World Intellectual Property Indicators

Summary

World Intellectual Property Indicators (WIPI) is an annual statistical report published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).[1] The publication provides an overview of the activity in the areas of patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, microorganisms, plant variety protection, geographical indications and the creative economy.

The WIPI draws on intellectual property (IP) statistics collected from the 193 member States of WIPO. It provides the latest trends for IP activity at world, geographical region, country and IP office levels. WIPO has published the report annually since 2009.[2]

Data sources

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The IP statistics data presented in the WIPI are taken from the WIPO Statistics Database and based primarily on data collected from national and regional IP offices, other competent authorities and publishers’ associations from around the world, through annual surveys consisting of multiple questionnaires. Data are also compiled by WIPO in processing international applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), the Madrid System for trademark protection and the Hague System for industrial design protection.[3]

Patent family and technology data are extracted from the WIPO Statistics Database and from the PATSTAT database of the European Patent Office (EPO).[4] Gross domestic product, income group classification and population data are from the World Development Indicators database of the World Bank. Geographical regions are those defined by the United Nations.[3]

Accessing the report and its data

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The WIPI is available on WIPO website. Its underlying data can be extracted from the IP Statistics Data Center, which is WIPO’s online statistical database.[1][2][5]

The IP Facts and Figures report, drawn from the WIPI, serves as a quick reference guide for the most frequently used measure of IP activity.[6] An online statistical country profile also provides a set of IP statistics at the country level[7]

More comprehensive data and analysis on the WIPO administrated Systems are available in a series of three publications: PCT Yearly Review, Madrid Yearly Review and Hague Yearly Review.[8][9][10]

IP Statistics by IP office or by country of origin

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Applications received by offices from resident and non-resident applicants are referred to as office data, whereas applications filed by applicants at their national or regional office (resident applications) or at a foreign office (applications filed abroad) are referred to as origin data.[3][11] For statistical purposes, WIPO defines the origin of an IP application to be the country or territory of residence of the first named applicant in the application.[3][11]

Due to the nature of regional offices, the WIPI uses an equivalent application concept for reporting data by origin.[3][11] Applications at regional offices are equivalent to multiple applications, one in each of the member states of those offices. For the EPO and the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO), the equivalent application is counted as one application abroad, if the applicant does not reside in a member state, or as one resident application and one application abroad, if the applicant resides in a member state.[3]

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The patent, trademark and industrial design data presented in this table come from the WIPI and show the application filing activity trend by country of origin and by year of filing.

Trademark application data refer to class counts – that is, the number of classes specified in applications. This provides the best comparison of international trademark filing activity across origins, because some jurisdictions may allow multiple classes of goods and services to be specified in a single application, whereas others require a separate application for each class. For the same reason, industrial design data refer to design counts, that is, the number of designs contained in applications.[2][11]

Patents, trademarks, and industrial design filing activity by country of origin[1][12][13][14]
Code Country / Region Patent applications

in 2021

Patent applications

in 2022

Trademarks applications

in 2021

Trademarks applications

in 2022

Industrial design applications

in 2021

Industrial design applications

in 2022

AD   Andorra 27 19 7,588 8,885 0 0
AE   United Arab Emirates 655 843 45,891 60,177 1,265 1,326
AG   Antigua and Barbuda 408 153 1,940 1,555 2 0
AL   Albania 39 35 2,766 1,655 58 778
AM   Armenia 106 71 5,651 8,278 81 129
AO   Angola 0 82 0 0 0 46
AR   Argentina 717 763 82,468 83,214 1,624 1,583
AT   Austria 13,472 13,655 412,197 361,857 82,185 58,736
AU   Australia 12,825 11,707 251,488 224,153 18,061 15,867
AZ   Azerbaijan 338 531 6,165 8,602 81 96
BA   Bosnia and Herzegovina 64 73 1,879 2,035 671 172
BB   Barbados 767 0 17,060 2,646 0 0
BD   Bangladesh 91 90 11,010 9,439 1,393 1,225
BE   Belgium 13,966 14,290 281,983 250,062 35,115 34,668
BF   Burkina Faso 85 104 6,148 3,270 206 136
BG   Bulgaria 466 548 105,124 131,517 13,014 28,711
BH   Bahrain 17 30 1,326 1,945 15 35
BJ   Benin 171 71 3,596 2,677 85 51
BN   Brunei 5 1 737 227 0 0
BO   Bolivia 6 14 4,935 4,910 23 31
BR   Brazil 6,909 6,984 370,158 380,501 7,920 8,097
BT   Bhutan 0 1 157 93 3 0
BW   Botswana 4 17 0 0 18 5
BY   Belarus 1,118 980 12,272 7,985 462 670
BZ   Belize 21 17 0 0 59 0
CA   Canada 26,525 25,562 235,899 202,119 17,985 15,352
CF   Central African Republic 17 0 70 97 0 17
CG   Republic of the Congo 71 52 707 421 17 0
CH   Switzerland 48,336 51,445 567,109 518,055 117,813 116,156
CI   Ivory Coast 697 562 19,631 14,692 1,360 3,074
CL   Chile 930 823 66,205 53,486 189 92
CM   Cameroon 1,074 803 13,245 11,159 631 426
CN   China 1,538,604 1,586,339 11,170,624 8,561,984 1,512,861 1,408,921
CO   Colombia 692 1,317 42,743 61,046 636 783
CR   Costa Rica 130 135 10,914 11,990 13 4
CU   Cuba 112 0 2,521 4,161 14 0
CV   Cape Verde 1 2 147 110 0 0
CW   Curaçao 0 0 2,403 4,315 0 0
CY   Cyprus 417 295 91,783 81,971 9,184 4,604
CZ   Czech Republic 1,922 1,887 199,534 173,176 24,605 25,309
DE   Germany 165,826 157,652 2,947,580 2,552,542 540,700 489,507
DJ   Djibouti 3 1 41 52 0 9
DK   Denmark 14,100 14,525 195,921 171,314 58,229 44,638
DM   Dominica 5 1 93 19 0 0
DO   Dominican Republic 46 51 11,094 12,135 44 64
DZ   Algeria 281 483 11,857 12,252 900 855
EC   Ecuador 51 45 15,497 15,367 107 89
EE   Estonia 350 273 74,596 70,390 5,773 4,845
EG   Egypt 997 866 46,684 43,102 2,276 2,069
ES   Spain 10,880 10,518 794,344 789,031 101,588 118,365
ET   Ethiopia 0 39 1,443 1,924 0 60
FI   Finland 12,826 12,972 174,836 152,511 25,455 19,972
FR   France 66,137 66,446 1,251,047 1,194,182 227,890 217,619
GA   Gabon 359 103 1,228 1,299 204 85
GB   United Kingdom 53,650 54,620 1,198,871 1,093,675 135,245 131,371
GD   Grenada 1 0 26 10 0 0
GE   Georgia 132 97 4,618 3,750 113 247
GH   Ghana 0 11 0 1,097 0 673
GM   Gambia 0 0 121 405 0 0
GN   Guinea 52 51 5,045 4,175 1,003 1,020
GQ   Equatorial Guinea 0 0 187 459 1 0
GR   Greece 1,387 1,238 0 0 11,758 11,803
GT   Guatemala 15 12 0 0 83 19
GW   Guinea-Bissau 0 0 426 391 51 85
GY   Guyana 40 0 0 117 1 0
HK   Hong Kong 3,261 2,459 139,559 112,271 27,295 25,074
HN   Honduras 2 2 2,950 3,062 0 1
HR   Croatia 304 290 30,779 36,255 5,867 5,281
HU   Hungary 1,466 1,145 69,947 63,856 5,132 6,274
ID   Indonesia 1,445 1,607 97,170 113,162 3,123 3,708
IE   Ireland 7,061 7,464 0 0 15,625 9,799
IL   Israel 17,341 17,327 44,060 48,990 10,163 10,107
IN   India 43,163 56,396 477,121 499,674 19,774 22,409
IQ   Iraq 0 0 2,756 1,193 0 0
IR   Iran 10,350 8,391 511,868 357,669 13,937 8,170
IS   Iceland 371 313 6,133 5,747 38 0
IT   Italy 34,206 32,021 1,238,081 1,178,542 350,437 369,347
JM   Jamaica 23 13 2,936 0 94 154
JO   Jordan 53 64 6,321 6,366 322 251
JP   Japan 412,885 406,374 555,273 549,015 94,374 91,683
KE   Kenya 199 396 0 5,475 126 99
KG   Kyrgyzstan 120 132 845 981 30 20
KH   Cambodia 0 41 0 0 0 1
KM   Comoros 0 0 138 36 0 0
KP   North Korea 0 0 0 5,234 0 0
KR   South Korea 267,527 272,675 471,725 449,639 116,693 103,174
KW   Kuwait 0 0 0 7,801 114 17
KZ   Kazakhstan 0 1,297 17,109 18,309 283 231
LA   Laos 0 0 0 0 0 1
LI   Liechtenstein 1,482 1,480 15,328 12,723 3,215 2,853
LK   Sri Lanka 329 260 7,725 6,980 227 361
LT   Lithuania 477 642 62,935 61,635 5,327 5,055
LU   Luxembourg 2,725 2,580 98,061 88,768 8,992 6,304
LV   Latvia 281 246 27,774 26,106 2,504 2,481
MA   Morocco 399 363 106,422 52,405 3,924 5,082
MC   Monaco 137 154 15,384 15,953 431 229
MD   Moldova 75 54 6,253 5,257 749 528
ME   Montenegro 0 11 0 0 0 2
MG   Madagascar 6 9 3,275 3,441 328 338
MK   North Macedonia 73 53 4,585 8,860 172 265
ML   Mali 194 55 5,760 3,514 206 121
MN   Mongolia 113 138 19,487 10,415 1,391 1,088
MO   Macau 163 27 3,660 3,108 245 14
MR   Mauritania 36 85 2,466 982 0 34
MT   Malta 407 441 78,933 67,790 13,822 4,802
MU   Mauritius 165 401 8,607 5,798 63 115
MX   Mexico 1,994 1,815 165,547 162,780 1,756 1,439
MY   Malaysia 1,863 1,760 33,696 27,650 721 990
MZ   Mozambique 30 25 1,606 788 35 52
NA   Namibia 0 39 0 488 0 38
NE   Niger 68 87 815 809 0 0
NL   Netherlands 32,779 32,738 609,122 582,247 97,770 91,971
NO   Norway 5,841 5,974 94,151 78,970 8,504 6,936
NZ   New Zealand 2,682 2,588 55,614 48,773 5,992 6,666
OM   Oman 100 88 6,819 8,074 17 108
PA   Panama 70 0 12,385 0 197 0
PE   Peru 160 234 32,316 31,278 98 117
PG   Papua New Guinea 4 4 329 112 0 0
PH   Philippines 695 674 37,610 38,417 720 685
PK   Pakistan 491 416 44,595 39,967 485 467
PL   Poland 5,916 6,073 500,481 477,735 158,341 155,846
PT   Portugal 1,986 2,035 168,643 146,295 24,697 23,863
PY   Paraguay 14 11 17,189 14,791 9 1
QA   Qatar 121 0 10,722 8,241 0 0
RO   Romania 1,114 1,140 130,737 162,185 9,686 14,391
RS   Serbia 271 230 16,773 14,102 933 685
RU   Russia 25,904 25,188 417,882 447,229 11,773 10,849
RW   Rwanda 16 9 721 777 10 5
SA   Saudi Arabia 4,868 5,019 32,263 39,991 1,096 968
SC   Seychelles 51 46 5,540 4,641 27 0
SE   Sweden 27,802 28,184 400,733 352,825 48,800 48,682
SG   Singapore 9,766 8,599 105,298 109,348 15,301 6,519
SI   Slovenia 744 811 48,379 53,579 4,451 7,638
SK   Slovakia 414 557 62,093 53,820 6,498 3,808
SL   Sierra Leone 0 0 0 237 4 0
SM   San Marino 58 48 0 0 486 605
SN   Senegal 606 583 12,560 9,702 425 493
SO   Somalia 0 0 15 30 0 0
SR   Suriname 0 0 529 116 0 0
ST   São Tomé and Príncipe 0 0 4 48 0 0
SV   El Salvador 2 4 5,611 5,441 16 20
SY   Syria 106 131 0 0 485 451
TD   Chad 51 119 163 129 119 51
TG   Togo 81 85 6,982 3,390 85 34
TH   Thailand 1,548 1,416 43,547 39,009 4,764 4,149
TJ   Tajikistan 97 33 0 0 1 0
TN   Tunisia 0 225 0 5,760 0 547
TO   Tonga 0 0 7 5 0 4
TR   Turkey 10,869 11,114 503,741 579,543 78,829 94,792
TT   Trinidad and Tobago 15 7 956 1,443 60 12
UA   Ukraine 1,706 1,080 64,201 46,691 6,149 3,000
UG   Uganda 20 16 2,233 2,186 91 56
US   United States 509,962 515,281 2,169,465 2,009,487 392,258 366,686
UY   Uruguay 0 0 9,057 8,386 0 0
UZ   Uzbekistan 428 475 10,955 13,879 240 236
VC   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0 2 386 601 0 0
VE   Venezuela 0 29 0 8,329 0 19
VN   Vietnam 1,205 1,057 86,109 92,118 2,561 2,755
VU   Vanuatu 0 0 196 362 4 6
WS   Samoa 17 0 865 880 0 9
YE   Yemen 22 13 5,709 3,702 80 56
ZA   South Africa 2,751 2,619 36,851 32,164 1,614 1,714
ZM   Zambia 15 14 1,284 1,264 46 81
ZW   Zimbabwe 0 41 0 1,341 19 38

Patents, trademarks, and industrial design (PCT) applications by Organizations

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Top PCT patent applicants 2019 and 2020

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The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty, concluded in 1970. It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its contracting states. A patent application filed under the PCT is called an international application, or PCT application.

Top PCT patent applicants 2019 and 2020[13][14][15]
Appplicants Country 2020 Rank 2020 PCT applications 2019 Rank 2019 PCT applications
Huawei   China 1 5464 1 4411
Samsung Electronics   South Korea 2 3093 3 2334
Mitsubishi Electric   Japan 3 2810 2 2661
LG Electronics   South Korea 4 2759 10 1646
Qualcomm   U.S. 5 2173 4 2127
Ericsson   Sweden 6 1989 7 1698
BOE Technology   China 7 1892 6 1864
Oppo   China 8 1801 5 1927
Sony   Japan 9 1793 13 1566
Panasonic   Japan 10 1611 12 1567

Top Madrid trademark applicants (2020 and 2019)

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The Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks is a protocol to protect trademarks worldwide, in over 120 countries.[16][17] The Madrid System has a centralized trademark registration system through a single application, in one language and with one set of fees (in one currency, the Swiss franc), protection can be obtained in member states and intergovernmental organizations.[18][19] International registrations can then be modified, renewed or expanded, centrally through WIPO (rather than through each separate IP Office).[20] The Madrid System can only be used by a natural person or a legal entity, which is a national, is domiciled or has a company in the territory of a member of the Madrid System.

Top Madrid trademark applicants (2020 and 2019)[21][14][15]
Applicant Rank 2020 Madrid applications in 2020 Rank 2019 Madrid applications in 2019
Novartis 1 233 3 129
Huawei 2 197 2 164
Shiseido 3 130 9 70
Adp Gauselmann 4 123 19 39
L'Oreal 5 115 1 193
Nintendo 6 90 26 32
Euro Games Technology 7 84 14 48
Apple 8 80 4 104
Syngenta 9 78 27 30
RIGO Trading SA 10 70 5 102

Hague top applicants in 2020 and 2019

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The Hague System for the International Registration of Industrial Designs[22] provides an international mechanism that secures protection of up to 100 designs[22][23] in multiple countries or regions, through a single international application. International design applications are filed directly through WIPO.[24] The domestic legal framework of each designated contracting party governs the design protection provided by the resulting international registrations.[25] The Hague System does not require the applicant to file a national or regional design application.[24]

Hague top applicants in 2020 and 2019[15]
Applicant Rank 2020 Hague applications 2020 Rank 2019 Hague applications 2019
LG Electronics 1 446 1 449
Xiaomi 2 216 3 111
Samsung 3 170 2 166
Hyundai 4 141 7 57
Philips 5 95 4 85
Volkswagen 6 84 5 73
Hermès 7 68 15 27
Daimler 8 65 10 42
Proctor & Gamble 9 57 6 65
Kärcher 10 47 12 35

Controversies

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Taiwanese patents

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Since Taiwan (ROC) is not a member of the United Nations, the number of patents filed in Taiwan is not reported. The number of patent applications filed with the Taiwan Intellectual Property Office (TIPO) in 2018 was 73,431,[26] which would place it in 6th place worldwide for that year, or 2nd place per capita. In 2014, Bloomberg ranked Taiwan #1 in Patent Activity, using UN data.[27][28] The last WIPO Indicators report to mention the name Taiwan was in 2017, noting the large number of patents by Foxconn.[29][30][31][32]

China has been criticized for its efforts in the UN to reduce the visibility of Taiwan,[33][34] including via WIPO; in 2020 Beijing reportedly retaliated to the failed election of a Chinese director-general of the organization by preventing the Wikimedia Foundation from gaining observer status at the WIPO, on the grounds that Wikimedia has a Taiwan subsidiary.[35][36][37]

References

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  1. ^ a b c "World Intellectual Property Indicators". www.wipo.int.
  2. ^ a b c "WIPO IP Statistics Data Center". www3.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-08-27.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2021" (PDF). World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 28 April 2022.   Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  4. ^ Office, European Patent. "PATSTAT. Worldwide Patent Statistical Database". www.epo.org. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  5. ^ "Intellectual Property Statistics". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  6. ^ "Publications: WIPO IP Facts and Figures". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  7. ^ "Statistical Country Profiles". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  8. ^ "Publications: PCT Yearly Review". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  9. ^ "Publications: Madrid Yearly Review". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  10. ^ "Publications: Hague Yearly Review". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  11. ^ a b c d "About WIPO's IP Statistics". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2022-04-27.   Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  12. ^ World Intellectual Property Organization. "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2021". www.wipo.int. doi:10.34667/tind.44461. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  13. ^ a b World Intellectual Property Organization. "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2020". www.wipo.int. doi:10.34667/tind.42184. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  14. ^ a b c World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019". www.wipo.int. doi:10.34667/tind.40353. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  15. ^ a b c "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019" (PDF). WIPO. World Intellectual Property Organization.
  16. ^ "Madrid System". International Trademark Association. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  17. ^ "WIPO | Madrid – The International Trademark System". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  18. ^ "International trademarks: Is the Madrid System right for you? | Novagraaf". www.novagraaf.com. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  19. ^ Australia, I. P. (2016-03-18). "Getting an international trade mark". www.ipaustralia.gov.au. Retrieved 2021-09-15.
  20. ^ The Madrid Protocol (PDF). ARISE+ ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights.
  21. ^ World Intellectual Property Organization (2020). World Intellectual Property Indicators 2020. World IP Indicators (WIPI). World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). doi:10.34667/tind.42184. ISBN 9789280532012. Retrieved 2021-08-26. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  22. ^ a b "Hague – The International Design System". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  23. ^ Hartwig, Henning (2021-05-18). Research Handbook on Design Law. Edward Elgar. ISBN 978-1-78195-588-8.
  24. ^ a b "WIPO Lex". wipolex.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  25. ^ "Hague System Member Profiles". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  26. ^ "TIPO Statistics Report: Patent and Trademark Applications in 2018". Taiwan Intellectual Property Office. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  27. ^ Lu, Wei; Chan, Marcus (6 August 2017). "In Global Innovation Race, Taiwan Is Tops in Patents, Israel Leads in R&D - Bloomberg". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2017-08-06. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  28. ^ "MOST INNOVATIVE IN THE WORLD 2014: COUNTRIES" (PDF). Bloomberg. 13 March 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-13.
  29. ^ "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2017" (PDF). WIPO. World Intellectual Property Organization.
  30. ^ "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2018" (PDF). WIPO. World Intellectual Property Organization.
  31. ^ "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2019" (PDF). WIPO. World Intellectual Property Organization.
  32. ^ "World Intellectual Property Indicators 2020" (PDF). WIPO. World Intellectual Property Organization.
  33. ^ Horton, Chris (8 May 2017). "Blocked by China, Taiwan Presses to Join U.N. Agency's Meeting". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  34. ^ Lee, Kristine. "It's Not Just the WHO: How China Is Moving on the Whole U.N." POLITICO. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  35. ^ Glosserman, Brad (9 March 2020). "China loses a skirmish in fight for global influence". The Japan Times. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  36. ^ Hui, Mary (25 September 2020). "Beijing blocked Wikimedia from a UN agency because of "Taiwan-related issues"". Quartz. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  37. ^ Magnier, Mark (30 September 2020). "Beijing blocks Wikipedia from UN agency to resist 'Western values': analysts". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
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  • World Intellectual Property Organization
  • WIPO IP Statistics Data Center