Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes

Summary

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This timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes. First satellites from each country are included. Not included are most Earth science satellites, commercial satellites or manned missions.

Timeline

1950s

Year Date Origin Name Launch vehicle Status Description Mass
1957 October 4  Soviet Union Sputnik 1 Sputnik-PS Success The first human-made object to orbit Earth. 83.6 kg (183.9 lb)
November 3  Soviet Union Sputnik 2 Sputnik-PS Success The first satellite to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. 508 kg (1,118 lb)
December 6  USA Vanguard 1A Vanguard TV-3 Failed The first stage engine was improperly started, causing the vehicle to fall back to the launch pad immediately after launch and explode.[1] 1.36 kg (2.99 lb)
1958 January 31  USA Explorer 1 Juno I Success The first American satellite in space.[1] 13.91 kg (30.66 lb)
February 5  USA Vanguard 1B Vanguard TV-3BU Failed Control failure caused vehicle breakup at T+57 seconds as vehicle exceeded an angle of attack of 45° due to a control system malfunction.[1] 1.36 kg (2.99 lb)
March 5  USA Explorer 2 Juno I Failed Failed to orbit. Fourth stage did not ignite.[1] 14.52 kg (31.94 lb)
March 17  USA Vanguard 1C Vanguard TV-4 Success Vanguard 1. Expected to de-orbit in ~2240AD, this and its upper launch stage are the oldest human-made objects in space. Also the first use of solar cells to power a satellite.[1] 1.47 kg (3.25 lb)
March 26  USA Explorer 3 Juno I Success Added to data received by Explorer 1.[1] 14.1 kg (31.0 lb)
April 27  Soviet Union Sputnik 3 Sputnik 89A1 Failed Rocket engine failure at 12 – 15 km.[2] 1,327 kg (2,926 lb)
April 29  USA Vanguard 2A Vanguard TV-5 Failed Second stage shutdown sequence not completed, preventing proper 3rd stage separation and firing. Did not reach orbit.[1] 9.98 kg (21.96 lb)
May 15  Soviet Union Sputnik 3 Sputnik Success Contained 12 instruments for a wide range of upper atmosphere tests. 1,327 kg (2,926 lb)
May 28  USA Vanguard 2B Vanguard SLV-1 Failed The first production model of the series. Nominal flight until a guidance error was encountered on second stage burnout. Did not reach orbit.[1] 9.98 kg (21.96 lb)
June 26  USA Vanguard 2C Vanguard SLV-2 Failed Premature second stage cutoff prevented third stage operation. Did not reach orbit.[1] 9.98 kg (21.96 lb)
July 26  USA Explorer 4 Juno I Success Expanded data set of previous Explorer missions and collected data from Argus high-altitude nuclear explosions.[1] 11.7 kg (25.8 lb)
August 17  USA Pioneer 0 Thor-Able 1 Failed Failed to orbit. First stage engine failure caused explosion at T+77 seconds. 38 kg (84 lb)
August 24  USA Explorer 5 Juno I Failed On-board instruments damaged on first stage separation. Failed to orbit.[1] 11.7 kg (25.8 lb)
September 26  USA Vanguard 2D Vanguard SLV-3 Failed Second stage under-performed, lacking only ~76 m/s (~250 fps) required to achieve orbit.[1] 10.6 kg (23.3 lb)
October 11  USA Pioneer 1 Thor-Able 1 Partial Success First spacecraft launched by NASA. Studied Earth's magnetic fields. Third stage provided insufficient thrust to reach the Moon, leaving it sub-orbital.[3] 38 kg (84 lb)
October 22  USA Beacon 1 Jupiter-C Failed A thin plastic sphere (12-feet in diameter) intended to study atmosphere density.[3] Payload dropped due to rotational vibrations.[1] 4.2 kg (9.2 lb)
November 8  USA Pioneer 2 Thor-Able 1 Failed Briefly provided further data on Earth's magnetic field. Third stage provided insufficient thrust to reach the vicinity of the Moon.[3] 38 kg (83 lb)
December 6  USA Pioneer 3 Juno II Partial Success Did not reach moon as intended, but discovered a second radiation belt around Earth.[3] 5.9 kg (13.0 lb)
1959 January 2  Soviet Union Luna 1 Luna Partial success The first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit. 361 kg (794.2 lb)
February 17  USA Vanguard 2E Vanguard SLV-4 Success Vanguard 2. Measured cloud cover. First attempted photo of Earth from a satellite; precession motion resulted in difficulty interpreting data (see first images of Earth from space).[3] 10.8 kg (23.7 lb)
March 3  USA Pioneer 4 Juno II Success Passed within 60,030 km (37,300 mi) of the Moon into a heliocentric orbit, returning excellent radiation data.[3] 6.1 kg (13.4 lb)
April 13  USA Vanguard 3A Vanguard SLV-5 Failed Failed to orbit. Second stage hydraulics failure led to loss of control, damaged at launch. Two spheres included as payload.[3] 10.3 kg (22.7 lb)
June 22  USA Vanguard 3B Vanguard SLV-6 Failed Failed to orbit. Second stage exploded due to stuck helium vent valve. Intended to measure weather effects related to solar-Earth heating processes.[3] 10.3 kg (22.7 lb)
July 16  USA Explorer S-1 Juno II Failed Did not achieve orbit. Guidance system power malfunction. Destroyed by range safety officer at T+5.5s.[3] 41.5 kg (91.3 lb)
August 7  USA Explorer 6 Thor-Able 3 Success Included instruments to study particles and meteorology.[3] 64.4 kg (141.7 lb)
August 14  USA Beacon 2 Juno II Failed Premature cutoff of first stage caused upper stage malfunction.[3] 4.5 kg (9.9 lb)
September 12  Soviet Union Luna 2 Luna Success The first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, and the first human-made object to land on another celestial body. 390.2 kg (858.4 lb)
September 18  USA Vanguard 3 Vanguard TV-4BU Success Incorporated Allegany Ballistics Laboratory X248 A2 as third stage.[1] Solar-powered sphere measured radiation belts and micrometeorite impacts.[3] 22.7 kg (50.0 lb)
October 4  Soviet Union Luna 3 Luna Success The first mission to photograph the far side of the Moon. 278.5 kg (614 lb)
October 13  USA Explorer 7 Juno II Success Provided data on energetic particles, radiation, and magnetic storms. Also recorded the first micrometeorite penetration of a sensor.[3] 41.5 kg (69.4 lb)
November 26  USA Pioneer P-3 Atlas-Able 20 Failed Lunar orbiter probe; payload shroud broke away after 45 seconds.[3] 168.7 kg (371.1 lb)

1960s

Year Launch date Origin Name Launch vehicle Target Status Description
1960 March 11  USA Pioneer 5 Thor-Able Sun Success Solar monitor. Measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles, and ionization in the interplanetary region[4]
May 15  Soviet Union Korabl-Sputnik 1 Vostok-L Earth Success First test flight of the Soviet Vostok programme, and the first Vostok spacecraft
August 19  Soviet Union Korabl-Sputnik 2 Vostok-L Earth Success First spaceflight to send animals into orbit and return them safely back to Earth
1961 August 23  USA Ranger 1 Atlas-Agena Moon Failure Rocket malfunction caused the spacecraft to get stranded in low earth orbit.[5]
November 18  USA Ranger 2 Atlas-Agena Moon Failure Booster rocket malfunction caused spacecraft to be trapped in low earth orbit.[6]
1962 January 26  USA Ranger 3 Atlas-Agena Moon Failure NASA's first attempt to land a spacecraft on the moon. A series of malfunctions caused spacecraft to hurtle past the moon.[7]
April 23  USA Ranger 4 Atlas-Agena Moon Mostly Failure Was the first U.S. spacecraft to reach another celestial body. Failure in the onboard computer prevented it from carrying out its scientific objectives.[8]
April 26  UK Ariel 1 Thor-Delta Earth Success First British satellite in space (on American rocket)
July 10  USA Telstar 1 Thor-Delta Earth Success Communication satellite
July 22  USA Mariner 1 Atlas-Agena Venus Failure Software related guidance system failure, range safety officer ordered destroyed after 294.5 seconds after launch.
August 27  USA Mariner 2 Atlas-Agena Venus Success First spacecraft to visit another planet
September 29  Canada Alouette 1 Thor-Agena Earth Success First Canadian satellite (on American rocket), first satellite not constructed by the US or USSR
October 18  USA Ranger 5 Atlas-Agena Moon Failure Malfunction in the spacecraft's batteries caused them to drain after 8 hours, leaving it inoperable.[9]
1963 First pair - October 17  USA Vela 1A and Vela 1B Atlas-Agena Earth Success Series of satellites to monitor compliance to the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty
1964 December 15  Italy San Marco 1 Scout X-4 Earth Success First Italian satellite (on American rocket)
February 2  USA Ranger 6 Atlas-Agena Moon Success Lunar impactor. Successful impact but power failure resulted in no pictures.
July 31  USA Ranger 7 Atlas-Agena Moon Success Lunar impactor. Returned pictures until impact.
1965 February 2  USA Ranger 8 Atlas-Agena Moon Success Lunar impactor. Returned pictures until impact.
February 20  USA Ranger 9 Atlas-Agena Moon Success Lunar impactor. Live TV broadcast until impact.
November 26  France Asterix Diamant A Earth Success First French satellite
November 28  USA Mariner 4 Atlas-Agena Mars Success First deep space photographs of another planet and first flyby of Mars
November 29  Canada Alouette 2 Thor-Agena Earth Success Research satellite designed to explore Earth's ionosphere
December 16  USA Pioneer 6 Delta E Sun Success A series of solar-orbiting, spin-stabilized, solar-cell and battery-powered satellites designed to obtain measurements on a continuing basis of interplanetary phenomena from widely separated points in space.[10]
1966 January 31  Soviet Union Luna 9 Molniya M Moon Success First spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, or any planetary body other than Earth, and to transmit photographic data to Earth from the surface of another planetary body.
June 2  USA Surveyor 1 Atlas-Centaur Moon Success First US soft landing; Surveyor program performed various tests in support of forthcoming manned landings.[11]
July 1  USA Explorer 33 Delta E1 Earth Partial Success Was intended to orbit the moon but instead orbited the earth. Explored solar winds, interplanetary plasma, and solar X-rays.
August 10  USA Lunar Orbiter 1 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D Moon Success First US spacecraft to orbit the Moon. Designed to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface for selecting landing sites.
August 17  USA Pioneer 7 Delta E1 Sun Success A series of solar-orbiting, spin-stabilized, solar-cell and battery-powered satellites designed to obtain measurements on a continuing basis of interplanetary phenomena from widely separated points in space.[10]
September 20  USA Surveyor 2 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D Moon Failure Lunar Lander. A failure in one of its three thrusters caused it to lose control and crash into the moon.[12]
November 6  USA Lunar Orbiter 2 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D Moon Success Designed to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface to identify landing sites.
1967 April 17  USA Surveyor 3 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D Moon Success Second successful lunar surface lander. Conducted experiments to see how the lunar surface would fare against the weight of an Apollo lunar module.[13]
May 5  UK Ariel 3 Scout A Earth Success First entirely British built satellite
July 14  USA Surveyor 4 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D Moon Failure Despite a perfect flight to the moon, communications was lost 2.5 minutes prior to landing. NASA concluded the spacecraft may have exploded.[14]
September 8  USA Surveyor 5 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D Moon Success Lunar lander. First spacecraft to do a soil analysis of any world. Returned more than 20,000 photos.[15]
November 7  USA Surveyor 6 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D Moon Success Lunar lander. First spacecraft to be launched from the surface of the moon. It lifted itself to a height of about 3 meters.[16]
November 29  Australia WRESAT Sparta Earth Success First Australian satellite (on American rocket) launched from Woomera, Australia.
December 13  USA Pioneer 8 Delta E1 Sun Success A series of solar-orbiting, spin-stabilized, solar-cell and battery-powered satellites designed to obtain measurements on a continuing basis of interplanetary phenomena from widely separated points in space.[10]
1968 January 7  USA Surveyor 7 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D Moon Success Lunar lander. Only spacecraft in the series to land in the lunar highland region and had the most extensive set of instruments.[17]
November 8  USA Pioneer 9 Delta E1 Sun Success A series of solar-orbiting, spin-stabilized, solar-cell and battery-powered satellites designed to obtain measurements on a continuing basis of interplanetary phenomena from widely separated points in space.[10]
1969 January 30  Canada ISIS 1 Delta E1 Earth Success International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS)
February 25  USA Mariner 6 Atlas SLV-3D Agena-D1A Mars Success Mars probe attempting to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars during close flybys to establish a basis for further investigations.[18]
March 27  USA Mariner 7 Atlas SLV-3D Agena-D1A Mars Success Mars probe attempting to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars during close flybys to establish a basis for further investigations.[19]
November 8  West Germany Azur / (GRS A) (German Research Satellite) Scout B S169C Earth Success The scientific mission was to: scan the energy spectra of inner zone protons and electrons; measure the fluxes of electrons of energy greater than 40 keV that are parallel, anti-parallel, and perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force over the auroral zone, and measure associated optical emission; and record solar protons on alert.[20]

1970s

Year Origin Name Target Status Description
1970  Japan Ohsumi Earth Success First Japanese satellite
 Soviet Union Venera 7 Venus Success First successful landing of a spacecraft on another planet
 Soviet Union Luna 16 Moon Success Lander is the first automated return of samples from the Moon
 Soviet Union Zond 8 Moon Success Flyby
 Soviet Union Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 Moon Success Lander/rover is the first automated surface exploration of the Moon
 UK Orba (satellite) Earth Failure Second stage of rocket shutdown 13 seconds early
 USA Uhuru Earth Success First dedicated X-ray astronomy satellite
 China Dong Fang Hong I Earth Success First Chinese satellite
1971  Soviet Union Luna 18 Moon Failure Lander
 Soviet Union Luna 19 Moon Success Orbiter
 USA Mariner 8 Mars Failure Orbiter. Lost due to launch failure.
 Soviet Union Cosmos 419 Mars Failure Probe
 Soviet Union Mars 2 Mars Partial Failure Orbiter and lander, created the first human artifact on Mars
 Soviet Union Mars 3 Mars Partial Success Orbiter and lander, first successful landing on Mars
 USA Mariner 9 Mars Success Orbiter, first pictures of Mars' moons (Phobos and Deimos) taken
 Canada ISIS 2 Earth Success
 Japan Shinsei Earth Partial success First Japanese science satellite
 UK Prospero X-3 Earth Success Satellite, first satellite launched by Britain using a British rocket
 UK Ariel 4 Earth Success
1972  Soviet Union Venera 8 Venus Success Lander
 Soviet Union Luna 20 Moon Success Lander
 USA/ UK Copernicus – Orbiting Astronomical Observatory-3 Earth Success
 USA Pioneer 10 Jupiter Success First spacecraft to encounter Jupiter
 USA Explorer 49 Sun Success Solar probe
1973  USA Mariner 10 Venus/Mercury Success It passed by and photographed Mercury, also was the first dual planet probe
 USA Pioneer 11 Jupiter/Saturn Success First spacecraft to encounter Saturn
 Soviet Union Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 Moon Success Lander/rover
 Soviet Union Mars 4 Mars Failure Orbiter
 Soviet Union Mars 5 Mars Success Orbiter
 Soviet Union Mars 6 Mars Failure Orbiter and lander
 Soviet Union Mars 7 Mars Failure Orbiter and lander
1974  West Germany Helios 1 Sun Success Solar probe
 Soviet Union Luna 22 Moon Success Orbiter
 Soviet Union Luna 23 Moon Failure Probe
 UK Ariel 5 Earth Success X-ray satellite
1975  Soviet Union Venera 9 Venus Success Returns the first pictures of the surface of Venus
 Soviet Union Venera 10 Venus Success Orbiter and lander
 USA Viking 1 Mars Success Orbiter and lander; lands on Mars 1976
 USA Viking 2 Mars Success Orbiter and lander; lands on Mars 1976
 India Aryabhata Earth Success Launched by USSR, the first Indian satellite
1976  West Germany Helios 2 Sun Success Solar probe
 Soviet Union Luna 24 Moon Success Lander
 Canada/ USA/ Europe Communications Technology Satellite Earth Success Prototype for testing direct broadcast satellite television on the Ku band
 Netherlands/ USA Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet (ANS) Earth Success Discovered X-ray bursts, first Dutch satellite (with US contributions)[21]
 USA Orbiting Solar Observatory Sun Success X-ray satellite shows that X-ray bursts have blackbody spectra
1977  USA HEAO-1 Earth Success X-ray satellite
 Soviet Union Kosmos 954 Earth Success Reconnaissance satellites
1978  USA Pioneer Venus 1 Venus Success Orbiter
 USA Pioneer Venus 2 Venus Success Atmospheric probe
 Soviet Union Venera 11 Venus Partial Success Flyby and lander
 Soviet Union Venera 12 Venus Success Flyby and lander
 USA/ UK/ Europe International Ultraviolet Explorer Earth Success
 USA HEAO-2 Earth Success First X-ray photographs of astronomical objects
 Czechoslovakia Magion 1 Earth Success First satellite for Czechoslovakia
1979  India Satellite Launch Vehicle Failure India's first rocket launched
 Japan Hakucho Earth Success X-ray satellite
 UK Ariel 6 Earth Success Cosmic-ray and X-ray satellite
 USA Voyager 1 Voyager 2 Jupiter Success Sent back images of Jupiter and its system
 India Bhaskara-1 Earth Success Launched by ISRO (First Indian low orbit Earth Observation Satellite)

1980s

Year Origin Name Target Status Description
1980  USA Solar Maximum Mission Sun Failure Solar Maximum Mission solar probe succeeded after being repaired in Earth orbit
1981  India Bhaskara-2 Earth Success Bhaskara-2 satellite; launched on Russian Kosmos-3M rocket for ISRO
1981  Soviet Union Venera 13 Venus Success Venera 13 launched, it returned the first colour pictures of the surface of Venus
1981  Soviet Union Venera 14 Venus Success Venera 14 flyby and lander
1981  Bulgaria Bulgaria 1300 Earth Success Bulgaria 1300, polar research mission, was Bulgaria's first artificial satellite; launched by the Soviet Union
1983  Soviet Union Venera 15 Venus Success Venera 15 orbiter
1983  Soviet Union Venera 16 Venus Success Venera 16 orbiter
1983  Europe EXOSAT Earth Success Launch of the EXOSAT X-ray satellite
1983  Japan Tenma Earth Success Launch of the Tenma X-ray satellite (ASTRO-B)
1983  USA /  Netherlands /  UK IRAS Earth Success Launch of the IRAS satellite
1984  Soviet Union Vega 1 Venus/Halley's Comet Success Vega 1 flyby, atmospheric probe and lander
1984  Soviet Union Vega 2 Venus/Halley's Comet Success Vega 2 flyby, atmospheric probe and lander
1985  Mexico Morelos I Earth Success Morelos I, the first Mexican satellite
1986  Europe Giotto Halley's Comet Success Giotto flyby
1986  USA Voyager 2 Uranus Success Voyager 2 sent back images of Uranus and its system
1987  Japan Ginga Earth Success Launch of the Ginga X-ray satellite (ASTRO-C)
1988  Soviet Union Phobos 1 Mars Failure Phobos 1 orbiter and lander
1988  Soviet Union Phobos 2 Mars Partial Failure Phobos 2 flyby and lander
1988  Israel Ofeq 1 Earth Success Ofeq 1 first Israeli satellite, first satellite to be launched in retrograde orbit
1989  USA Magellan Venus Success Magellan orbiter launched which mapped 99 percent of the surface of Venus (300 m resolution)
1989  USA Galileo Venus/Earth/Moon/Gaspra/Ida/Jupiter Success Galileo flyby, orbiter and atmospheric probe
1989  USA Voyager 2 Neptune Success Voyager 2 sent back images of Neptune and its system
1989  Europe Hipparcos Earth Success Launch of the Hipparcos satellite
1989  USA COBE Earth Success Launch of the COBE satellite
1989  Soviet Union Granat Earth Success Launch of the Granat gamma-ray and X-ray satellite

1990s

Year Origin Name Target Status Description
1990  USA/ Europe Ulysses Sun Success Ulysses solar flyby
1990  Japan Hiten Moon Success Hiten probe, this was the first non-United States or USSR probe to reach the Moon
1990  USA/ Europe Hubble Space Telescope Earth Success Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope
1990  Germany ROSAT Earth Success Launch of the ROSAT X-ray satellite to conduct the first imaging X-ray sky survey
1991  Japan Yohkoh Sun Success Yohkoh solar probe
1991  USA Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Earth Success Launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory satellite
1992  USA Mars Observer Mars Failure Mars Observer orbiter
1993  Japan ASCA Earth Success Launch of the ASCA (ASTRO-D) X-ray satellite
1994  USA Clementine Moon Success Clementine orbiter mapped the surface of the Moon (resolution 125–150 m) and allowed the first accurate relief map of the Moon to be generated
1995  Mexico Unamsat 1 Earth Failure Unamsat 1, First UNAM built orbiter
1995  Europe ISO Earth Success Launch of the Infrared Space Observatory
1995  Europe/ USA SOHO Sun Success SOHO solar probe
1996  USA NEAR Shoemaker 433 Eros Success NEAR Shoemaker asteroid flybys/orbiter/lander
1996  USA Mars Global Surveyor Mars Success Mars Global Surveyor orbiter
1996  USA Mars Pathfinder Mars Success Mars Pathfinder, the first automated surface exploration of another planet
1996  Russia Mars 96 Mars Failure Mars 96 orbiter and lander
1996  Argentina SAC-B Earth Failure Sac-B Orbiter
1997  USA/ Europe Cassini-Huygens Saturn and Titan Success Cassini-Huygens arrived in orbit on July 1, 2004, landed on Titan January 14, 2005
1997  Argentina Nahuel 1A Earth Success Nahuel 1A First Argentine satellite - geostationary communications satellites
1998  North Korea Kwangmyongsong-1 Earth Unknown Claimed launch of Kwangmyongsong-1 by North Korea though no independent source was able to verify its existence
1998  USA Lunar Prospector Moon Success Lunar Prospector orbiter
1998  Japan Nozomi Mars Failure Nozomi (Planet B) orbiter, the first Japanese spacecraft to reach another planet
1998  USA Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Failure Mars Climate Orbiter
1998  Argentina /  USA SAC-A Earth Success Sac-A Orbiter
1999  USA Mars Polar Lander Mars Failure Mars Polar Lander
1999  USA Deep Space 2 Mars Failure Deep Space 2 (DS2) penetrators
1999  USA Chandra Earth Success Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory
1999  Europe XMM-Newton Earth Success Launch of the X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission, XMM-Newton

2000s

Year Origin Name Target Status Description
2000  UK SNAP-1 Earth Success SNAP-1 robotic camera enabling images to be sent to other spacecraft orbiting the Earth
2000  Argentina SAC-C Earth Success SAC-C Orbiter
2001  USA Genesis Sun Partial Success Genesis solar wind sample crash-landed on return
2001  USA WMAP Earth Success Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) performs cosmological observations.
2001  USA Mars Odyssey Mars Success Mars Odyssey
2001  Europe PROBA-1 Earth Success PROBA-1 Small satellite to observe the Earth (first Belgian Satellite)
2003  Canada MOST Earth Success MOST the smallest space telescope in orbit.
2002  USA CONTOUR Comet Encke Failure CONTOUR launched, but lost during early trajectory insertion.
2002  Europe/ Russia/ USA INTEGRAL Earth Success Launch of the INTEGRAL gamma-ray satellite.
2003  Europe Smart 1 Moon Success Smart 1 orbiter
2003  Europe Mars Express & Beagle 2 Mars Partial Success Mars Express orbiter (successfully reached orbit) and failed Beagle 2 lander
2003  USA Mars Exploration Rover Mars Success Mars Exploration Rovers successful launches, Spirit successfully landed, Opportunity successfully landed
2003  UK UK-DMC Earth Success UK-DMC orbiter, part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation
2003  Japan Hayabusa 25143 Itokawa Success Hayabusa, first sample return from asteroid, returned in 2010
2004  Europe Rosetta Comet 67P Success Rosetta space probe launched (arrived on comet 67P on November 12, 2014)
2004  USA MESSENGER Mercury Success MESSENGER orbiter launched (in Mercury orbit)
2004  USA Swift Earth Success Launch of the Swift Gamma ray burst observatory.
2005  USA Deep Impact Comet Tempel 1 Success Deep Impact
2005  Japan Suzaku Earth Partial success Launch of the Suzaku X-ray observatory (ASTRO-EII)
2005  USA MRO Mars In orbit Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
2005  Iran Sinah-1 Earth Success Sinah-1 launched, first Iranian-built satellite
2005  Europe Venus Express Venus Success Venus Express
2006  USA New Horizons Pluto Success New Horizons launched. On July 14, 2015, New Horizons flew within 7,750 miles (12,472 km) of Pluto.
2006  Japan Akari Earth Success Launch of the Akari infrared observatory (ASTRO-F)
2006  France/ Europe COROT Earth Success COROT telescope to search for extrasolar planets
2007  USA Phoenix Mars Success Phoenix launched and successfully landed in 2008
2007  Japan SELENE Moon Success SELENE orbiter and lander
2007  USA Dawn Vesta/Ceres In Ceres Orbit Dawn solar powered ion engined probe to 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres.
2007  China Chang'e-I Moon Success Chang'e-I lunar orbiter
2007  Nigeria NigComSat-1 Earth Initial success NigComSat-1 launched by China, failed after 1 year
2008  USA IBEX Earth Launched, operating The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)'s mission is to study the nature of interactions between solar wind and interstellar medium at the edge of solar system.
2009  Europe Planck L2 Success Planck
2009  Europe Herschel L2 Success Herschel Space Observatory
2009  Iran Omid Earth Success Omid launched by Iranian made launcher Safir. First Iranian-launched satellite
2009  USA Kepler Earth Success Kepler launched
2009  Europe PROBA-2 Earth Success PROBA-2 Small satellite to observe the sun
2009  India RISAT-2 Earth Success RISAT-2 developed by Israel Aerospace Industries, launched by ISRO, India
2009  India Chandrayaan-1 Moon Success Chandrayaan-1 developed and launched by ISRO, India
2009  UK UK-DMC 2 Earth Success UK-DMC 2 orbiter, successor to UK-DMC part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation

2010s

Year Origin Name Target Status Description
2010  Japan Akatsuki Venus Partial success Akatsuki orbiter, first Japanese spacecraft to orbit another planet (2015)
2010  Japan IKAROS Venus Success IKAROS, first solar-sail spacecraft
2010  China Chang'e-2 Moon Success Chang'e-2 lunar orbiter/impacter
2011  Russia Spektr-R Earth Success Launch of the Spektr-R radio telescope
2011  USA Juno Jupiter Success Juno
2011  Russia Fobos-Grunt Mars Failure Fobos-Grunt lander and sample return
2011  Nigeria NigComSat-1 Earth Success NigComSat-1 replacement launched by China
2011  Taiwan /  Singapore ST-2 Earth Success ST-2 replacement launched by Taiwan and Singapore
2011  Argentina /  USA SAC-D Earth Success SAC-D Orbiter
2012  Iran Navid Earth Launched Navid earth-watching satellite
2012  USA MSL Mars Success Mars Science Laboratory with Curiosity rover—orbit and landed
2012  North Korea Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Earth Launched Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2, first successful North Korean orbital rocket launch
2012  Poland PW-Sat Earth Launched PW-Sat, first Polish satellite
2013  South Korea STSAT-2C Earth Launched STSAT-2C, first successful South Korean orbital rocket launch
2013  Canada NEOSSat Earth Success NEOSSat, monitoring near-Earth objects
2013  Canada Sapphire Earth Success Sapphire, military space surveillance
2013  Ecuador NEE 01 Pegaso Earth Success NEE-01 Pegaso, Ecuador's first satellite
2013  Estonia ESTCube-1 Earth Success ESTCube-1, Estonia's first satellite
2013  Europe PROBA-V Earth Success PROBA-V, small satellite to monitor the vegetation of the Earth
2013  UK STRaND-1 Earth Success STRaND-1, first smartphone-operated satellite to be launched and dubbed the world's first "phonesat"
2013  Japan Hisaki Earth Launched Hisaki planetary atmosphere observatory
2013  Canada CASSIOPE Earth Success CASSIOPE, ionosphere research and communication satellite
2013  India MOM Mars Success MOM is India's first interplanetary mission
2013  USA MAVEN Mars Success MAVEN orbiter
2013  Poland Lem Earth Launched Lem, First Polish scientific satellite
2014  Lithuania LitSat1/LituanicaSAT-1 Earth Success LitSat-1 and LituanicaSAT-1, first Lithuanian satellites
2014  Europe Rosetta / Philae Comet 67P Partial success Rosetta and Philae, Third comet landing at unintended site in suboptimal orientation due to failure of surface anchoring system
2014  Poland Heweliusz Earth Launched Heweliusz, Second Polish scientific satellite
2014  Japan Hayabusa 2 162173 Ryugu Launched and en route Hayabusa 2, second Japanese asteroid sample return spacecraft
2014  Japan PROCYON 2000 DP107 Partial failure PROCYON deep space probe
2015  United States DSCOVR Earth-Sun L1 Success DSCOVR, Earth and space weather
2015  India Astrosat Earth Success Astrosat, Space observatory
2016  European Union /  Russia ExoMars / Schiaparelli Mars Partial success ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, Trace Gas Orbiter in orbit; Schiaparelli lander crashed
2016  Canada M3MSat Earth Success M3MSat, maritime monitoring and communication satellite
2016  United States OSIRIS-REx Earth Launched and en route OSIRIS-REx, first American asteroid sample return spacecraft
2017  Brazil SGDC-1 Earth Success SGDC-1, communication satellite
2018  United States Tesla Roadster Mars Success Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster, dummy payload for the February 2018 Falcon Heavy test flight and is now an artificial satellite of the Sun
2018  United States  France  Germany InSight Mars Launched and landed InSight, Mars lander for planetary information
2018  European Union/ Japan BepiColombo Mercury Launched and en route BepiColombo, two orbiters to study the magnetic field, magnetosphere, and both interior and surface structure of Mercury. Final mission of the Horizon 2000+ programme
2018  United States Parker Solar Probe Sun Launched and en route Parker Solar Probe, first spacecraft to visit the outer corona of the Sun
2018  China Chang'e 4 Moon Success Chang'e 4, first spacecraft to soft-land on the lunar far side.
2019  Egypt NARSSCube-2 Earth Success NARSSCube-2, Egypt's first domestically built satellite
2019  Israel Beresheet Moon Failure Beresheet, first private space probe and moon lander, crashed
2019  Russia /  Germany Spektr-RG Earth-Sun L2 Success Launch of the Spektr-RG X-ray observatory
2019  India Chandrayaan-2 Moon Partial Success Chandrayaan-2, orbiter achieved orbit, but lander crash-landed
2019  Ethiopia ETRSS-1 Earth Launched and en route ETRSS-1, first Ethiopian satellite; built by China

2020s

Year Origin Name Target Status Description
2020(current year)  United States Perseverance Mars successful launch, currently en route to Mars Perseverance, JPL's new Mars rover

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Green, Constance McLaughlin; Lomask, Milton (1970). Vanguard: A History. Scientific and Technical Information Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. pp. 283–287.
  2. ^ [1] "Sputnik 3 Finally Orbited, NASA Established"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "NASA Major Launch Record" (PDF). history.nasa.gov. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  4. ^ "In Depth | Pioneer 5 – Solar System Exploration: NASA Science". Solar System Exploration: NASA Science. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
  5. ^ "Ranger 1". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  6. ^ "Ranger 2". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  7. ^ "Ranger 3". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  8. ^ "Ranger 4". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  9. ^ "Ranger 5". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  10. ^ a b c d "Pioneer 6: NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1965-105A". NASA. Retrieved 9 September 2018.  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  11. ^ "Surveyor 1: NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1966-045A". NASA. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  12. ^ "Surveyor 2". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  13. ^ "Surveyor 3". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  14. ^ "Surveyor 4". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  15. ^ "Surveyor 5". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  16. ^ "Surveyor 6". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  17. ^ "Surveyor 7". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-14. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  18. ^ "Mariner 6". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-13. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  19. ^ "Mariner 7". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-13. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  20. ^ "Azur". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Retrieved 2020-01-08. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  21. ^ [2] Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet (ANS)

External links

  • Current and Upcoming Launches
  • Missions-NASA
  • Unmanned spaceflight discussion forum
  • Chronology of Lunar and Planetary Exploration (homepage)