muslim Courts (Editor: Elisa Giunchi), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-81185-9, pages 52–53
^Katharine Adeney and Lawrence Saez (2005), Coalition Politics and Hindu Nationalism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-35981-8, pages 98–114
^Pew Research Center, Washington DC, Religious Composition by Country (December 2012) (2012)
^ abHindu population totals in 2010 by Country Pew Research, Washington DC (2012)
^Table: Religious Composition (%) by Country Global Religious Composition, Pew Research Center (2012)
^"The World Factbook – The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
^Total Fertility Rates of Hindus by Region, 2010–2050 Pew Research Center (2015), Washington DC
^Projected Global Hindu Population, 2010–2050 Pew Research Center (2015), Washington DC
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