2019 in spaceflight

Summary

2019 in spaceflight
Kuiper belt object 486958 Arrokoth in near-true colour
A Crew Dragon capsule approaches the International Space Station
LightSail 2 in flight above Earth
A boilerplate Orion spacecraft launching from Spaceport Florida LC-46
Highlights from spaceflight in 2019[a]
Orbital launches
First10 January
Last27 December
Total102
Successes97
Failures5
Catalogued97
National firsts
Satellite
Space traveller
Rockets
Maiden flights
Retirements
Crewed flights
Orbital3
Suborbital1 (private)
Total travellers12 (3 suborbital)
EVAs11

This article documents notable spaceflight events during the year 2019.

Overview

Lunar exploration

The Chinese probe Chang'e 4 made the humanity's first soft landing on the far side of the Moon on 3 January and released its Yutu 2 rover to explore the lunar surface on the far side for the first time in human history.

The first panorama from the far side of the Moon, captured by Chang'e 4 lander

Israel's SpaceIL, one of the participants in the expired Google Lunar X Prize[1] launched the first private mission to the Moon in February. The Beresheet lander from SpaceIL made the landing attempt in April, but crashed onto the Moon.[2] India launched the delayed Chandrayaan-2 lunar orbiter/lander/rover in July; the orbiter reached lunar orbit by September, but the Vikram lander crashed into the lunar surface.[3]

Exploration of the Solar System

The probe New Horizons encountered the Kuiper belt object 486958 Arrokoth on 1 January. This is the farthest object from the Sun ever to have a close encounter with a spacecraft.[4] The Japanese asteroid exploration mission Hayabusa2 made a second touchdown with 162173 Ryugu to collect samples,[5] and departed for Earth on 12 November.[6] NASA declared the Mars rover Opportunity's mission over on 13 February.[7] The InSight lander observed the first recorded Marsquake in April.[8]

Human spaceflight

The first Commercial Crew Development test missions flew this year, aiming to restore United States human spaceflight capability following Space Shuttle retirement in 2011. In an uncrewed test flight, SpaceX SpaceX Dragon 2 successfully flew on a Falcon 9 to the International Space Station on 3 March 2019; the crewed mission was delayed when the recovered capsule exploded during testing on 20 April.[9] Boeing's CST-100 Starliner launched a similar uncrewed test flight on an Atlas V on 20 December, but an anomaly during launch meant that it could not reach the ISS and had to land only 2 days later.[10]

Rocket innovation

At the beginning of the year, around 100 small satellite launchers were in active use, in development, or were recently cancelled or stalled.[11] Three Chinese manufacturers launched their first orbital rocket in 2019: The maiden flight of OS-M1 in March failed to reach orbit,[12] the maiden flights of Hyperbola-1 in July[13] and of Jielong 1 in August[14] were successful. The PSLV-DL and PSLV-QL variants of the Indian PSLV first flew in January and April respectively.

SpaceX began testing of the SpaceX Starship in 2019, with an uncrewed prototype "Starhopper" flying 150m in the air in a suborbital test flight on 27 August.[15] The heavy-lift Long March 5 made its return to flight in December, more than two years after the July 2017 launch failure that grounded the vehicle and forced an engine redesign.[16]

The "single stick" Delta IV was retired in August,[17] and the analog-controlled Soyuz-FG was retired in September.[18] Due to Ukraine banning control system exports to Russia, Rokot was retired after a final flight in December.[19]

Orbital launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

10 January
17:05[20]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y56[21] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China Chinasat 2D CNSA Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
11 January
15:31[22]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-067 United States Vandenberg SLC-4E United States SpaceX
United States Iridium NEXT 66-75 Iridium Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
15 January[23][24] Iran Simorgh Iran Semnan LP-2 Iran ISA
Iran Payam-e Amirkabir / AUTSAT 1[25] Amirkabir University of Technology Low Earth Earth observation 15 January Launch failure
Third stage malfunctioned, satellite failed to reach orbit.[23]
18 January
00:50:20[26]
Japan Epsilon Japan Uchinoura Japan JAXA
Japan RAPIS-1 JAXA Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Japan ALE-1 Astro Live Experiences Low Earth (SSO) Artificial meteor shower In orbit Operational
Japan Hodoyoshi-2 (RISESAT) Tohoku University Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
Vietnam MicroDragon[27] VNSC Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Singapore / Japan AOBA-VELOX 4 Nanyang Technological University, Kyutech Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Japan NEXUS Nihon University Low Earth (SSO) Amateur radio In orbit Operational
Japan OrigamiSat-1 Tokyo Institute of Technology Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Launch of the Innovative Satellite Technology Demonstration-1 mission.
19 January
19:05[28]
United States Delta IV Heavy D-382 United States Vandenberg SLC-6 United States ULA
United States NROL-71 / Kennen (USA-290) NRO Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
21 January
05:42[29]
China Long March 11 Y6[30] China Jiuquan SLS-2 China CASC
China Jilin-1 Hyperspectral-01 (Jilin Lincao 1)[31] Chang Guang Satellite Technology Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Jilin-1 Hyperspectral-02 (Wenchang Chaosun 1) Chang Guang Satellite Technology Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Xiaoxiang 1-03[32] Tianyi Research Institute Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Lingque 1A[33] Beijing ZeroG Technology Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
24 January
18:07[34]
India PSLV-DL C44[35] India Satish Dhawan FLP India ISRO
India Microsat-R DRDO Low Earth Earth observation
ASAT target
27 March Destroyed[36]
India Kalamsat[35] Space Kidz India[37] Low Earth HAM Radio[37] In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of PSLV-DL. Microsat-R served as target for Indian ASAT experiment on 27 March 2019.

February

5 February[38][39] Iran Safir-1B[40] Iran Semnan LP-1 Iran ISA
Iran Dousti Sharif University of Technology Low Earth Communications, Remote sensing 5 February Launch failure[41][42]
5 February
21:01[43]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA VA247 France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Cyprus Hellas Sat 4 / Saudi Arabia SaudiGeoSat-1 Hellas-Sat / ArabSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
India GSAT-31[44] ISRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
21 February
16:47[45]
Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Egypt EgyptSat A NARSS Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
Third stage anomaly but achieved orbit in contingency mode
22 February
01:45[47]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-068 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
Indonesia Nusantara Satu PSN Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Israel Beresheet[48][49] SpaceIL Moon transfer Lunar lander 11 April Landing failure
United States S5[50] AFRL Geosynchronous Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Beresheet raised its orbit towards the moon from a supersynchronous transfer orbit with 60,000 km apogee.[46]
27 February
21:37[51]
Russia Soyuz ST-B / Fregat-M VS21 France Kourou ELS France Arianespace
United Kingdom OneWeb × 6 OneWeb Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational[52]
First flight for OneWeb satellite constellation. Kourou flight 1.

March

2 March
07:49:03[53]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-069 United States Kennedy LC-39A United States SpaceX
United States SpX-DM1 SpaceX / NASA Low Earth (ISS) Flight test / ISS logistics 8 March Successful
Crew Dragon Demo 1: Test of the SpaceX Dragon 2 as part of Commercial Crew Development program.
9 March
17:28[55]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y54[21] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China Chinasat 6C (Zhongxing 6C)[56] China Satcom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
300th launch of the Long March rocket family.[54]
14 March
19:14:09[57]
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz MS-12 / 58S Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 59/60 3 October
10:59
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts.
16 March
00:26[59]
United States Delta IV M+(5,4) D-383 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United States ULA
United States WGS-10 (USA-291) U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Last flight of Delta IV M+ (5,4) variant[58]
22 March
01:50:35[60]
Europe Vega VV14 France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
Italy PRISMA Italian Space Agency Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
600th satellite orbited by Arianespace[60]
27 March
09:39[61]
China OS-M1 China Jiuquan SLS-2 China OneSpace
China Lingque 1B Beijing ZeroG Technology Low Earth Earth observation 27 March Launch failure[61]
Maiden flight of OS-M1 rocket
28 March
23:27[62]
United States Electron "Two Thumbs Up" New Zealand Mahia LC-1A United States Rocket Lab
United States R3D2[63] DARPA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
31 March
15:50[64]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y44[65] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China Tianlian 2-01 CNSA Geosynchronous Communications (tracking and relay) In orbit Operational

April

1 April
03:57[66]
India PSLV-QL C45[35] India Satish Dhawan SLP India ISRO
India EMISAT ISRO Low Earth ELINT[67] In orbit Operational
United States Lemur-2 × 4 Spire Global Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
Lithuania BlueWalker 1[68] AST and Science Low Earth Test flight In orbit Operational
Lithuania M6P SpaceWorks Orbital / Lacuna Space Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
United States Flock-4a × 20[69] Planet Labs Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
Spain Aistechsat-3 GomSpace Low Earth Communications, Traffic monitoring In orbit Operational
Switzerland Astrocast 0.2 Astrocast SA Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of PSLV-QL
4 April
11:01:35[70]
Russia Soyuz-2.1a Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress MS-11 / 72P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 29 July Successful
4 April
17:03[71]
Russia Soyuz ST-B / Fregat-MT VS22 France Kourou ELS France Arianespace
Luxembourg O3b × 4 (FM17–FM20) SES S.A. Medium Earth Communications In orbit Operational
11 April
22:35[72]
United States Falcon Heavy FH-002 United States Kennedy LC-39A United States SpaceX
Saudi Arabia Arabsat-6A[73] ArabSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
17 April
20:46[77]
United States Antares 230 United States MARS LP-0A United States Northrop Grumman
United States Cygnus NG-11
S.S. Roger Chaffee
NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 6 December Successful
United States SASSI2 University of Illinois / Purdue University Low Earth Technology demonstration / Education 28 April[78] Spacecraft failure[79]
United States ThinSat × 60 Virginia Space Low Earth Technology demonstration / Educational 28 April[78] Successful (49/60 ThinSats)[80]
France EntrySat ISAE-SUPAERO / ONERA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United Kingdom IOD-1 GEMS Orbital Micro Systems Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Poland KRAKsat [pl] AGH University of Science and Technology / Jagiellonian University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Poland Swiatowid [pl] SatRevolution Low Earth Technology demonstration / Earth observation In orbit Operational
United States Virginia Cubesat Constellation × 3 Virginia Space Grant Consortium Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Japan Uguisu KyuTech Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Sri Lanka Raavana 1 ACCIMT Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Nepal NepaliSat-1 KyuTech / NAST Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Singapore SpooQy-1 NUS / SSTA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States AeroCube-10 × 2 Aerospace Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States Seeker NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
SASSI2 and the 60 ThinSats were secondary payloads carried aboard the Antares upper stage booster.[74] EntrySat, IOD-1, KRAKsat, Swiatowid, Virginia Cubesat Constellation, Uguisu, Raavana 1, NepaliSat-1, and SpooQy-1 were carried in Cygnus and later deployed from the ISS. The AeroCubes and Seeker were carried in the unpressurized compartment of Cygnus, and deployed from Cygnus after its departure from the ISS. Uguisu, Raavana 1, NepaliSat-1, and SpooQy-1 were deployed into orbit from the ISS on 17 June 2019. IOD-1 GEMS, KRAKsat, Swiatowid, EntrySat, and three Virginia Cubesat Constellation satellites were deployed into orbit on 3 July 2019. NepaliSat-1 is the first Nepalese satellite and Raavana 1 is the first Sri Lankan satellite. On the departure of Cygnus NG-11 from the ISS, SlingShot Deployer—carrying Quantum Radar, NARSSCube-2, RFTSat, and ORCA—was placed on its hatch bulkhead.[75] Those CubeSats and also AeroCube-10 were deployed into orbit from Cygnus on 7 August 2019.[76]
20 April
14:41[81]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y59[21] China Xichang LC-3 China CASC
China BeiDou-3 I1Q (Beidou-44) CNSA IGSO Navigation In orbit Operational
29 April
22:52[82]
China Long March 4B 4B-Y36[83] China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Tianhui 2-01A CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Tianhui 2-01B CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational

May

4 May
06:48[85]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-070 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States SpaceX CRS-17 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 3 June Successful
United States Red-Eye DARPA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Red-Eye was carried in CRS-17, and deployed into orbit from the ISS on 27 June 2019.[84]
5 May
06:00[86]
United States Electron "That's a Funny Looking Cactus" New Zealand Mahia LC-1A United States Rocket Lab
United States Harbinger U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States Falcon ODE U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States SPARC-1 U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
17 May
15:48[87]
China Long March 3C 3C-Y16[21] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China BeiDou-2 G8 (Beidou-45) CNSA Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational
22 May
00:00[88]
India PSLV-CA C46[35] India Satish Dhawan FLP India ISRO
India RISAT-2B ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation (radar) In orbit Operational
22 May
22:49[89]
China Long March 4C 4C-Y23[90] China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Yaogan 33 CAS Low Earth Reconnaissance 22 May Launch failure
24 May
02:30[91]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-071 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States Starlink × 60 SpaceX Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Starlink test mission, launching 60 Starlink v0.9 experimental satellites.
27 May
06:23[92]
Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat-M Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia RVSN RF
Russia GLONASS-M 758 VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
30 May
17:42[93]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M P4 Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Yamal-601 Gazprom Space Systems Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

June

5 June
04:06[94]
China Long March 11H China Yellow Sea Launch Platform[95] China CASC
China Bufeng-1A CAST Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Bufeng-1B CAST Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Jilin-1 [zh] High Resolution 03A Chang Guang Satellite Technology Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Tianqi-3 (Tao Xingzhi)[96] Guodian Gaoke Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Tianxiang-1A CETC Low Earth Technology demonstration
Communications
In orbit Operational
China Tianxiang-1B CETC Low Earth Technology demonstration
Communications
In orbit Operational
China Xiaoxiang 1-04 Tianyi Research Institute Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China’s first sea launch in the Yellow Sea off Shandong.
12 June
14:17[97]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-072 United States Vandenberg SLC-4E United States SpaceX
Canada RADARSAT Constellation × 3[98][99] Canadian Space Agency Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
20 June
21:43[100]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA VA248 France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
France Eutelsat 7C[101] Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United States AT&T T-16 DirecTV Geosynchronous Satellite television In orbit Operational
24 June
18:09[102]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y60[21] China Xichang LC-3 China CASC
China BeiDou-3 I2Q (Beidou-46)[103] CNSA IGSO Navigation In orbit Operational
25 June
06:30[104]
United States Falcon Heavy FH-003 United States Kennedy LC-39A United States SpaceX
United States STP-2 U.S. Air Force Low Earth, Medium Earth[105] Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States DSX AFRL Medium Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United StatesTaiwan COSMIC-2 × 6 NOAA / NSPO Low Earth Atmospheric In orbit Operational
United States GPIM NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration 14 October 2020[106] Successful
United States Oculus-ASR Michigan Technological University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States OTB General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States NPSAT1 NRL Low Earth Atmospheric In orbit Operational
United States Prox-1 Georgia Institute of Technology Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States E-TBEx × 2 NASA Low Earth Atmospheric In orbit Operational
United States LEO Cal Poly Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States StangSat Merritt Island High School Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States FalconSAT-7 United States Naval Academy Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States PSAT2 United States Naval Academy Low Earth Amateur radio In orbit Operational
United States BRICSat-2 United States Naval Academy Low Earth Technology demonstration / Amateur radio In orbit Successful[107][108]
United States TEPCE × 2 NRL Low Earth Technology demonstration 1 February 2020[109] Successful
United States LightSail 2 The Planetary Society Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States ARMADILLO UT Austin Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
STP-2 carries multiple cubesats and other small payloads for NASA, NOAA, The Planetary Society and others in addition to the primary mission which consists of multiple U.S. Air Force payloads.
29 June
04:30[110]
United States Electron "Make It Rain" New Zealand Mahia LC-1A United States Rocket Lab
United States BlackSky Global 3[111] BlackSky Global Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
United States Prometheus × 2 USSOCOM Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Australia ACRUX-1 Melbourne Space Program Low Earth Education In orbit Operational
United States SpaceBEE 8 & 9 Swarm Technologies Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Mexico Painani 1[112] SEDENA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational

July

5 July
05:41[113]
Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat-M Russia Vostochny Site 1S Russia Roscosmos
Russia Meteor-M 2-2 Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Operational[114]
Germany EXOCONNECT German Orbital Systems Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[114]
United States El Camino Real[115] Momentus Space Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational[114]
Germany MOVE-IIb[116] TUM Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[114]
10 July
17:14[117][118][119]
Russia Soyuz-2-1v / Volga Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2535 VKS Low Earth Satellite inspection In orbit Operational[120]
Russia Kosmos 2536 VKS Low Earth Satellite inspection In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2537 VKS Low Earth Radar calibration In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2538 VKS Low Earth Radar calibration In orbit Operational
11 July
01:53:03[121]
Europe Vega VV15 France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
United Arab Emirates Falcon Eye 1 (fr)[123] UAE Armed Forces Low Earth IMINT (Reconnaissance) 11 July Launch failure
Possibly an ignition failure of the second stage.[121] Later investigation findings showed the failure mostly traced into a structural failure on the second stage's forward dome resulting from higher temperatures.[122]
13 July
12:30:57[124]
Russia Proton-M / DM-03 Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Germany Spektr-RG[125] IKI RAN
Max Planck Institute
Sun–Earth L2, halo orbit X-ray astronomy In orbit Operational[126]
20 July
16:28:20[128]
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz MS-13 / 59S Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 60/61 6 February 2020 Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts.[127]
22 July
09:13[130]
India GSLV Mk III M1 India Satish Dhawan SLP India ISRO
India Chandrayaan-2 / Vikram / Pragyan ISRO Selenocentric Lunar orbiter, lander and rover In orbit Operational
The lander crashed on the lunar surface and broke into pieces during powered descent. The Orbiter remains operational.[129]
25 July
05:00[132]
China Hyperbola-1 China Jiuquan China i-Space
China CAS-7B[133] CAMSAT Low Earth Amateur radio 6 August[134] Successful
Maiden flight of Hyperbola-1.[13][131]
25 July
22:01:56[137]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-073 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States SpaceX CRS-18 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 27 August Successful
United States RFTSat Northwest Nazarene University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Egypt NARSSCube-2 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States ORCA DARPA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
RFTSat, NARSSCube-2, and ORCA are carried in CRS-18 to ISS.[135][136] They were placed in SlingShot Deployer on Cygnus NG-11 hatch bulkhead.[75] They were deployed into orbit by SlingShot Deployer on 7 August 2019 after the departure of Cygnus NG-11 from the ISS.
26 July
03:57[140]
China Long March 2C 2C-Y37[141] China Xichang LC-3[141] China CASC
China Yaogan 30-05 01 CAS Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
China Yaogan 30-05 02 CAS Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
China Yaogan 30-05 03 CAS Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
Grid fins located on the interstage of the rocket are being used to test first stage landing zone control and recovery technologies.[138][139]
30 July
05:56[142]
Russia Soyuz-2.1a / Fregat-M Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Meridian 8 (18L) VKS Molniya Communications (military) In orbit Operational
31 July
12:10:46[143]
Russia Soyuz-2.1a Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress MS-12 / 73P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 29 November Successful

August

5 August
21:56[144]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Blagovest-14L VKS Geosynchronous Communications (military) In orbit Operational
Fourth Blagovest satellite launch, completing the initial Blagovest satellite constellation.[144]
6 August
19:30[145]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA VA249 France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Europe EDRS-C[146] / United Kingdom HYLAS-3 ESA / Avanti Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United States Intelsat 39 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
6 August
23:23[147]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-074 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
Israel Amos 17[148][149] Spacecom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
The launch was free of charge for Spacecom as compensation for Amos-6's destruction on 1 September 2016. The booster, B1047, was expended.
8 August
10:13[150]
United States Atlas V 551 AV-084 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States ULA
United States AEHF-5[151] U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Communications (military) In orbit Operational
United States TDO[150] U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Space debris tracking In orbit Operational
17 August
04:11[14]
China Jielong 1 China Jiuquan LA-4 China CALT
China Tianqi-2[152] Guodian Gaoke Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Qian Sheng-1 01 (QS1-01)[152][153][154] Qian Sheng Exploration Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
China Xingshidai-5[155] ADASpace[156] Low Earth Remote sensing In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Jielong 1 (also known as Smart Dragon 1). First launch for the Qian Sheng satellite constellation.
19 August
12:03[159]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y58[160] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China Chinasat 18[161] China Satcom Intended: Geosynchronous
Actual: GTO
Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
Spacecraft apparently failed to deploy solar panels after stage separation. It remains inoperable in geostationary transfer orbit (GTO).[157][158] The satellite has been declared as total loss by the Chinese government.
19 August
12:12[162]
United States Electron "Look Ma, No Hands"[163] New Zealand Mahia LC-1A United States Rocket Lab
United States BlackSky Global 4 BlackSky Global Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
France BRO 1[164] UnseenLabs Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational
United States Pearl White × 2[165] Air Force Space Command Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
22 August
03:38:31[169]
Russia Soyuz-2.1a Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz MS-14 / 60S Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Test flight / ISS logistics 6 September
21:32[170]
Successful
Uncrewed flight to certify Soyuz-2.1a for crew transport missions[166][167][168] with FEDOR (Skybot F-850) robot on board. First docking attempt on 24 August was aborted due to an issue on ISS, second attempt on 27 August was successful. Delivered Mini-EUSO telescope to ISS.
22 August
13:06[172]
United States Delta IV M+ (4,2)U D-384 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United States ULA
United States GPS IIIA-02 Magellan U.S. Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Last flight of the Delta IV "single stick" M+ series (Delta IV Heavy will continue flying). Named after Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan.[171]
29 August
(ground test)[175]
Iran Safir-1B[176] Iran Semnan LP-1 Iran ISA
Iran Nahid 1[177] Iranian Space Research Center Low Earth Communications N/A Rocket destroyed prior to launch[174]
Rocket apparently exploded on the launch pad.[173] According to the Iranian Ministry of ICT, the Nahid 1 satellite had yet to be delivered to the launch site.[174]
30 August
14:00[178]
Russia Rokot / Briz-KM Russia Plesetsk Site 133/3 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Geo-IK-2 No.3 (Musson-2) VKS Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Operational
30 August
23:41[179]
China Kuaizhou 1A Y10[180] China Jiuquan SLS-2 China ExPace
China Taiji-1 (KX-09)[181][182] CAS Low Earth (SSO) Microgravity science
Gravitational-wave astronomy
In orbit Operational
China Xiaoxiang 1-07[179] Tianyi Research Institute Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational

September

12 September
03:26[183]
China Long March 4B 4B-Y39[90] China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Ziyuan I-02D PLA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Ice Pathfinder (BNU-1)[184] Beijing Normal University Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Taurus 1 (Jinniuzuo-1) Shanghai Aerospace Science and Technology Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
19 September
06:42[185]
China Long March 11 Y8[30] China Jiuquan LA-4 China CASC
China Zhuhai-1 OHS 2E–2H[186] Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Zhuhai-1 OVS 2B[187] Zhuhai Orbita Control Engineering Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
22 September
21:10[188]
China Long March 3B / YZ-1 3B-Y65[21] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China BeiDou-3 M23 (Beidou-47)[189] CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
China BeiDou-3 M24 (Beidou-48)[189] CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
24 September
16:05[191]
Japan H-IIB Japan Tanegashima LA-Y2 Japan MHI
Japan HTV-8 JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 3 November
02:09[192]
Successful
Egypt NARSSCube-1 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Japan AQT-D University of Tokyo Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Rwanda RWASAT-1 Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
The first launch attempt on 10 September, 21:33 UTC, was postponed due to a fire on the launch pad. NARSSCube-1, AQT-D, RWASAT-1 are carried to ISS inside HTV-8 for later deployment into orbit from the ISS. RWASAT-1 is Rwanda's first satellite.[190] They were deployed into orbit from the ISS on 20 November 2019.
25 September
00:54[193]
China Long March 2D 2D-Y43[141] China Jiuquan SLS-2 China CASC
China Yunhai-1 02 SAST Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Operational
25 September
13:57:43[194]
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz MS-15 / 61S Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 61/62 17 April 2020
05:16
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts. Last flight of Soyuz-FG and last launch from Baikonur Site 1 ("Gagarin's Start"); replaced by Soyuz-2.1a launching from Site 31 for crewed missions starting with Soyuz MS-16 in April 2020.
26 September
07:46[195]
Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat-M Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia RVSN RF
Russia EKS-3 (Tundra 13L)[196] VKS Molniya Early warning In orbit Operational

October

4 October
18:51[197]
China Long March 4C 4C-Y33 China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Gaofen 10R CAST Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
Replacement for the Gaofen 10 satellite lost on 31 August 2016.
9 October
10:17[200]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M P4 Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States ILS
France Eutelsat 5 West B Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United States MEV-1 Northrop Grumman Geosynchronous Satellite servicing In orbit Operational
MEV-1 successfully rendezvoused with Intelsat 901 on 25 February 2020.[198] MEV-1 will extend Intelsat 901's operational life by five years through in-orbit station-keeping.[199]
11 October
02:00[201]
United States Pegasus-XL F44 United States Stargazer, CCAFS Skid Strip United States Northrop Grumman
United States ICON NASA Low Earth Ionospheric research In orbit Operational
17 October
01:22[202]
United States Electron "As The Crow Flies"[203] New Zealand Mahia LC-1A United States Rocket Lab
United States Palisade[204] Astro Digital Low Earth (Polar) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
17 October
15:21[205]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y57 China Xichang LC-3 China CASC
China TJSW-4 CNSA Geosynchronous Communications
SIGINT
In orbit Operational

November

2 November
13:59:47[211]
United States Antares 230+ United States MARS LP-0A United States Northrop Grumman
United States Cygnus NG-12
S.S. Alan Bean
NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics In orbit Operational
United States STPSat 4[212] USAF STP Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States Argus-02 Saint Louis University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States HARP[213] UM Low Earth Technology demonstration
Atmospheric research
In orbit Operational
United States Phoenix Arizona State University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States RadSat-U Montana State University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States SOCRATES University of Minnesota Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States HuskySat-1 University of Washington Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States SwampSat II University of Florida Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States AeroCube 14 (IMPACT) × 2[214] NRO Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States AeroCube 15 (Rogue) × 2[214] U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States Orbital Factory 2[215] University of Texas Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
First CRS-2 mission for Cygnus. The ELaNa 25A mission launched on this resupply flight.[206] STPSat-4 was deployed into orbit from ISS on 29 January 2020.[207] AeroCube 14 × 2, AeroCube 15 × 2, HuskySat-1, SwampSat-II, and Orbital Factory 2 were deployed into orbit from Cygnus NG-12 after it departed from the ISS.[208][209] RadSat-U, Phoenix, SOCRATES, HARP, and Argus-02 were deployed into orbit from the ISS on 19 February 2020.[210]
3 November
03:22:39[219][220]
China Long March 4B 4B-Y38 China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Gaofen 7[221] Ministry of Natural Resources Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Huangpu-1 (Jingzhi-1)[222] SAST Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational
Sudan Sudan Remote Sensing Satellite 1 (SRSS-1) Sudan Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational
China Xiaoxiang 1-08 / Tianyi 15 / Dianfeng Tianyi Research Institute Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Xiaoxiang 1-08 carries the first propulsion system in space using solid iodine as propellant (cold gas thruster) developed by a French start-up.[216] Test of grid fins towards development of reusable boosters for Long March 8. SRSS-1, Sudan's first satellite developed and built by Chinese satellite manufacturer, Shenzhen Aerospace Oriental Red Sea Satellite Co., was launched as a rideshare on this mission.[217][218]
4 November
17:43[223]
China Long March 3B/E 3B-Y61[21] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China BeiDou-3 I3Q CNSA IGSO Navigation In orbit Operational
11 November
14:56[224]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-075 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States Starlink × 60 SpaceX Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
First operational Starlink mission, launching the first 60 Starlink v1.0 satellites. The booster was flown for the 4th time.
13 November
03:40[225]
China Kuaizhou 1A Y11 China Jiuquan SLS-2 China ExPace
China Jilin-1 Gaofen-02A[180] Chang Guang Satellite Technology Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
13 November
06:35[226][227]
China Long March 6 Y4 China Taiyuan LC-16 China CASC
China Ningxia-1 (Zhongzi) × 5[228] Ningxia Jingui Information Technology Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
17 November
10:00[232]
China Kuaizhou 1A Y7[180] China Jiuquan SLS-2 China ExPace
Germany KL-Alpha A[233] KLEO Connect Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Germany KL-Alpha B[233] KLEO Connect Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
The two satellites are part of an international cooperative commercial project between the Innovation Academy for Microsatellites of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and KLEO Connect.[229][230] KL-Alpha A and B are the first commercial satellites built by a Chinese satellite construction organization for a foreign company.[231]
23 November
00:55[234]
China Long March 3B / YZ-1 3B-Y66[235] China Xichang LC-3 China CASC
China BeiDou-3 M21 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
China BeiDou-3 M22 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
25 November
17:52[119]
Russia Soyuz-2-1v / Volga Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2542 Ministry of Defence Low Earth (SSO) Satellite inspection[239] In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2543 Ministry of Defence Low Earth (SSO) Satellite inspection[236]
ASAT test
In orbit Operational
Kosmos 2542, the main satellite, deployed a small inspector sub-satellite, Kosmos 2543, on 6 December.[236][237] Kosmos 2543 deployed an even smaller sub-satellite at a high velocity on 15 July 2020, an event that U.S. military officials characterized as a test of a space-based anti-satellite weapon.[238]
26 November
21:23[240]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA VA250 France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
United Kingdom Inmarsat-5 F5 (GX5)[241][242] Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Egypt TIBA 1[243] Egypt Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
27 November
03:58[244][245]
India PSLV-XL C47[246] India Satish Dhawan SLP India ISRO
India Cartosat-3 ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
United States Flock-4p × 12[247] Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
United States Meshbed[248] Analytical Space Inc. Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
27 November
23:52[249][250]
China Long March 4C 4C-Y24 China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Gaofen 12 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational

December

5 December
17:29[253]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-076 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States SpaceX CRS-19 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 7 January 2020 Successful
Mexico United States AzTechSat-1[254] UPAEP / NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States CryoCube 1[255] NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States SORTIE[256] ASTRA LLC Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States CIRiS[257] USU Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States EdgeCube[258] SSU Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Belgium QARMAN[259][260] Von Karman Institute Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States MakerSat-1[261][262] NNU Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States VPM[263] AFRL Low Earth Magnetospheric research In orbit Operational
United States MiniCarb (CNGB)[264] LLNL / GSFC Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
The ELaNa 25B and 28 missions were launched on this resupply flight.[206] EdgeCube, CIRiS, MakerSat-1, VPM, and MiniCarb were deployed from Cygnus NG-12 after its departure from the ISS.[251][252] AzTechSat-1, CryoCube 1, SORTIE, and QARMAN were deployed from the ISS on 19 February 2020.[210]
6 December
08:18[267]
United States Electron "Running Out Of Fingers" New Zealand Mahia LC-1A United States Rocket Lab
Hungary ATL 1 ATL Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 11 October 2020[268] Successful
Spain FossaSat 1 Fossa Systems Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States NOOR 1A (Unicorn 2B)[269] Stara Space Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States NOOR 1B (Unicorn 2C)[269] Stara Space Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 7 April 2020[270] Successful[271]
Hungary SMOG-P BME University Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 28 September 2020[272] Successful
Germany TRSI Sat ACME AtronOmatic Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 9 October 2020[273] Successful
Japan ALE-2 Astro Live Experiences Low Earth (SSO) Artificial meteor shower In orbit Spacecraft failure[274]
Launched ALE-2 and six PocketQubes forming Alba Cluster 2 for Alba Orbital.[265] Tested reusability technologies on the first stage following stage separation and reentry.[266]
6 December
09:34:11[275]
Russia Soyuz-2.1a Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress MS-13 / 74P[276] Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 8 July 2020 Successful
7 December
02:55[277]
China Kuaizhou 1A Y2 China Taiyuan Mobile Launch Platform China ExPace
China Jilin-1 Gaofen-02B Chang Guang Satellite Technology Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
7 December
08:52[277]
China Kuaizhou 1A Y12 China Taiyuan LC-16 China ExPace
China HEAD-2A[278] HEAD Aerospace Low Earth (SSO) AIS ship tracking In orbit Operational
China HEAD-2B[278] HEAD Aerospace Low Earth (SSO) AIS ship tracking In orbit Operational
China Tianyi 16 Spacety Aerospace Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Tianyi 17 Spacety Aerospace Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Tianqi-4A[96] Guodian Gaoke Low Earth (SSO) IoT In orbit Operational
China Tianqi-4B[96] Guodian Gaoke Low Earth (SSO) IoT In orbit Operational
11 December
08:54:48[279]
Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat-M Russia Plesetsk Site 43/3 Russia RVSN RF
Russia GLONASS-M 759 VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
11 December
09:55[280][281]
India PSLV-QL C48 India Satish Dhawan FLP India ISRO
India RISAT-2BR1[282] ISRO Low Earth Earth observation
Reconnaissance
In orbit Operational
Japan Izanagi (QPS-SAR 1)[283] iQPS Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
United States Lemur-2 × 4 Spire Global Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
Israel Duchifat-3[284] Herzliya Science Center Low Earth Earth observation
Education
In orbit Operational
United States 1HOPSAT TD[285] Hera Systems Low Earth Earth observation
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational
Israel NANOVA / COMMTRAIL (Tyvak 92)[286][287] Elbit Systems Low Earth Search and rescue In orbit Operational
United States Pathfinder Risk Reduction (Tyvak 129)[288] Tyvak Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
16 December
07:22[289]
China Long March 3B / YZ-1 3B-Y67 China Xichang LC-3 China CASC
China BeiDou-3 M19 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
China BeiDou-3 M20 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
17 December
00:10[290]
United States Falcon 9 Block 5 F9-077 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
Japan Singapore JCSAT-18 / Kacific 1[291] JSAT / Kacific Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
18 December
08:54:20[292]
Russia Soyuz ST-A / Fregat-M VS23 France Kourou ELS France Arianespace
Europe CHEOPS[293] ESA Low Earth (SSO) Space telescope
Exoplanetary science
In orbit Operational
Italy COSMO-SkyMed (CSG) 1 ASI Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation (radar) In orbit Operational
Europe OPS-SAT ESA Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
France EyeSat[294] CNES Low Earth (SSO) Astronomy In orbit Operational
France ANGELS[295] CNES Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
20 December
03:22:29[297][298][299]
China Long March 4B 4B-Y44 China Taiyuan LC-9 China CASC
China Brazil CBERS 4A / Ziyuan I-04A[300] CASC / INPE Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
Ethiopia ETRSS-1[301] ESSTI Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Tianqin 1[302] Sun Yat-sen University Low Earth (SSO) Gravitational-wave astronomy In orbit Operational
China Weilai 1R / Future 1R[303] China Central Television Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Yuheng (Gemini-1 01) NUDT Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Shuntian (Gemini-1 02) NUDT Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Tianyan 01 / Yizheng-1 Jiangsu Satellite Technology Services Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Tianyan 02 / Xingshidai-8 ADASpace Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
Brazil FloripaSat-1[304] UFSC Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
ETRSS-1 is the first Ethiopian satellite, which was developed in collaboration between Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute and China Academy of Space Technology, with $6 million pledged by China to provide grant and training covering the satellite's $8 million development cost.[296]
20 December
11:36:43[307]
United States Atlas V N22 AV-080 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States ULA
United States Starliner Boe-OFT Boeing / NASA Low Earth (ISS) Flight test / ISS logistics 22 December 2019
12:58
Spacecraft anomaly, recovered successfully
Boeing Orbital Flight Test of CST-100 Starliner as part of Commercial Crew Development program.[305] Approach to ISS aborted after achieving orbit due to error in Mission-Elapsed Timer on the spacecraft, resulting in an anomalous orbital injection.[306] Spacecraft landed at White Sands Missile Range on 22 December 2019 after two days in space.[10]
24 December
12:03[308]
Russia Proton-M / DM-03 Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Elektro-L №3 Roscosmos Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
26 December
23:11:57[19][310]
Russia Rokot / Briz-KM Russia Plesetsk Site 133/3 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Gonets-M 14 Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Gonets-M 15 Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Gonets-M 16 Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia BLITS-M Roscosmos Low Earth Laser ranging 10 April 2020[311] Payload separation failure
Final flight of Rokot. BLITS-M failed to separate from the upper stage.[309]
27 December
12:45[16][312]
China Long March 5 Y3[313] China Wenchang LC-1 China CASC
China Shijian 20 (18-02) CAST Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

Suborbital flights

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
4 January
09:27
Canada Black Brant XIIA Norway Andøya United States NASA
United States CAPER-2 Dartmouth College Suborbital Auroral research 4 January Successful
Apogee: 774 kilometres (481 mi)
13 January
09:13
United States Terrier-Improved Malemute Norway Andøya United States NASA
United States G-CHASER University of Colorado Suborbital Student payloads 13 January Successful
Apogee: 174 kilometres (108 mi)
22 January Israel Silver Sparrow ? Israel F-15 Eagle, Israel Israel IAF
IAI/IDF Suborbital Missile test target 22 January Successful
Arrow III target, successfully intercepted
22 January Israel Arrow III Israel Negev Israel IAF
IAI/IDF Suborbital Flight test 22 January Successful
Successful intercept, Apogee: ~200 kilometres (120 mi)
23 January
15:05[315]
United States New Shepard NS-10 United States Corn Ranch United States Blue Origin
United States Crew Capsule 2.0 Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight 23 January Successful
Tenth test flight of the New Shepard development program, fourth one with the current vehicle.[314]
6 February
07:01
United States Minuteman-III United States Vandenberg Air Force Base LF-04 United States US Air Force
United States FTU-1 US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 6 February Successful
6 February
08:31
Russia RS-24 Yars Russia Plesetsk Russia RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 6 February Successful
12 February India PDV-II India ITR IC-4 India DRDO
India ASAT DRDO Suborbital Satellite intercept 12 February Launch failure
First attempt of Mission Shakhti (ASAT Test with Microsat-R as target)[316]
22 February
16:54
United States SpaceShipTwo VF-01 United States White Knight Two, from Mojave Spaceport United States Virgin Galactic
United States VSS Unity Virgin Galactic Suborbital Test flight 22 February Successful
Second crewed sub-orbital high altitude flight of SpaceShipTwo with three crew members on board, pilot David Mackay, co-pilot Mike Masucci and chief trainer Beth Moses, Apogee: 89.9 kilometres (55.9 mi)
2 March
17:45
United States SARGE United States Spaceport America, New Mexico United States Exos Aerospace
SARGE M1 Exos Aerospace Suborbital Microgravity Research 2 March Partial failure
Second launch of the SARGE suborbital launch vehicle, it carried several small research payloads and was intended to reach a peak altitude of 80 kilometers, but winds kept the rocket from achieving its planned altitude, it reached only an apogee of 20 kilometres (12 mi)[317]
25 March
17:20
United States ICBM-T2 United States Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site United States MDA
United States FTG-11 target MDA Suborbital ABM target 25 March Successful
Ballistic missile target for interception
25 March
17:30
United States GBI-OBV United States Vandenberg Air Force Base United States MDA
United States FTG-11 Interceptor MDA Suborbital ABM test 25 March Successful
Ballistic missile interceptor
25 March
17:31
United States GBI-OBV United States Vandenberg Air Force Base United States MDA
United States FTG-11 Interceptor MDA Suborbital ABM test 25 March Successful
Ballistic missile interceptor
27 March
05:40
India PDV-II India ITR IC-4 India DRDO
India ASAT DRDO Suborbital Satellite intercept 27 March Successful
Mission Shakhti (ASAT Test with Microsat-R as target), Apogee: 270 kilometres (170 mi), satellite successfully destroyed
5 April
22:14
Canada Black Brant XIA Norway Andøya United States NASA
United States AZURE 1 Clemson Suborbital Auroral 5 April Successful
Apogee: 320 kilometres (200 mi)
5 April
22:16
Canada Black Brant XIA Norway Andøya United States NASA
United States AZURE 2 Clemson Suborbital Auroral 5 April Successful
Apogee: 320 kilometres (200 mi)
11 April
16:51
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands Missile Range United States NASA
United StatesJapanSpainNorwayFrance CLASP-2 NASA / NAOJ / JAXA / IAC / IAS [fr] Suborbital Solar astronomy 11 April Successful
Apogee: 274 kilometres (170 mi)
21 April United States Traveler IV United States Spaceport America, New Mexico United States USC Rocket Propulsion Lab
Flight test - Suborbital Flight test 21 April Successful
First suborbital flight by a student team.[318] Apogee: 104 kilometres (65 mi)
23 April United States Terrier Malemute United States Pacific Missile Range Facility United States NNSA
United States HOT SHOT 2 NNSA Suborbital Technology experiments 23 April Successful
Apogee: ~320 kilometres (200 mi)?
24 April United States Terrier Malemute United States Pacific Missile Range Facility United States NNSA
United States HOT SHOT 3 NNSA Suborbital Technology experiments 24 April Successful
Apogee: ~320 kilometres (200 mi)?
1 May
09:42
United States Minuteman-III United States Vandenberg Air Force Base LF-10 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 1 May Successful
2 May[319]
13:35
United States New Shepard NS-11 United States Corn Ranch United States Blue Origin
United States Crew Capsule 2.0 Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight 2 May Successful
Took 38 research payloads into space
3 May
20:45
Japan Momo 3 Japan Taiki Aerospace Research Field Japan Interstellar Technologies
Japan Kochi University of Technology Suborbital Infrasound propagation measurement 3 May Successful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)[320]
9 May
07:40
United States Minuteman-III United States Vandenberg Air Force Base LF-09 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 9 May Successful
9 May United States UGM-133 Trident II United States USS Rhode Island (SSBN-740), ETR United States US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 9 May Successful
Demonstration and Shakedown Operation (DASO) 29
10 May United States SM-3-IB United States USS Roosevelt (DDG-80), Hebrides Range United States US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Test flight 10 May Successful
FS-19 E4, apogee: ~150 kilometres (93 mi)?
23 May Pakistan Shaheen-II Pakistan Sonmiani Pakistan ASFC
ASFC Suborbital Missile test 23 May Successful
13 June
02:21
Brazil VSB-30? Sweden Esrange GermanyDLR / SwedenSSC
Germany ATEK/MAPHEUS-8 DLR Suborbital Technology demonstration 13 June Successful
Apogee: 240 kilometres (150 mi)
19 June
11:28
Canada Black Brant IX Marshall Islands Kwajalein Atoll United States NASA
United States TooWINDY 1 NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research 19 June Successful
Apogee: 373 kilometres (232 mi)[321]
19 June
11:33
Canada Black Brant IX Marshall Islands Kwajalein Atoll United States NASA
United States TooWINDY 2 NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research 19 June Successful
Apogee: 412 kilometres (256 mi)
20 June
09:38
United States Terrier-Improved Orion United States Wallops Flight Facility United States NASA
United States RockOn University of Colorado Suborbital Student payloads 20 June Successful
Apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)[322]
24 June
06:52
Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Europe EuroLaunch
Sweden MASER-14 SSC Suborbital Microgravity 24 June Successful
apogee: 260 kilometres (160 mi)
29 June
18:00
United States SARGE United States Spaceport America, New Mexico United States Exos Aerospace
SARGE M1 Exos Aerospace Suborbital Microgravity Research 29 June Launch failure
Third launch of the SARGE suborbital launch vehicle, it carried several small research payloads for nine clients. The flight failed seconds after launch. However, the rocket was recovered.[323]
2 July
11:00[53]
United States Orion Abort Test Booster United States Cape Canaveral SLC-46 United States NASA
United States Orion Ascent Abort-2 NASA Suborbital Test flight 2 July Successful
In-flight abort test under the highest aerodynamic loads. A specific booster repurposed from a LGM-118 Peacekeeper missile was used in this mission.[324][325]
24 July IranShahab-3 IranIran IranIRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 24 July Successful
Apogee: ~150 kilometres (93 mi)
26 July Russia RS-12M Topol Russia Kapustin Yar Russia RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 26 July Successful
26 July ? United States eMRBM ? United States C-17, Pacific Ocean ? United States MDA
United StatesIsrael FTA-01 MDA Suborbital Arrow III target 26 July ? Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi), the FTA-01 exercise saw three US Missile Defense Agency medium range targets of undisclosed type launched from an undisclosed location on undisclosed dates in July, all intercepted by Israeli Arrow 3 interceptors launched from Kodiak, Alaska.[326]
26 July ? Israel Arrow III United States Kodiak Israel IAF / United States MDA
United StatesIsrael FTA-01 MDA/IDF Suborbital ABM test 26 July ? Successful
Intercepted target missile, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 July ? United States eMRBM ? United States C-17, Pacific Ocean ? United States MDA
United StatesIsrael FTA-01 MDA Suborbital Arrow III target 26 July ? Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi), successful intercepted
26 July ? Israel Arrow III United States Kodiak Israel IAF / United States MDA
United StatesIsrael FTA-01 MDA/IDF Suborbital ABM test 26 July ? Successful
Intercepted target missile, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 July ? United States eMRBM ? United States C-17, Pacific Ocean ? United States MDA
United StatesIsrael FTA-01 MDA Suborbital Arrow III target 26 July ? Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi), successful intercepted
26 July ? Israel Arrow III United States Kodiak Israel IAF / United States MDA
United StatesIsrael FTA-01 MDA/IDF Suborbital ABM test 26 July ? Successful
Intercepted target missile, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
27 July
07:20
Japan Momo 4 Japan Taiki Aerospace Research Field Japan Interstellar Technologies
Japan Kochi University of Technology Suborbital Infrasound propagation measurement 27 July Launch failure
The rocket suffered an early engine shutdown and only reached 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) altitude.
11 August
06:07
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands Missile Range United States NASA
United States SISTINE University of Colorado Suborbital UV Astronomy 11 August Successful
Apogee: 259 kilometres (161 mi)
12 August
09:44
United States Terrier-Improved Malemute United States Wallops Flight Facility United States NASA
United States RockSat-X NASA Suborbital Student experiments 12 August Successful
Apogee: 154 kilometres (96 mi)
24 August Russia R-29RMU Sineva Russia K-114 Tula, near North Pole Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 24 August Successful
24 August Russia RSM-56 Bulava Russia K-535 Yury Dolgorukiy, Barents Sea Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 24 August Successful
30 August United States eMRBM ? United States C-17, Pacific Ocean United States MDA
United States FTT-23 MDA Suborbital ABM target 30 August Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi), successfully intercepted
30 August United States THAAD United States Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site United States US Army
United States FTT-23 US Army/MDA Suborbital ABM test 30 August Successful
Intercepted target missile, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
4 September United States UGM-133 Trident II United States USS Nebraska (SSBN-739), Pacific Missile Range Facility United States US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 4 September Successful
Commander Evaluation Test (CET)
4 September United States UGM-133 Trident II United States USS Nebraska (SSBN-739), Pacific Missile Range Facility United States US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 4 September Successful
Commander Evaluation Test (CET)
6 September United States UGM-133 Trident II United States USS Nebraska (SSBN-739), Pacific Missile Range Facility United States US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 6 September Successful
Commander Evaluation Test (CET)
6 September United States UGM-133 Trident II United States USS Nebraska (SSBN-739), Pacific Missile Range Facility United States US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 6 September Successful
Commander Evaluation Test (CET)
18 September
09:30 ?
Canada Black Brant IX United States Wallops Flight Facility United States NASA
United States DoD Suborbital Technology demonstration 18 September Successful
Apogee: 200 kilometres (120 mi)
30 September
18:04
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands Missile Range United States NASA
United States ESIS Montana State University Suborbital Solar research 30 September Successful
Apogee: 246 kilometres (153 mi)
30 September Russia RS-12M Topol Russia Plesetsk Russia RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 30 September Successful
2 October
08:13
United States Minuteman-III United States Vandenberg Air Force Base LF-10 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 2 October Successful
7 October
15:00
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands Missile Range United States NASA
United States DUST GSFC Suborbital Physics 7 October Successful
Apogee: 338 kilometres (210 mi)
17 October Russia RS-24 Yars Russia Plesetsk Russia RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 17 October Successful
17 October Russia R-29RMU Sineva Russia K-18 Karelia, Barents Sea Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 17 October Successful
17 October Russia R-29R Volna Russia K-44 Ryazan, Sea of Okhotsk Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 17 October Successful
25 October
00:00
United States Terrier-Improved Malemute United States Wallops Flight Facility United States NASA
United States SubTec-8 NASA Suborbital Technology demonstration 25 October Successful
Apogee: 209 kilometres (130 mi)
26 October
17:42
United States SARGE United States Spaceport America, New Mexico United States Exos Aerospace
SARGE M1 Exos Aerospace Suborbital Microgravity Research 26 October Launch failure
Fourth launch of the SARGE suborbital launch vehicle, it carried several small research payloads. The rocket lost control of attitude seconds after launch. Several pieces of debris felt back to the ground, and the rocket body crashed near the launch pad nearly three and a half minutes after liftoff. The rocket reached a peak altitude of about 12.6 kilometres (7.8 mi), far short of the planned altitude of at least 80 kilometres (50 mi).[327]
28 October
04:30
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands Missile Range United States NASA
United States FORTIS-4 JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy 28 October Successful
Apogee: 261 kilometres (162 mi). Payload: Experimental FORTIS (Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) telescope and Next-Generation Microshutter Array (NGMSA). Studied the way gas is being ejected by supernovae from galaxy M33. The goal is to understand matter recycling between stellar generations of the galaxy. Experiment was successful.[328]
30 October Russia RSM-56 Bulava Russia K-549 Knyaz Vladimir, White Sea Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 30 October Successful
4 November
14:15
United States Starliner launch abort engines United States White Sands Missile Range United States Boeing
United States Starliner Boeing Suborbital Emergency escape systems test; pad-abort test 4 November Successful
Apogee: 1,349 meters (4,426 ft)
15 November
09:35
Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Europe EuroLaunch
GermanyEurope TEXUS-56 DLR / ESA Suborbital Microgravity 15 November Successful
Apogee: 256 kilometres (159 mi)
16 November
14:02
India Agni II India Integrated Test Range India Indian Army / DRDO
Indian Army/DRDO Suborbital Missile test 16 November Successful
22 November
15:19
United States SpaceLoft XL United States Spaceport America United States UP Aerospace
United States FOP-7, ADS-B experiment NASA Suborbital Technology experiments 22 November Successful
Mission SL-14, Apogee: 92 kilometres (57 mi)[329]
26 November
07:43
United States Terrier-Improved Malemute Norway Ny-Aalesund United States NASA
United StatesNorway ICI-5 NASA/Oslo/Andøya Suborbital Ionosphere research 26 November Partial failure
Apogee: 253 kilometres (157 mi), the rocket experienced a roll rate anomaly, precluding the instruments from functioning as intended.[330]
28 November Russia RS-12M Topol Russia Kapustin Yar Russia RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 28 November Successful
30 November
13:50
India Agni-III India ITR IC-4 India Indian Army
Indian Army Suborbital Missile test 30 November Launch failure[331]
The maiden night trial of the Agni-III was conducted. The missile reportedly started diverging from its planned flight trajectory after traveling a distance of 115 kilometers. This caused the mission control to subsequently abort the flight. A manufacturing defect is thought to be the potential cause of the failure.
10 December
09:30
Canada Black Brant IX Norway Ny-Aalesund United States NASA
United States CHI Clemson Suborbital Ionosphere research 10 December Successful
Apogee: 360 kilometres (220 mi)
11 December
17:53[332]
United States New Shepard NS-12 United States Corn Ranch United States Blue Origin
United States Crew Capsule 2.0 Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight/Payload delivery 11 December Successful
Peak altitude 104.5 kilometers. Took a number of research and educational payloads to space. Sixth flight for the propulsion module+capsule combination. Both propulsion module and capsule landed successfully.
12 December
16:30[333]
United States IRBM United States Vandenberg Air Force Base TP-01 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 12 December Successful

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
1 January New Horizons Flyby of Kuiper belt object 486958 Arrokoth The observed planetesimal, consisting of two spheroid pieces, was initially nicknamed Ultima Thule.
3 January[334] Chang'e 4 Landing at Von Kármán crater landing on the far side of the Moon, a humanity first
12 February Juno 18th perijove of Jupiter
21 February Hayabusa2 First sample collection from asteroid Ryugu[335]
4 April Parker Solar Probe Second perihelion
4 April Beresheet Lunar orbital insertion
5 April Hayabusa2 Release of Small Carry-On Impactor (SCI) on the surface of Ryugu SCI created a crater for further investigation. A dedicated DCAM-3 camera was deployed to observe the impact.
6 April Juno 19th perijove
11 April Beresheet Lunar landing Crashed due to gyroscope failure[336]
29 May Juno 20th perijove
11 July Hayabusa2 Second sample collection from Ryugu
21 July Juno 21st perijove
20 August Chandrayaan-2 Lunar orbital insertion
1 September Parker Solar Probe Third perihelion
6 September Chandrayaan-2 Lunar landing Vikram lander crashed after it lost attitude and contact at an altitude of 2.3 km.[337]
12 September Juno 22nd perijove
2 October Hayabusa2 Deployment of ROVER-2 (MINERVA-II-2) Rover failed before deployment, it was deployed in orbit around the asteroid to perform gravitational measurements before it impacted on 8 October.
3 November Juno 23rd perijove
13 November Hayabusa2 Departure from Ryugu
26 December Parker Solar Probe Second gravity assist at Venus
26 December Juno 24th perijove

Extravehicular activities (EVAs)

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
22 March 12:01 6 hours

39 minutes

18:40 Expedition 59

ISS Quest

United States Anne McClain

United States Nick Hague

  • connected 3 new Li-ion batteries to replace 6 old Ni-H batteries on power channel 4A of the P4 truss segment.[338]
  • cleaned up debris on Unity's common berthing mechanism using Kapton tape [339]
  • secured a tieback for restraints on the solar array blanket box.[338]
29 March 11:42 6 hours

45 minutes

18:27 Expedition 59

ISS Quest

United States Nick Hague

United States Christina Koch

  • connected 3 new Li-ion batteries to replace 6 old Ni-H batteries on power channel 2A of the P4 truss segment.
  • disconnected cables and relocated an adapter plate to enable Canadarm2 to remove a failed Li-ion battery.[340]
8 April 11:31 6 hours 29 minutes 18:00 Expedition 59

ISS Quest

United States Anne McClain

Canada David Saint-Jacques

  • installed jumper cables between the Unity module and the S0 truss to establish redundant power to Canadarm2.
  • installed cables to provide for more expansive wireless communications coverage outside the orbital complex.[338]
  • relocated an adapter plate from the 22 March spacewalk in preparation for future battery upgrade operations[341]
29 May 15:42 6 hours 1 minute 21:43 Expedition 59

ISS Pirs

Russia Oleg Kononenko

Russia Aleksey Ovchinin

  • removed experiments from the Pirs docking compartment and cleaned the windows.
  • installed a handrail to connect Zarya to Poisk and re-positioned the Plume Measuring Unit.
  • moved to the Zvesda Service Module and removed and jettisoned the Plasma Monitoring Units.
  • wished happy birthday to Alexei Leonov who is the first spacewalker and is celebrating his 85th birthday on 30 May. Also brought a picture of Leonov into space with them.
21 August 12:27 6 hours 32 minutes 18:59 Expedition 60

ISS Quest

United States Nick Hague

United States Andrew R. Morgan

Hague and Morgan installed the final International Docking Adapter on the Harmony Module. The task for this spacewalk was identical to Spacewalk 194 and required work by both spacewalkers and Dextre to get the docking port installed in preparation for the Boeing CST-100 Starliner orbital flight test, which will occur by the end of December. The crew also routed cables and installed Wi-Fi routers for upcoming experiments.[342]

6 October 11:39 7 hours 01 minutes 18:40 Expedition 61

ISS Quest

United States Christina Koch

United States Andrew R. Morgan

This spacewalk was the first of Expedition 61 and the first in a series of five to replace and improve ISS batteries on the P6 truss.[343]

11 October 11:38 6 hours 45 minutes 18:23 Expedition 61

ISS Quest

United States Andrew R. Morgan

United States Christina Koch

This spacewalk was the second of Expedition 61 and the second in a series of five to replace and improve ISS batteries on the P6 truss. Before they went out to the hatch, Mission Control Moscow relayed to the crew that Alexei Leonov had died and that this spacewalk was dedicated to him. As the crew came in and took off their suits, each gave a few words in memory of Leonov before station commander Luca Parmitano said "Farewell Alexei, and ad astra."[344][345]

18 October

11:38

7 hours 17 minutes 18:55 Expedition 61

ISS Quest

United States Christina Koch

United States Jessica Meir

This spacewalk was the third of Expedition 61 and the third in a series of five to replace and improve ISS batteries on the P6 truss. Some of the battery swaps were delayed to EVA 222 due to a power failure in a Battery Charge Discharge Unit in slots 5 and 6 on the P6 Truss taking the 4B battery channel offline. Koch and Meir replaced the failed unit and brought it back inside. The battery swap was moved to EVA 222 to save time and Meir and Koch wrapped up the spacewalk by installing a stanchion on the Columbus Module and tightening the bolts on the S0 Truss, which had come loose. This spacewalk was the first all-female spacewalk. During the spacewalk, President Trump called the station and congratulated Koch and Meir on this milestone.[346]

15 November

11:39

6 hours 39 minutes 18:18 Expedition 61

ISS Quest

Italy Luca Parmitano

United States Andrew Morgan

First of a series of four spacewalks to repair the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer which suffered a power failure last year in one of its four cooling pumps limiting the operation of the experiment. Parmitano and Morgan went outside and removed a cover plate from AMS and jettisoned it into space to make way for a cryo pump that they will assemble between spacewalks. Some of the bolts put up a fight but Parmitano got them all out. The highlight of the spacewalk is when Andrew Morgan threw the cover plate overboard and it drifted off aft of the station into the vacuum of space. The plate will stay in orbit for a few days until the end of December when it enters the atmosphere and burns up. The crew also removed several carbon fiber strips around fluid lines and installed handrails and grapple bars as get-ahead task. This spacewalk marks Parmitano's return to spacewalking after the Water in the Helmet Incident during EVA 171.[347]

22 November

12:02

6 hours 33 minutes 16:35 Expedition 61

ISS Quest

Italy Luca Parmitano

United States Andrew Morgan

The second in a series of four spacewalks to repair the AMS. Parmitano and Morgan cut fluid lines and installed a vent on the AMS Experiment to prep the old cooling pump for removal on the third spacewalk. Parmitano and Morgan also routed cables and installed a new power supply to power the pumps when they are installed on the third spacewalk.[348]

2 December

11:31

6 hours 2 minutes 17:33 Expedition 61

ISS Quest

Italy Luca Parmitano

United States Andrew Morgan

The third in a series of four spacewalks to repair the AMS. Parmitano and Morgan went out on the third spacewalk and installed the cryo pump and routed fluid and electrical lines to power the pump. Flight controllers in Houston, Huntsville, and at CERN activated the experiment and radioed to the crew that AMS passed with flying colors. The crew finished the spacewalk by doing a get-ahead task by covering AMS with thermal blanket.[349]

Space debris events

Date/Time (UTC) Source object Event type Pieces tracked Remarks
27 March India Microsat-R (suspected)
and kinetic kill vehicle
2019 Indian anti-satellite missile test 121[350] Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a successful test of an anti-satellite weapon. The test was believed to have destroyed the Microsat-R satellite launched in January.[351][352]
Early April United States A Centaur V upper stage
(previously International Designator 2018-079B)
Unknown[353] 54[354] The upper stage of the Centaur V that carried AEHF -4 in high earth orbit on 17 October 2018 broke up for unknown reasons.[355]

Orbital launch statistics

By country

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of orbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the rocket, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. For example, Soyuz launches by Arianespace in Kourou are counted under Russia because Soyuz-2 is a Russian rocket.

China: 34Europe: 6India: 6Iran: 2Israel: 0Japan: 2North Korea: 0Russia: 25Ukraine: 0USA: 27Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China 34 32 2 0
 Europe 6 5 1 0
 India 6 6 0 0
 Iran 2 0 2 0 Additionally, one rocket exploded on the launch pad during a ground test.
 Japan 2 2 0 0
 Russia 25 25 0 0 Includes three European Soyuz launches from French Guiana
 United States 27 27 0 0 Includes six Electron launches from Mahia
World 102 97 5 0

By rocket

By family

By type

By configuration

By spaceport

8
16
24
32
40
China
France
India
Iran
Japan
New Zealand
Russia +
Kazakhstan
United States