International Phonetic Alphabet chart

Summary

The following is the chart of the International Phonetic Alphabet, a standardized system of phonetic symbols devised and maintained by the International Phonetic Association. It is not a complete list of all possible speech sounds in the world's languages, only those about which stand-alone articles exist in this encyclopedia.

Official chartEdit

 
The official IPA chart, revised to 2020

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close
 
 
 
Near-close
 
 
Close-mid
 
 
 
Mid
Open-mid
 
 
 
Near-open
 
Open
 
 
 
  • IPA help
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Vowels beside dots are: unrounded  rounded

ConsonantsEdit

Pulmonic consonantsEdit

Place Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz t̠ʃ d̠ʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v t̪θ d̪ð tɹ̝̊ dɹ̝ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ɢʁ ʡʜ ʡʢ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̠ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ɻ˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ ʔ̞
Tap/flap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɡ̆ ɢ̆ ʡ̆
Trill ʙ̥ ʙ r ɽ̊r̥ ɽr ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ ɖɭ˔ cʎ̝̊ ɟʎ̝ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ɭ˔ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral tap/flap ɺ̥ ɺ ɭ̥̆ ɭ̆ ʎ̆ ʟ̆
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Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Non-pulmonic consonantsEdit

Ejective Stop ʈʼ ʡʼ
Affricate t̪θʼ tsʼ t̠ʃʼ ʈʂʼ kxʼ qχʼ
Fricative ɸʼ θʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
Lateral affricate tɬʼ cʎ̝̊ʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ
Lateral fricative ɬʼ
Click
(top: velar;
bottom: uvular)
Tenuis


k‼
q‼

Voiced ɡʘ
ɢʘ
ɡǀ
ɢǀ
ɡǃ
ɢǃ
ɡ‼
ɢ‼
ɡǂ
ɢǂ
Nasal ŋʘ
ɴʘ
ŋǀ
ɴǀ
ŋǃ
ɴǃ
ŋ‼
ɴ‼
ŋǂ
ɴǂ
ʞ
 
Tenuis lateral
Voiced lateral ɡǁ
ɢǁ
Nasal lateral ŋǁ
ɴǁ
Implosive Voiced ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Voiceless ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̊ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥
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Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Co-articulated consonantsEdit

t͡p
d͡b
Labial–alveolar
Labial–velar
Labial–velar
ɧ
Sj-sound (variable)
Lateral approximant
Velarized alveolar
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Other consonantsEdit

TonesEdit

Tone registers
◌̋ ˥ Extra-high (top)
◌́ ˦ High
◌̄ ˧ Mid
◌̀ ˨ Low
◌̏ ˩ Extra-low (bottom)
ꜜ◌ Downstep
ꜛ◌ Upstep
Tone contours
◌̌ ˩˥ ꜖꜒ Rising (low to high)
◌̂ ˥˩ ꜒꜖ Falling (high to low)
◌᷄ ˧˥ ꜔꜒ High rising
˨˦ ꜕꜓ Mid rising
◌᷅ ˩˧ ꜖꜔ Low rising
◌᷇ ˥˧ ꜒꜔ High falling
˦˨ ꜓꜕ Mid falling
◌᷆ ˧˩ ꜔꜖ Low falling
◌᷈ ˧˥˨, ˨˦˨, ˩˧˩ ꜔꜒꜕, ꜕꜓꜕, ꜖꜔꜖ Rising–falling (Peaking)
◌᷉ ˥˧˥, ˦˨˦, ˧˩˧ ꜒꜔꜒, ꜓꜕꜓, ꜔꜖꜔ Falling–rising (Dipping)

Auxiliary symbolsEdit

Diacritics
◌̥ ◌̊ Voiceless ◌̤ Breathy voiced ◌̪ ◌͆ Dental
◌̬ Voiced ◌̰ Creaky voiced ◌̺ Apical
◌ʰ Aspirated ◌̼ Linguolabial ◌̻ Laminal
◌̹ ◌͗ ◌˒ More rounded ◌ʷ Labialized ◌̃ Nasalized
◌̜ ◌͑ ◌˓ Less rounded ◌ʲ Palatalized ◌ⁿ Nasal release
◌̟ ◌˖ Advanced ◌ˠ Velarized ◌ˡ Lateral release
◌̠ ◌˗ Retracted ◌ˤ Pharyngealized ◌̚ No audible release
◌̈ Centralized ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ◌ᵊ Mid central vowel release
◌̽ Mid-centralized ◌̝ ◌˔ Raised ◌ᶿ Voiceless dental fricative release
◌̩ ◌̍ Syllabic ◌̞ ◌˕ Lowered ◌ˣ Voiceless velar fricative release
◌̯ ◌̑ Non-syllabic ◌̘ ◌꭪ Advanced tongue root ◌ʼ Ejective
◌˞ Rhoticity ◌̙ ◌꭫ Retracted tongue root ◌͡◌
◌͜◌
Affricate or double articulation
Suprasegmentals
ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
◌̆ Extra-short
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
↗︎ Global rise
↘︎ Global fall
Transcription
[ ] Phonetic transcription
/ / Phonemic transcription
{ } Prosodic notation
( ) Indistinguishable utterance
⸨ ⸩ Sound obscured

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

  • The International Phonetic Alphabet and the IPA Chart
  • Interactive IPA chart