White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly and often exclusively for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view. The term has at times been expanded to encompass persons of Middle Eastern and North African descent (for example, in the US census definition), persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts. The usage of "white people" or a "white race" for a large group of mainly or exclusively European populations, defined by their light skin, among other physical characteristics, and contrasting with "black people", Amerindians, and other "colored" people or "persons of color", originated in the 17th century. It was only during the 19th century that this vague category was transformed in a quasi-scientific system of race and skin color relations.
The concept of a unified white race did not achieve universal acceptance in Europe when it first came into use in the 17th century, or in the centuries afterward. Nazi Germany regarded some European peoples such as Slavs as racially distinct from themselves. Prior to the modern age, no European peoples regarded themselves as "white", but rather defined their race, ancestry, or ethnicity in terms of their nationality. Moreover, there is no accepted standard for determining the geographic barrier between white and non-white people. Contemporary anthropologists and other scientists, while recognizing the reality of biological variation between different human populations, regard the concept of a unified, distinguishable "white race" as socially constructed. As a group with several different potential boundaries, it is an example of a fuzzy concept.
The concept of whiteness has particular resonance in racially diverse countries with large majority or minority populations of more or less mixed European ancestry: e.g., in the United States (White Americans), Canada (white Canadians), Australia (white Australians), New Zealand (white New Zealanders), the United Kingdom (white British), and South Africa (white South Africans). In much of the rest of Europe, the distinction between race and nationality is more blurred; when people are asked to describe their race or ancestry, they often describe it in terms of their nationality. Various social constructions of whiteness have been significant to national identity, public policy, religion, population statistics, racial segregation, affirmative action, white privilege, eugenics, racial marginalization, and racial quotas.
The term "white race" or "white people" entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, in the context of racialized slavery and unequal social status in the European colonies. Description of populations as "white" in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is occasionally found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient or medieval sources, but these societies did not have any notion of a white, pan-European race. Scholarship on race distinguishes the modern concept from pre-modern descriptions, which focused on physical complexion rather than race.
Physical descriptions in antiquity
According to anthropologist Nina Jablonski:
In ancient Egypt as a whole, people were not designated by color terms […] Egyptian inscriptions and literature only rarely, for instance, mention the dark skin color of the Kushites of Upper Nubia. We know the Egyptians were not oblivious to skin color, however, because artists paid attention to it in their works of art, to the extent that the pigments at the time permitted.
The Ancient Egyptian (New Kingdom) funerary text known as the Book of Gates distinguishes "four groups" in a procession. These are the Egyptians, the Levantine and Canaanite peoples or "Asiatics", the "Nubians" and the "fair-skinned Libyans". The Egyptians are depicted as considerably darker-skinned than the Levantines (persons from what is now Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Jordan) and Libyans, but considerably lighter than the Nubians (modern Sudan).
The assignment of positive and negative connotations of white and black to certain persons date to the very old age in a number of Indo-European languages, but these differences were not necessarily used in respect to skin colors. Religious conversion was sometimes described figuratively as a change in skin color. Similarly, the Rigveda uses krsna tvac "black skin" as a metaphor for irreligiosity.
Classicist James H. Dee states "the Greeks do not describe themselves as 'white people'—or as anything else because they had no regular word in their color vocabulary for themselves." People's skin color did not carry useful meaning; what mattered is where they lived. Herodotus described the Scythian Budini as having deep blue eyes and bright red hair. and the Egyptians – quite like the Colchians – as melánchroes (μελάγχροες, "dark-skinned") and curly-haired. He also gives the possibly first reference to the common Greek name of the tribes living south of Egypt, otherwise known as Nubians, which was Aithíopes (Αἰθίοπες, "burned-faced"). Later Xenophanes of Colophon described the Aethiopians as black and the Persian troops as white compared to the sun-tanned skin of Greek troops.
Modern racial hierarchies
The term "white race" or "white people" entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, originating with the racialization of slavery at the time, in the context of the Atlantic slave trade and the enslavement of indigenous peoples in the Spanish Empire. It has repeatedly been ascribed to strains of blood, ancestry, and physical traits, and was eventually made into a subject of scientific research, which culminated in scientific racism, which was later widely repudiated by the scientific community. According to historian Irene Silverblatt, "Race thinking […] made social categories into racial truths." Bruce David Baum, citing the work of Ruth Frankenberg, states, "the history of modern racist domination has been bound up with the history of how European peoples defined themselves (and sometimes some other peoples) as members of a superior 'white race'." Alastair Bonnett argues that 'white identity', as it is presently conceived, is an American project, reflecting American interpretations of race and history.
According to Gregory Jay, a professor of English at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee,
Before the age of exploration, group differences were largely based on language, religion, and geography. […] the European had always reacted a bit hysterically to the differences of skin color and facial structure between themselves and the populations encountered in Africa, Asia, and the Americas (see, for example, Shakespeare's dramatization of racial conflict in Othello and The Tempest). Beginning in the 1500s, Europeans began to develop what became known as "scientific racism," the attempt to construct a biological rather than cultural definition of race […] Whiteness, then, emerged as what we now call a "pan-ethnic" category, as a way of merging a variety of European ethnic populations into a single "race" […]— Gregory Jay, "Who Invented White People? A Talk on the Occasion of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, 1998"
In the 16th and 17th centuries, "East Asian peoples were almost uniformly described as white, never as yellow." Michael Keevak's history Becoming Yellow, finds that East Asians were redesignated as being yellow-skinned because "yellow had become a racial designation," and that the replacement of white with yellow as a description came through scientific discourse.
A three-part racial schema in color terms was used in seventeenth-century Latin America under Spanish rule. Irene Silverblatt traces "race thinking" in South America to the social categories of colonialism and state formation: "White, black, and brown are abridged, abstracted versions of colonizer, slave, and colonized." By the mid-seventeenth century, the novel term español ("Spaniard") was being equated in written documents with blanco, or "white". In Spain's American colonies, African, Native American (indios), Jewish, or morisco ancestry formally excluded individuals from the "purity of blood" (limpieza de sangre) requirements for holding any public office under the Royal Pragmatic of 1501. Similar restrictions applied in the military, some religious orders, colleges, and universities, leading to a nearly all-white priesthood and professional stratum. Blacks and indios were subject to tribute obligations and forbidden to bear arms, and black and indio women were forbidden to wear jewels, silk, or precious metals in early colonial Mexico and Peru. Those pardos (people with dark skin) and mulattos (people of mixed African and European ancestry) with resources largely sought to evade these restrictions by passing as white. A brief royal offer to buy the privileges of whiteness for a substantial sum of money attracted fifteen applicants before pressure from white elites ended the practice.
In the British colonies in North America and the Caribbean, the designation English or Christian was initially used in contrast to Native Americans or Africans. Early appearances of white race or white people in the Oxford English Dictionary begin in the seventeenth century. Historian Winthrop Jordan reports that, "throughout the [thirteen] colonies the terms Christian, free, English, and white were […] employed indiscriminately" in the 17th century as proxies for one another. In 1680, Morgan Godwyn "found it necessary to explain" to English readers that "in Barbados, 'white' was 'the general name for Europeans.'" Several historians report a shift towards greater use of white as a legal category alongside a hardening of restrictions on free or Christian blacks. White remained a more familiar term in the American colonies than in Britain well into the 1700s, according to historian Theodore W. Allen.
Science of race
Western studies of race and ethnicity in the 18th and 19th centuries developed into what would later be termed scientific racism. Prominent European scientists writing about human and natural difference included a white or west Eurasian race among a small set of human races and imputed physical, mental, or aesthetic superiority to this white category. These ideas were discredited by twentieth-century scientists.
18th century beginnings
In 1758, Carl Linnaeus proposed what he considered to be natural taxonomic categories of the human species. He distinguished between Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens europaeus, and he later added four geographical subdivisions of humans: white Europeans, red Americans, yellow Asians and black Africans. Although Linnaeus intended them as objective classifications, his descriptions of these groups included cultural patterns and derogatory stereotypes.
In 1775, the naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach asserted that "The white colour holds the first place, such as is that of most European peoples. The redness of the cheeks in this variety is almost peculiar to it: at all events it is but seldom to be seen in the rest.".
In the various editions of his On the Natural Variety of Mankind, he categorized humans into four or five races, largely built on Linnaeus' classifications. But while, in 1775, he had grouped into his "first and most important" race "Europe, Asia this side of the Ganges, and all the country situated to the north of the Amoor, together with that part of North America, which is nearest both in position and character of the inhabitants", he somewhat narrows his "Caucasian variety" in the third edition of his text, of 1795: "To this first variety belong the inhabitants of Europe (except the Lapps and the remaining descendants of the Finns) and those of Eastern Asia, as far as the river Obi, the Caspian Sea and the Ganges; and lastly, those of Northern Africa." Blumenbach quotes various other systems by his contemporaries, ranging from two to seven races, authored by the authorities of that time, including, besides Linnæus, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Christoph Meiners and Immanuel Kant.
In the question of color, he conduces a rather thorough enquire, considering also factors of diet and health, but ultimately believes that "climate, and the influence of the soil and the temperature, together with the mode of life, have the greatest influence". Blumenbach's conclusion was, however, to proclaim all races' attribution to one single human species. Blumenbach argued that physical characteristics like skin color, cranial profile, etc., depended on environmental factors, such as solarization and diet. Like other monogenists, Blumenbach held to the "degenerative hypothesis" of racial origins. He claimed that Adam and Eve were Caucasian inhabitants of Asia, and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors such as the sun and poor diet. He consistently believed that the degeneration could be reversed in a proper environmental control and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race.
19th and 20th century: the "Caucasian race"
During the period of the mid-19th to mid-20th century, race scientists, including most physical anthropologists classified the world's populations into three, four, or five races, which, depending on the authority consulted, were further divided into various sub-races. During this period the Caucasian race, named after people of the North Caucasus (Caucasus Mountains) but extending to all Europeans, figured as one of these races, and was incorporated as a formal category of both scientific research and, in countries including the United States, social classification.
There was never any scholarly consensus on the delineation between the Caucasian race, including the populations of Europe, and the Mongoloid one, including the populations of East Asia. Thus, Carleton S. Coon (1939) included the populations native to all of Central and Northern Asia under the Caucasian label, while Thomas Henry Huxley (1870) classified the same populations as Mongoloid, and Lothrop Stoddard (1920) classified as "brown" most of the populations of the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, and counted as "white" only the European peoples and their descendants, as well as some populations in parts of Anatolia and the northern areas of Morocco, Algeria And Tunisia. Some authorities[who?], following Huxley (1870), distinguished the Xanthochroi or "light whites" of Northern Europe with the Melanochroi or "dark whites" of the Mediterranean.
Although modern neo-nazis often invoke National Socialist iconography on behalf of white nationalism, National Socialist Germany repudiated the idea of a unified white race, instead promoting Nordicism. In National Socialist propaganda, Eastern European Slavs were often referred to as Untermensch, and the relatively under-developed status of Eastern European countries such as Poland and the USSR were attributed to the racial inferiority of their inhabitants. Fascist Italy took the same view, and both of these nations justified their colonial ambitions in Eastern Europe on racist, anti-Slavic grounds. These nations were not alone in their view; there are numerous cases in the 20th century where some European ethnic groups labeled or treated other Europeans as members of another, inferior race.
Alastair Bonnett has stated that a strong "current of scientific research supports the theory that Europeans were but one expression of a wider racial group (termed sometimes Caucasian)," a group that, Bonnett notes, would include not only Europeans, but also South Asians, North Africans, and even Northeast Africans such as Ethiopians. Bonnett notes that this scientific definition of a Caucasoid race has little currency "outside certain immigration bureaucracies and traditional anthropology," and concludes that popular notions of whiteness are not scientific, but socially constructed.
Racial categories remain widely used in medical research, but this can create important problems. For example, researchers Raj Bhopal and Liam Donaldson opine that since white people are a heterogeneous group, the term white should therefore be abandoned as a classification for the purposes of epidemiology and health research, and identifications based on geographic origin and migration history be used instead.
According to geneticist David Reich, based on ancient human genomes that his laboratory sequenced in 2016, ancient West Eurasians descend from a mixture of as few as four ancestral components related to the Eastern Hunter Gatherers (EHG), the Neolithic Iran, the Neolithic Levant and Natufians, and the Western Hunter Gatherers (WHG):
whatever we currently believe about the genetic nature of differences among populations is most likely wrong... “whites” are not derived from a population that existed from time immemorial, as some people believe. Instead “whites” represent a mixture of four ancient populations that lived 10,000 years ago and were each as different from one another as Europeans and East Asians are today.
11.5% of the total world population
(world population of 7.5 billion).
(not counting partial European descent)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Mexico||16,000,000 – 56,000,000|
|Languages of Europe (English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish among other minority European languages)|
| Majority Christianity|
(Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox)
Irreligion · Other Religions
|Related ethnic groups|
|Genetics and differences|
Definitions of white have changed over the years, including the official definitions used in many countries, such as the United States and Brazil. Through the mid to late 20th century, numerous countries had formal legal standards or procedures defining racial categories (see cleanliness of blood, casta, apartheid in South Africa, hypodescent). Below are some census definitions of white, which may differ from the social definition of white within the same country. The social definition has also been added where possible.
Continent or region
|% of total population
(thousands & millions)
|United Kingdom||87.2%||55.0||2011 Census|||
|Puerto Rico (US)||75.8%||2.8||2010 Census|||
|United States||72.4%||223.5||2010 Census|||
|Bermuda (UK)||31.0%||19,938||2010 Census|||
|Dominican Republic||13.6% or 16.0%||2.0||1960 Census, 2006|||
|US Virgin Islands (US)||15.6%||16,646||2010 Census|||
|Panama||06.7% est.||–||2010 WFB2|||
|Mexico||09.0% to 47.0%||10.8 or 56.0||WFB2, Lizcano3 2010|||
|El Salvador||12.7%||0.7||2007 Census|||
|Turks and Caicos (UK)||07.9%||1,562||2001 Census|||
|Virgin Islands (UK)||06.9%||–||2001 Census|||
|The Bahamas||05.0%||16,598||2010 Census|||
|Anguilla (UK)||03.2%||431||2011 Census|||
|St. Vincent||01.4%||1,478||2001 Census|||
|Trinidad and Tobago||00.7%||–||2011 Census|||
|Colombia||37.0%||17||2010 study est|||
|Australia and Oceania||N/D||23.6m|
|New Zealand||74.0%||2.97||2013 Census|||
|New Caledonia (Fr)||29.2%||71,721||2009 Census|||
|Guam (US)||07.1%||11,321||2010 Census|||
|Northern Mariana Islands (US)||02.4%||1,117||2010 Census|||
|South Africa||08.9%||4.5||2011 Census|||
|Namibia||04.0% to 07.0%||75–100,000||est.|||
|^2 CIA The World Factbook. |
^3 Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano
Argentina, along with other areas of new settlement like Canada, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, the United States or Uruguay, is considered a country of immigrants where the vast majority originated from Europe. Although no official censuses based on ethnic classification have been carried out in Argentina, some international sources state that White Argentines and other whites (Europeans) in Argentina make up somewhere between 89.7% (around 36.7 million people) and 72.3% (34.4 million) of the total population. White people can be found in all areas of the country, but especially in the central-eastern region (Pampas), the central-western region (Cuyo), the southern region (Patagonia) and the north-eastern region (Litoral).
White Argentines are mainly descendants of immigrants who came from Europe and the Middle East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After the regimented Spanish colonists, waves of European settlers came to Argentina from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Major contributors included Italy (initially from Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania, Calabria, and Sicily), and Spain (most are Galicians and Basques, but there are Asturians, Cantabrians, Catalans, and Andalusians). Smaller but significant numbers of immigrants include Germans, primarily Volga Germans from Russia, but also Germans from Germany, Switzerland, and Austria; French which mainly came from the Occitania region of France; Portuguese, which already conformed an important community since colonial times; Slavic groups, most of which were Croats, Bosniaks, Poles, but also Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Bulgarians, Serbs and Montenegrins; Britons, mainly from England and Wales; Irish who left from the Potato famine or British rule; Scandinavians from Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway; from the Ottoman Empire came mainly Armenians, and various Semitic peoples such as Syriacs-Assyrians, Maronites and Arabs (from what are now of Lebanon and Syria). Smaller waves of settlers from Australia and South Africa, and the United States can be traced in Argentine immigration records.
The majority of Argentina's Jewish population are Ashkenazi Jews from diaspora communities in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe, and about 15–20% are Sephardic communities from Syria. Argentina is home to the fifth largest Ashkenazi Jewish community in the world. (See also History of the Jews in Argentina).
By the 1910s, after immigration rates peaked, over 30 percent of the country's population was from outside Argentina, and over half of Buenos Aires' population was foreign-born. However, the 1914 National Census revealed that around 80% of the national population were either European immigrants, their children or grandchildren. Among the remaining 20 percent (those descended from the population residing locally before this immigrant wave took shape in the 1870s), around a third were white. European immigration continued to account for over half the nation's population growth during the 1920s, and was again significant (albeit in a smaller wave) following World War II. It is estimated that Argentina received a total amount of 6.6 million European and Middle-Eastern immigrants during the period 1857–1940.
White Argentinians, therefore, likely peaked as a percentage of the national population at over 90% on or shortly after the 1947 census. Since the 1960s, increasing immigration from bordering countries to the north (especially from Bolivia and Paraguay, which have Amerindian and Mestizo majorities) has lessened that majority somewhat.
Criticism of the national census state that data has historically been collected using the category of national origin rather than race in Argentina, leading to undercounting Afro-Argentines and Mestizos. África Viva (Living Africa) is a black rights group in Buenos Aires with the support of the Organization of American States, financial aid from the World Bank and Argentina's census bureau is working to add an "Afro-descendants" category to the 2010 census. The 1887 national census was the final year where blacks were included as a separate category before it was eliminated by the government.
A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Spanish and Italian ethnicities), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, in which 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous.
Genetic studies of Argentina population:
- Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian.
- Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African.
- Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others.
- South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others.
- Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others.
- Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others.
- Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African.
- National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.
From 1788, when the first British colony in Australia was founded, until the early 19th century, most immigrants to Australia were English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish convicts. These were augmented by small numbers of free settlers from the British Isles and other European countries. However, until the mid-19th century, there were few restrictions on immigration, although members of ethnic minorities tended to be assimilated into the Anglo-Celtic populations.
People of many nationalities, including many non-white people, emigrated to Australia during the goldrushes of the 1850s. However, the vast majority was still white and the goldrushes inspired the first racist activism and policy, directed mainly at Chinese people.
From the late 19th century, the Colonial/State and later federal governments of Australia restricted all permanent immigration to the country by non-Europeans. These policies became known as the "White Australia policy", which was consolidated and enabled by the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, but was never universally applied. Immigration inspectors were empowered to ask immigrants to take dictation from any European language as a test for admittance, a test used in practice to exclude people from Asia, Africa, and some European and South American countries, depending on the political climate.
Although they were not the prime targets of the policy, it was not until after World War II that large numbers of southern European and eastern European immigrants were admitted for the first time. Following this, the White Australia Policy was relaxed in stages: non-European nationals who could demonstrate European descent were admitted (e.g., descendants of European colonizers and settlers from Latin America or Africa), as were autochthonous inhabitants (such as Maronites, Assyrians and Mandeans) of various nations from the Middle East, most significantly from Lebanon and to a lesser degree Iraq, Syria and Iran. In 1973, all immigration restrictions based on race and geographic origin were officially terminated.
Australia enumerated its population by race between 1911 and 1966, by racial-origin in 1971 and 1976, and by self-declared ancestry alone since 1981. As at the 2016 census, it was estimated that around 58% of the Australian population were Anglo-Celtic Australians with 18% being of other European origins, a total of 76% for European ancestries as a whole.
In 1958, about 3,500 white German speaking Mennonites, who settled before in Canada and Russia, arrived in Belize. They established communities in the upper reaches of the Belize River: Blue Creek on the border with Mexico; Shipyard, Indian Creek in the district of Orange Walk; Spanish Lookout and Barton Creek in the Cayo District; Little Belize, Corozal District. They consist of 3.6 percent of the population of Belize have their own schools, churches and financial institutions in their various communities.
Recent censuses in Brazil are conducted on the basis of self-identification. According to the 2010 Census, they totaled 91,051,646 people, and made up 47.73% of the Brazilian population. This significant percentage change is considered to be caused by people who used to identify themselves as white and now reappreciated their African, Amerindian or East Asian ancestry, and so they changed their self-identification to "Pardo" and "Asian".
White in Brazil is applied as a term to people of European descent, and Middle Easterners of all ethnicities. The census shows a trend of fewer Brazilians of a different descent (most likely mixed) identifying as white people as their social status increases. Nevertheless, light-skinned mulattoes and mestizos with Caucasian features were also historically deemed as more closely related to the branco Middle Easterner and European descendants' group than the pardo "grayish-skinned" multiracial one by a sort of unique social constructs, especially among those multiracials with non-Portuguese European ancestry, and such change of identities actually can mean more of a westernization of the concept of race in Brazil (mixed ancestry, as explained below, is not a factor against in historical definitions of whiteness in Brazil) than a change in the self-esteem of "marginalized and unconscious multiracial populations trying to paint themselves as white in a hopeful attempt to deny their unprivileged person of color status", as common sense among some Brazilians and foreigners is used to state.
Aside from Portuguese colonization, there were large waves of immigration from the rest of Europe, as well as the Balkans and the Middle East. In Brazil, most members of these communities of European and Middle Eastern descent also have some Subsaharan African or Amerindian ancestry. Non-Portuguese ancestry generally is associated with an image of foreigner, European, and as such contributed to a social perception of being whiter in the color range of Brazilian society.
In the results of Statistics Canada's 2001 Canadian Census, white is one category in the population groups data variable, derived from data collected in question 19 (the results of this question are also used to derive the visible minority groups variable).
In the 1995 Employment Equity Act, '"members of visible minorities" means persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour'. In the 2001 Census, persons who selected Chinese, South Asian, African, Filipino, Latin American, Southeast Asian, Arab, West Asian, Middle Eastern, Japanese or Korean were included in the visible minority population. A separate census question on "cultural or ethnic origin" (question 17) does not refer to skin color.
Scholarly estimates of the white population in Chile vary dramatically, ranging from 20% to 52%. According to a study by the University of Chile about 30% of the Chilean population is Caucasian, while the 2011 Latinobarómetro survey shows that some 60% of Chileans consider themselves white.
During colonial times in the 18th century, an important flux of emigrants from Spain populated Chile, mostly Basques, who vitalized the Chilean economy and rose rapidly in the social hierarchy and became the political elite that still dominates the country. An estimated 1.6 million (10%) to 3.2 million (20%) Chileans have a surname (one or both) of Basque origin. The Basques liked Chile because of its great similarity to their native land: similar geography, cool climate, and the presence of fruits, seafood, and wine.
Chile was never an attractive place for European migrants in the 19th and 20th century simply because it was far from Europe and difficult to reach. Chile experienced a tiny but steady arrival of Spanish, Italians, Irish, French, Greeks, Germans, English, Scots, Croats, Jewish, and Palestinian migrants (in addition to immigration from other Latin American countries).
The original arrival of Spaniards was the most radical change in demographics due to the arrival of Europeans in Chile, since there was never a period of massive immigration, as happened in neighboring nations such as Argentina and Uruguay. Facts about the amount of immigration do not coincide with certain national chauvinistic discourse, which claims that Chile, like Argentina or Uruguay, would be considered one of the "white" Latin American countries, in contrast to the racial mixture that prevails in the rest of the continent. However, it is undeniable that immigrants have played a major role in Chilean society. Between 1851 and 1924 Chile only received the 0.5% of the European immigration flow to Latin America, compared to the 46% received by Argentina, 33% by Brazil, 14% by Cuba, and 4% by Uruguay. This was because most of the migration occurred across the Atlantic before the construction of the Panama Canal. Europeans preferred to stay in countries closer to their homelands instead of taking the long trip through the Straits of Magellan or across the Andes. In 1907, European-born immigrants composed 2.4% of the Chilean population, which fell to 1.8% in 1920, and 1.5% in 1930.
After the failed liberal revolution of 1848 in the German states, a significant German immigration took place, laying the foundation for the German-Chilean community. Sponsored by the Chilean government to "civilize" and colonize the southern region, these Germans (including German-speaking Swiss, Silesians, Alsatians and Austrians) settled mainly in Valdivia, Llanquihue and Los Ángeles. The Chilean Embassy in Germany estimated 150,000 to 200,000 Chileans are of German origin.
It is estimated that nearly 5% of the Chilean population is of Asian descent, chiefly from the Middle East, i.e., Israelis/Jews, Palestinians, Syrians, and Lebanese, totalling around 800,000. Chile is home to a large population of immigrants, mostly Christian, from the Levant. Roughly 500,000 Palestinian descendants are believed to reside in Chile, making it the home of the largest Palestinian community outside of the Middle East.
Another historically significant immigrant group is Croatian. The number of their descendants today is estimated to be 380,000 persons, the equivalent of 2.4% of the population. Other authors claim, on the other hand, that close to 4.6% of the Chilean population have some Croatian ancestry. Over 700,000 Chileans may have British (English, Scottish or Welsh) origin, 4.5% of Chile's population. Chileans of Greek descent are estimated 90,000 to 120,000. Most of them live either in the Santiago area or in the Antofagasta area, and Chile is one of the 5 countries with the most descendants of Greeks in the world. The descendants of the Swiss reach 90,000 and it is estimated that about 5% of the Chilean population has some French ancestry. 184,000-800,000 (estimates) are descendants of Italians. Other groups of European descendants are found in smaller numbers.
The census figures show how Colombians see themselves in terms of race. The white Colombian population is approximately 25% to 37% of the Colombian population, according to estimates, but in surveys and in the 2005 Census, 37% of the total population self identify as white. According to a genetic research by the National University of Colombia, performed to more than 60,000 blood tests, concluded that Colombian genetic admixture consists in a 70% European, 20% Amerindian, and 10% African ancestry. White Colombians are mostly descendants of Spaniards. Italian, German, Irish, Portuguese, and Lebanese (Arab diaspora in Colombia) Colombians are found in notable numbers
Many Spanish began their explorations searching for gold, while others Spanish established themselves as leaders of the native social organizations teaching natives the Christian faith and the ways of their civilization. Catholic priest would provide education for Native Americans that otherwise was unavailable. Within 100 years after the first Spanish settlement, nearly 95 percent of all Native Americans in Colombia had died. The majority of the deaths of Native Americans were the cause of diseases such as measles and smallpox, which were spread by European settlers. Many Native Americans were also killed by armed conflicts with European settlers.
Between 1540 and 1559, 8.9 percent of the residents of Colombia were of Basque origin. It has been suggested that the present day incidence of business entrepreneurship in the region of Antioquia is attributable to the Basque immigration and Basque character traits. Few Colombians of distant Basque descent are aware of their Basque ethnic heritage. In Bogota, there is a small colony of thirty to forty families who emigrated as a consequence of the Spanish Civil War or because of different opportunities. Basque priests were the ones that introduced handball into Colombia. Basque immigrants in Colombia were devoted to teaching and public administration. In the first years of the Andean multinational company, Basque sailors navigated as captains and pilots on the majority of the ships until the country was able to train its own crews.
In December 1941 the United States government estimated that there were 4,000 Germans living in Colombia. There were some Nazi agitators in Colombia, such as Barranquilla businessman Emil Prufurt. Colombia invited Germans who were on the U.S. blacklist to leave. SCADTA, a Colombian-German air transport corporation which was established by German expatriates in 1919, was the first commercial airline in the western hemisphere.
The first and largest wave of immigration from the Middle East began around 1880, and remained during the first two decades of the twentieth century. They were mainly Maronite Christians from Greater Syria (Syria and Lebanon) and Palestine, fleeing the then colonized Ottoman territories. Syrians, Palestinians, and Lebanese continued since then to settle in Colombia. Due to poor existing information it is impossible to know the exact number of Lebanese and Syrians that immigrated to Colombia. A figure of 5,000–10,000 from 1880 to 1930 may be reliable. Whatever the figure, Syrians and Lebanese are perhaps the biggest immigrant group next to the Spanish since independence. Those who left their homeland in the Middle East to settle in Colombia left for different reasons such as religious, economic, and political reasons. Some left to experience the adventure of migration. After Barranquilla and Cartagena, Bogota stuck next to Cali, among cities with the largest number of Arabic-speaking representatives in Colombia in 1945. The Arabs that went to Maicao were mostly Sunni Muslim with some Druze and Shiites, as well as Orthodox and Maronite Christians. The mosque of Maicao is the second largest mosque in Latin America. Middle Easterns are generally called Turcos (Turkish).
In 2009, Costa Rica had an estimated population of 4,509,290. White people (includes mestizo) make up 94%, 3% are black people, 1% are Amerindians, and 1% are Chinese. White Costa Ricans are mostly of Spanish ancestry, but there are also significant numbers of Costa Ricans descended from British Italian, German, English, Dutch, French, Irish, Portuguese, Lebanese and Polish families, as well a sizable Jewish community.
|Self-identified as white 1899–2012 Cuba Census|
White people in Cuba make up 64.1% of the total population according to the 2012 census with the majority being of diverse Spanish descent. However, after the mass exodus resulting from the Cuban Revolution in 1959, the number of white Cubans actually residing in Cuba diminished. Today various records claiming the percentage of whites in Cuba are conflicting and uncertain; some reports (usually coming from Cuba) still report a less, but similar, pre-1959 number of 65% and others (usually from outside observers) report a 40–45%. Despite most white Cubans being of Spanish descent, many others are of French, Portuguese, German, Italian and Russian descent. During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Canarians, Catalans, Andalusians, Castilians, and Galicians emigrated to Cuba. Also, one significant ethnic influx is derived from various Middle Eastern nations. Many Jews have also immigrated there, some of them Sephardic. Between 1901 and 1958, more than a million Spaniards arrived to Cuba from Spain; many of these and their descendants left after Castro's communist regime took power.
In 1958, it was estimated that approximately 74% of Cubans were of European ancestry, mainly of Spanish origin, 10% of African ancestry, 15% of both African and European ancestry (mulattos), and a small 1% of the population was Asian, predominantly Chinese. However, after the Cuban revolution, due to a combination of factors, mainly mass exodus to Miami, United States, a drastic decrease in immigration, and interracial reproduction, Cuba's demography has changed. As a result, those of complete European ancestry and those of pure African ancestry have decreased, the mulatto population has increased, and the Asian population has, for all intents and purposes, disappeared.
The Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at the University of Miami says the present Cuban population is 38% white and 62% black/mulatto. The Minority Rights Group International says that "An objective assessment of the situation of Afro-Cubans remains problematic due to scant records and a paucity of systematic studies both pre- and post-revolution. Estimates of the percentage of people of African descent in the Cuban population vary enormously, ranging from 33.9 per cent to 62 per cent".
According to the most recent 2012 census, Cuba's population was 11,167,325.
In 2013, white Salvadorans were a minority ethnic group in El Salvador, accounting for 12.7% of the country's population. An additional 86.3% of the population were mestizo, having mixed indigenous and European ancestry.
Every social order is founded upon three social classes, each of which represents a racial variety: the nobility, a more or less accurate reflection of the conquering race; the bourgeoisie composed of mixed stock coming close to the chief race; and the common people who live in servitude or at least in a very depressed position.
In 2010, 18.5% of Guatemalans belonged to the white ethnic group, with 41.7% of the population being mestizo, and 39.8% of the population belonging to the 23 Indigenous groups.[clarification needed] It is difficult to make an accurate census of whites in Guatemala, because the country categorizes all non-indigenous people are mestizo or ladino and a large majority of white Guatemalans consider themselves as mestizos or ladinos. By the 19th century the majority of immigrants were Germans, many who were bestowed fincas and coffee plantations in Cobán, while others went to Quetzaltenango and Guatemala City. Many young Germans married mestiza and indigenous Q'eqchi' women, which caused a gradual whitening. There was also immigration of Belgians to Santo Tomas and this contributed to the mixture of black and mestiza women in that region.
As of 2013, Hondurans of solely white ancestry are a small minority in Honduras, accounting for 1% of the country's population. An additional 90% of the population is mestizo, having mixed indigenous and European ancestry.
White Mexicans are Mexican citizens of complete or predominant European descent. While the Mexican government does conduct ethnic censuses on which a Mexican has the option of identifying as "white" the results obtained from these censuses are not published. What Mexico's government publish instead, is the percentage of "light-skinned Mexicans" there is in the country, with it being 47% in 2010 and 49% in 2017. Due its not as direct racial undertone, the label "Light-skinned Mexican" has been favored by the government and media outlets over "White Mexican" as the go-to choice to refer to the segment of Mexico's population who possesses European physical traits when discussing different ethno-racial dynamics in Mexico‘s society. Sometimes nonetheless, "White Mexican" is used.
Europeans began arriving in Mexico during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire; and while during the colonial period most European immigration was Spanish (mostly from northern provinces such as Cantabria, Navarra, Galicia and the Basque Country,), in the 19th and 20th centuries European and European-derived populations from North and South America did immigrate to the country. According to 20th and 21st century academics, large scale intermixing between the European immigrants and the native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of the Mexican Revolution. However, according to church and censal registers from the colonial times, the majority (73%) of Spanish men married with Spanish women. Said registers also put in question other narratives held by contemporary academics, such as European immigrants who arrived to Mexico being almost exclusively men or that "pure Spanish" people were all part of a small powerful elite, as Spaniards were often the most numerous ethnic group in the colonial cities and there were menial workers and people in poverty who were of complete Spanish origin.
Another ethnic group in Mexico, the Mestizos, is composed of people with varying degrees of European and indigenous ancestry, with some showing a European genetic ancestry higher than 90%. However, the criteria for defining what constitutes a Mestizo varies from study to study as in Mexico a large number of white people have been historically classified as Mestizos because after the Mexican revolution the Mexican government began defining ethnicity on cultural standards (mainly the language spoken) rather than racial ones in an effort to unite all Mexicans under the same racial identity.
Estimates of Mexico's white population differ greatly in both, methodology and percentages given, extra-official sources such as the World Factbook and Encyclopædia Britannica, which use the 1921 census results as the base of their estimations calculate Mexico's white population as only 9% or between one tenth to one fifth (the results of the 1921 census, however, have been contested by various historians and deemed inaccurate). Surveys that account for phenotypical traits and have performed actual field research suggest rather higher percentages: using the presence of blond hair as reference to classify a Mexican as white, the Metropolitan Autonomous University of Mexico calculated the percentage of said ethnic group at 23%. With a similar methodology, the American Sociological Association obtained a percentage of 18.8%. Another study made by the University College London in collaboration with Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History found that the frequencies of blond hair and light eyes in Mexicans are of 18% and 28% respectively, nationwide surveys in the general population that use as reference skin color such as those made by Mexico's National Council to Prevent Discrimination and Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography report percentages of 47% and 49% respectively. A study performed in hospitals of Mexico City reported that an average 51.8% of Mexican newborns presented the congenital skin birthmark known as the Mongolian spot whilst it was absent in 48.2% of the analyzed babies. The Mongolian spot appears with a very high frequency (85–95%) in Asian, Native American, and African children. The skin lesion reportedly almost always appears on South American and Mexican children who are racially Mestizos, while having a very low frequency (5–10%) in Caucasian children. According to the Mexican Social Security Institute (shortened as IMSS) nationwide, around half of Mexican babies have the Mongolian spot.
Mexico's northern and western regions have the highest percentages of White population, where, according to the American historian and anthropologist Howard F. Cline the majority of the people have no native admixture or is of predominantly European ancestry, resembling in aspect that of northern Spaniards. In the north and west of Mexico, the indigenous tribes were substantially smaller than those found in central and southern Mexico, and also much less organized, thus they remained isolated from the rest of the population or even in some cases were hostile towards Mexican colonists. The northeast region, in which the indigenous population was eliminated by early European settlers, became the region with the highest proportion of whites during the Spanish colonial period. However, recent immigrants from southern Mexico have been changing, to some degree, its demographic trends.
The white population of central Mexico, despite not being as numerous as in the north due to higher mixing, is ethnically more diverse, as there are large numbers of other European and Middle Eastern ethnic groups, aside from Spaniards. This also results in non-Iberian surnames (mostly French, German, Italian and Arab) being more common in central Mexico, especially in the country's capital and in the state of Jalisco. A number of settlements on which European immigrants have maintained their original culture and language survive to this day and are spread all over Mexican territory, with the most notorious being the Mennonites who have colonies in states as variated as Chihuhua or Campeche and the town of Chipilo in the state of Puebla, inhabited nearly in its totality by descendants of Italian immigrants that still speak their Venetian-derived dialect.
James Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain on his arrival in 1769. The establishment of British colonies in Australia from 1788 and the boom in whaling and sealing in the Southern Ocean brought many Europeans to the vicinity of New Zealand. Whalers and sealers were often itinerant and the first real settlers were missionaries and traders in the Bay of Islands area from 1809. Early visitors to New Zealand included whalers, sealers, missionaries, mariners, and merchants, attracted to natural resources in abundance. They came from the Australian colonies, Great Britain and Ireland, Germany (forming the next biggest immigrant group after the British and Irish), France, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, the United States, and Canada.
In the 1860s, discovery of gold started a gold rush in Otago. By 1860 more than 100,000 British and Irish settlers lived throughout New Zealand. The Otago Association actively recruited settlers from Scotland, creating a definite Scottish influence in that region, while the Canterbury Association recruited settlers from the south of England, creating a definite English influence over that region.
In the 1870s, the MP Julius Vogel borrowed millions of pounds from Britain to help fund capital development such as a nationwide rail system, lighthouses, ports and bridges, and encouraged mass migration from Britain. By 1870 the non-Māori population reached over 250,000. Other smaller groups of settlers came from Germany, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe as well as from China and India, but British and Irish settlers made up the vast majority, and did so for the next 150 years.
As of 2013, the white ethnic group in Nicaragua account for 17% of the country's population. An additional 69% of the population is mestizo, having mixed indigenous and European ancestry. In the 19th century, Nicaragua was the subject of central European immigration, mostly from Germany, England and the United States, who often married native Nicaraguan women. Some Germans were given land to grow coffee in Matagalpa, Jinotega and Esteli, although most Europeans settled in San Juan del Norte. In the late 17th century, pirates from England, France and Holland mixed with the indigenous population and started a settlement at Bluefields (Mosquito Coast).
According to the 2017 census 5.9% or 1.3 million (1,336,931) people 12 years of age and above self-identified as white. There were 619,402 (5.5%) males and 747,528 (6.3%) females. This was the first time a question for ethnic origins had been asked. The regions with the highest proportion of self-identified whites were in La Libertad (10.5%), Tumbes and Lambayeque (9.0% each), Piura (8.1%), Callao (7.7%), Cajamarca (7.5%), Lima Province (7.2%) and Lima Region (6.0%).
|Puerto Rico by the Spanish and US Census 1812–2010|
|Self-identified as white
Contrary to most other Caribbean places, Puerto Rico gradually became predominantly populated by European immigrants. Puerto Ricans of Spanish, Italian (primarily via Corsica) and French descent comprise the majority. (See: Spanish settlement of Puerto Rico).
In 1899, one year after the U.S invaded and took control of the island, 61.8% or 589,426 people self-identified as white. One hundred years later (2000), the total increased to 80.5% (3,064,862); not because there has been an influx of whites toward the island (or an exodus of non-White people), but a change of race conceptions, mainly because of Puerto Rican elites to portray Puerto Rico's image as the "white island of the Antilles", partly as a response to scientific racism.
Hundreds are from Corsica, France, Italy, Portugal, Lebanon, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany, along with large numbers of immigrants from Spain. This was the result of granted land from Spain during the Real Cedula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with a certain amount of free land.
Between 1960 and 1990, the census questionnaire in Puerto Rico did not ask about race or color. Racial categories therefore disappeared from the dominant discourse on the Puerto Rican nation. However, the 2000 census included a racial self-identification question in Puerto Rico and, for the first time in since 1950, allowed respondents to choose more than one racial category to indicate mixed ancestry. (Only 4.2% chose two or more races.) With few variations, the census of Puerto Rico used the same questionnaire as in the U.S. mainland. According to census reports, most islanders responded to the new federally mandated categories on race and ethnicity by declaring themselves "white"; few declared themselves to be black or some other race. However, it was estimated 20% of white Puerto Ricans may have black ancestry. 
White Hollanders first arrived in South Africa around 1652. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, some 2,000 Europeans and their descendants were established in the region. Although these early Afrikaners represented various nationalities, including German peasants and French Huguenots, the community retained a thoroughly Dutch character.
The British Empire seized Cape Town in 1795 during the Napoleonic Wars and permanently acquired South Africa from Amsterdam in 1814. The first British immigrants numbered about 4,000 and were introduced in 1820. They represented groups from England, Ireland, Scotland, or Wales and were typically more literate than the Dutch. The discovery of diamonds and gold led to a greater influx of English speakers who were able to develop the mining industry with capital unavailable to Afrikaners. They have been joined in more subsequent decades by former colonials from elsewhere, such as Zambia and Kenya, and poorer British nationals looking to escape famine at home.
Both Afrikaners and English have been politically dominant in South Africa during the past; due to the controversial racial order under apartheid, the nation's predominantly Afrikaner government became a target of condemnation by other African states and the site of considerable dissension between 1948 and 1991.
United Kingdom and Ireland
Historical white identities
Before the Industrial Revolutions in Europe whiteness may have been associated with social status. Aristocrats may have had less exposure to the sun and therefore a pale complexion may have been associated with status and wealth. This may be the origin of "blue blood" as a description of royalty, the skin being so lightly pigmented that the blueness of the veins could be clearly seen. The change in the meaning of white that occurred in the colonies (see above) to distinguish Europeans from non-Europeans did not apply to the 'home land' countries (England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales). Whiteness therefore retained a meaning associated with social status for the time being. And during the 19th century, when the British Empire was at its peak, many of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy developed extremely chauvinistic attitudes to those of lower social rank.
Edward Lhuyd discovered that Welsh, Gaelic, Cornish and Breton are all part of the same language family, which he called "Celtic", and were distinct from the Germanic English; this can be seen in context with 19th-century romantic nationalism. On the other hand, the discovery of Anglo-Saxon remains also led to a belief that the English were descended from a distinct Germanic lineage that was fundamentally (and racially) different from that of the Celts. Early British anthropologists such as John Beddoe and Robert Knox emphasised this distinction, and it was common to find texts that claimed that Welsh, Irish and Scottish people are the descendants of the indigenous more "primitive" inhabitants of the islands, while the English are the descendants of a more advanced and recent "Germanic" migration. Beddoe especially postulated that the Welsh and Irish people are closer to the Cro-Magnon, whom he also considered Africanoid, and it was common to find references to the swarthyness of the skin of peoples from the west of the islands, by comparison to the more pale skinned and blond English residing in the east. For example, Thomas Huxley's On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind (1870) described Irish, Scots and Welsh peoples as a mixture of melanochroi ("dark colored"), and xanthochroi, while the English were "xanthochroi" ("light colored").
Just as race reified whiteness in the colonies, so capitalism without social welfare reified whiteness with regards to social class in 19th-century Britain and Ireland; this social distinction of whiteness became, over time, associated with racial difference. For example, George Sims in How the poor live (1883) wrote of "a dark continent that is within easy reach of the General Post Office […] the wild races who inhabit it will, I trust, gain public sympathy as easily as [other] savage tribes".
Modern and official use
From the early 1700s, Britain received a small-scale immigration of black people due to the African slave trade. The oldest Chinese community in Britain (as well as in Europe) dates from the 19th century. Since the end of World War II, a substantial immigration from the African, Caribbean and South Asian (namely the British Raj) colonies changed the picture more radically, while the adhesion to the European Union brought with it a heightened immigration from Central and Eastern Europe.
Today the Office for National Statistics uses the term white as an ethnic category. The terms white British, White Irish, White Scottish and White Other are used. These classifications rely on individuals' self-identification, since it is recognised that ethnic identity is not an objective category. Socially, in the UK white usually refers only to people of native British, Irish and European origin. As a result of the 2011 census the white population stood at 85.5% in England (White British: 79.8%), at 96% in Scotland (White British: 91.8%), at 95.6% in Wales (White British: 93.2%), while in Northern Ireland 98.28% identified themselves as white, amounting to a total of 87.2% white population (or c. 82 % White British and Irish).
United States (except for Puerto Rico)
|United States Census 1790–2010|
|Census Year||White population||% of the US|
The cultural boundaries separating white Americans from other racial or ethnic categories are contested and always changing. Professor David R. Roediger of the University of Illinois, suggests that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves. By the 18th century, white had become well established as a racial term. According to John Tehranian, among those not considered white at some points in American history have been: the Germans, Greeks, white Hispanics, Arabs, Iranians, Afghans, Irish, Italians, Jews, Slavs and Spaniards. Finns were also on several occasions "racially" discriminated against and not seen as white, but "Asian". The reasons for this were the arguments and theories about the Finns originally being of Mongolian instead of "native" European origin due to the Finnish language belonging to the Uralic and not the Indo-European language family.
During American history, the process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. The Immigration Act of 1790 offered naturalization only to "any alien, being a free white person". In at least 52 cases, people denied the status of white by immigration officials sued in court for status as white people. By 1923, courts had vindicated a "common-knowledge" standard, concluding that "scientific evidence" was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a "performance-based" standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community's role in the United States.
In 1923, the Supreme Court decided in United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind that people of Indian descent were not white men, and thus not eligible to citizenship. While Thind was a high caste Hindu born in the northern Punjab region and classified by certain scientific authorities as of the Aryan race, the court conceded that he was not white or Caucasian since the word Aryan "has to do with linguistic and not at all with physical characteristics" and "the average man knows perfectly well that there are unmistakable and profound differences" between Indians and white people. In United States v. Cartozian (1925), an Armenian immigrant successfully argued (and the Supreme Court agreed) that his nationality was white in contradistinction to other people of the Near East—Kurds, Turks, and Arabs in particular—on the basis of their Christian religious traditions. In conflicting rulings In re Hassan (1942) and Ex parte Mohriez, United States District Courts found that Arabs did not, and did qualify as white under immigration law.
Still today the relationship between some ethnic groups and whiteness remains complex. In particular, some Jewish and Arab individuals both self-identify and are considered as part of the White American racial category, but others with the same ancestry feel they are not white nor are they perceived as white by American society. The United States Census Bureau proposed but then withdrew plans to add a new category to classify Middle Eastern and North African peoples in the U.S. Census 2020, over a dispute over whether this classification should be considered a white ethnicity or a race. According to Frank Sweet "various sources agree that, on average, people with 12 percent or less admixture appear White to the average American and those with up to 25 percent look ambiguous (with a Mediterranean skin tone)".
The current U.S. Census definition includes as white "a person having origins in any of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." The U.S. Department of Justice's Federal Bureau of Investigation describes white people as "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa through racial categories used in the Uniform Crime Reports Program adopted from the Statistical Policy Handbook (1978) and published by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce." The "white" category in the UCR includes non-black Hispanics.
White Americans made up nearly 90% of the population in 1950. A report from the Pew Research Center in 2008 projects that by 2050, non-Hispanic white Americans will make up 47% of the population, down from 67% projected in 2005. According to a study on the genetic ancestry of Americans, white Americans (stated "European Americans") on average are 98.6% European, 0.19% African and 0.18% Native American. Southern states with higher African American populations, tend to have higher percentages of African ancestry. According to the 23andMe database, up to 13% of self-identified white American Southerners have greater than 1% African ancestry. Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of hidden African ancestry. Robert P. Stuckert, member of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Ohio State University, has poignantly stated that today the majority of the descendants of African slaves are white.
The "one-drop rule"–that a person with any amount of known African ancestry (however small or invisible) is not white–is a classification that was used in parts of the United States. It is a colloquial term for a set of laws passed by 18 U.S. states between 1910 and 1931, many as a consequence of Plessy v. Ferguson, a Supreme Court decision that upheld the concept of racial segregation by accepting a "separate but equal" argument. The set of laws was finally declared unconstitutional in 1967, when the Supreme Court ruled on anti-miscegenation laws while hearing Loving v. Virginia, which also found that Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924 was unconstitutional. The one-drop rule attempted to create a bifurcated system of either black or white regardless of a person's physical appearance, but sometimes failed as people with African ancestry sometimes passed as "white", as noted above. This contrasts with the more flexible social structures present in Latin America (derived from the Spanish colonial era casta system) where there were less clear-cut divisions between various ethnicities.
As a result of centuries of having children with white people, the majority of African Americans have some European admixture, and many white people also have African ancestry. Writer and editor Debra Dickerson questions the legitimacy of the one-drop rule, stating that "easily one-third of black people have white DNA". She argues that in ignoring their European ancestry, African Americans are denying their fully articulated multi-racial identities. The peculiarity of the one-drop rule may be illustrated by the case of singer Mariah Carey, who was publicly called "another white girl trying to sing black", but in an interview with Larry King, responded that—despite her physical appearance and the fact that she was raised primarily by her white mother—due to the one-drop rule she did not "feel white". Recently, the possibility of genetic testing has raised new questions about the way African Americans describe their race.
Uruguayans and Argentines share closely related demographic ties. Different estimates state that Uruguay's population of 3.4 million is composed of 88% to 93% white Uruguayans. Uruguay's population is heavily populated by people of European origin, mainly Spaniards, followed closely by Italians, including numbers of French, Greek, Lebanese, Armenians, Swiss, Scandinavians, Germans, Irish, Dutch, Belgians, Austrians, and other Southern and Eastern Europeans which migrated to Uruguay in the late 19th century and 20th century. According to the 2006 National Survey of Homes by the Uruguayan National Institute of Statistics: 94.6% self-identified as having a white background, 9.1% chose black ancestry, and 4.5% chose an Amerindian ancestry (people surveyed were allowed to choose more than one option).
According to the 2011 National Population and Housing Census, 43.6% of the Venezuelan population (approx. 13.1 million people) identify as white. Genetic research by the University of Brasilia shows an average admixture of 60.6% European, 23.0% Amerindian and 16.3% African ancestry in Venezuelan populations. The majority of white Venezuelans are of Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and German descent. Nearly half a million European immigrants, mostly from Spain (as a consequence of the Spanish Civil War), Italy and Portugal, entered the country during and after World War II, attracted by a prosperous, rapidly developing country where educated and skilled immigrants were welcomed.
Spaniards were introduced into Venezuela during the colonial period. Most of them were from Andalusia, Galicia, Basque Country and from the Canary Islands. Until the last years of World War II, a large part of the European immigrants to Venezuela came from the Canary Islands, and its cultural impact was significant, influencing the development of Castilian in the country, its gastronomy and customs. With the beginning of oil operations during the first decades of the 20th century, citizens and companies from the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands established themselves in Venezuela. Later, in the middle of the century, there was a new wave of originating immigrants from Spain (mainly from Galicia, Andalucia and the Basque Country), Italy (mainly from southern Italy and Venice) and Portugal (from Madeira) and new immigrants from Germany, France, England, Croatia, Netherlands, the Middle East and other European countries, among others, animated simultaneously by the program of immigration and colonization implanted by the government.
- Ethnic groups in Europe
- Ethnic groups in West Asia
- European diaspora
- Genetic history of Europe
- Criollo people
- White supremacy
- "On both sides of the chronological divide between the modern and the pre-modern (wherever it may lie), there is today a remarkable consensus that the earlier vocabularies of difference are innocent of race." Nirenberg, David (2009). "Was there race before modernity? The example of 'Jewish' blood in late medieval Spain" (PDF). In Eliav-Feldon, Miriam; Isaac, Benjamin H.; Ziegler, Joseph (eds.). The Origins of Racism in the West. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 232–264. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Jablonski, Nina G. (27 September 2012). Living Color: The Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Color. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-520-95377-2.
- "The first are RETH, the second are AAMU, the third are NEHESU, and the fourth are THEMEHU. The RETH are Egyptians, the AAMU are dwellers in the deserts to the east and north-east of Egypt, the NEHESU are the Cushites, and the THEMEHU are the fair-skinned Libyans" Book of Gates, chapter VI (Archived 10 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine), translated by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1905.
- James H. Dee, "Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did 'White People' Become 'White'?" The Classical Journal, Vol. 99, No. 2. (December 2003 – January 2004), pp. 162 ff.
- Michael Witzel, "Rgvedic History" in: The Indo-Aryans of South Asia (1995): "while it would be easy to assume reference to skin colour, this would go against the spirit of the hymns: for Vedic poets, black always signifies evil, and any other meaning would be secondary in these contexts."
- Painter, Nell (2 February 2016). The History of White People. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-393-04934-3.
- Herodotus: Histories, 4.108.
- Herodotus: Histories, 2.104.2.
- Herodotus: Histories, 2.17.
- Xenophanes of Colophon: Fragments, J. H. Lesher, University of Toronto Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8020-8508-3, p. 90.
- Dee, James H. (2004). "Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did 'White People' Become 'White'?". The Classical Journal. 99 (2): 157–167. JSTOR 3298065.
- Silverblatt, Irene (2004). Modern Inquisitions: Peru and the colonial origins of the civilized world. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-8223-8623-0.
- Baum, Bruce David (2006). The rise and fall of the Caucasian race: A political history of racial identity. NYU Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-8147-9892-8.
- Alastair Bonnett White Identities: An Historical & International Introduction. Routledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-582-35627-X / ISBN 978-0-582-35627-6.
- Gregory Jay, "Who Invented White People? A Talk on the Occasion of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, 1998". Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Keevak, Michael (2011). Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking. Princeton University Press. pp. 26–27.
- Keevak, Michael (2011). Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking. Princeton University Press. p. 2.
- Silverblatt, Irene (2004). Modern Inquisitions: Peru and the colonial origins of the civilized world. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. 113–16. ISBN 978-0-8223-8623-0.
- Silverblatt, Irene (2004). Modern Inquisitions: Peru and the colonial origins of the civilized world. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8223-8623-0.
- Twinam, Ann (2005). "Racial Passing: Informal and Official 'Whiteness' in Colonial Spanish America". In Smolenski, John; Humphrey, Thomas J. (eds.). New World Orders: Violence, Sanction, and Authority in the Colonial Americas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 249–272. ISBN 978-0-8122-3895-2.
- Duenas, Alcira (2010). Indians and mestizos in the "lettered city" reshaping justice, social hierarchy, and political culture in colonial Peru. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 978-1-60732-019-7. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Jordan, Winthrop (1974). White Over Black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro. p. 97.
- Allen, Theodore (1994). The Invention of the White Race. 2. New York: Verso. p. 351.
- Baum (2006), p. 48. Winthrop Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro 1974, p. 52, puts the shift to white from earlier Christian, free, and English to around 1680. Allen, Theodore (1994). The Invention of the White Race: Racial Oppression and Social Control. Verso. ISBN 978-0-86091-660-4. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2006.
- Hirschman, Charles (2004). "The Origins and Demise of the Concept of Race". Population and Development Review. 30 (3): 385–415. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2004.00021.x. ISSN 1728-4457.
- Sarah A. Tishkoff and Kenneth K. Kidd (2004): "Implications of biography of human populations for 'race' and medicine" (Archived 14 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine), Nature Genetics.
- Painter, Nell Irvin. Yale University. "Why White People are Called Caucasian?" 2003. 27 September 2007. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 2006-10-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: The Anthropological Treatises. Longman Green, London 1865, pp. 99, 265 ff.
- Painter, Nell (2010). The History of White People. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 79–90. ISBN 978-0-393-04934-3.
- Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich (2000). "On the Natural Variety of Mankind". In Robert Bernasconi (ed.). The Idea of Race. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing. pp. 27–37. ISBN 978-0-87220-458-4.
- Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: The Anthropological Treatises. Longman Green, London 1865, p. 107.
- Brian Regal: Human Evolution. A guide to the debates. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara/CA 2004, p. 72. Also see Johann Friedrich Blumenbach: The Institutions of physiology, translated by John Elliotson. Bensley, London 1817.
- Marvin Harris (2001). The rise of anthropological theory. A history of theories of culture. Rowman Altamira. pp. 84 ff. ISBN 978-0-7591-0133-3. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Baum (2006), p. 120, gives the range 1840 to 1935.
- McAuliffe, Garrett (30 May 2018). Culturally Alert Counseling: A Comprehensive Introduction. SAGE. ISBN 9781412910064 – via Google Books.
- Zecker, Robert M. (30 June 2011). Race and America's Immigrant Press: How the Slovaks were Taught to Think Like White People. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781441161994 – via Google Books.
- "The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information". [Cambridge] University Press. 30 May 2018 – via Google Books.
- Bendersky, Joseph W. (2007). A concise history of Nazi Germanyp. 161-2. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., Plymouth, United Kingdom
- Benito Mussolini, Richard Washburn Child, Max Ascoli, Richard Lamb. My rise and fall. Da Capo Press, 1998. pp. 105–106.
- Bonnett, Alastair (2000): White Identities. Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-35627-X.
- Mahmood Hoormand; Iraj Milanian; Alireza Salek Moghaddam; Nader Tajik; Negin Zand (July 2005). "Allele Frequency of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphisms in a Healthy Iranian Population". Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 4 (2): 124–127.
In this study we determined genotypes of CYP2C19 in Iranian population to compare allele frequencies with previous findings in other ethnic groups […] By contrast, the absence of CYP2C19*3 in our study further illustrates the ethnical difference between Caucasian and Oriental populations, by confirming the Asian specificity of this allelic variant, whose frequency is very low, or totally absent, in different Caucasian populations . No CYP2C19*3 was detected in our study. This allele is extremely rare in non-Oriental populations […] the frequency of CYP2C19 allelic variants in Iranians was similar to other Caucasian populations.
- Bhopal, R.; Donaldson, L. (September 1998). "White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health". American Journal of Public Health. 88 (9): 1303–1307. doi:10.2105/AJPH.88.9.1303. PMC 1509085. PMID 9736867.
- Iosif Lazaridis; et al. (2016). "Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East" (PDF). Nature. 536 (7617): 419–24. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..419L. doi:10.1038/nature19310. PMC 5003663. PMID 27459054. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
bottom-left: Western Hunter Gatherers (WHG), top-left: Eastern Hunter Gatherers (EHG), bottom-right: Neolithic Levant and Natufians, top-right: Neolithic Iran. This suggests the hypothesis that diverse ancient West Eurasians can be modelled as mixtures of as few as four streams of ancestry related to these population
- How Genetics Is Changing Our Understanding of ‘Race’, NY Times, 23 March 2018
- Current World Population 2017 Worldometers.info
- "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 Census Briefs". US Census Bureau. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2011.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года". Perepis2002.ru. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "Tabelas de resultados Branca Preta Amarela Parda Indígena Sem declaração" (PDF). G1.globo.com. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Yazid Sabeg et Laurence Méhaignerie, Les oubliés de l'égalité des chances, Institut Montaigne, January 2004
- "Bilancio demografico nazionale". Istat.it. 17 June 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Wayback Machine". Ons.gov.uk. 16 January 2013. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Ethnicity and Race by Countries". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "21 de Marzo Día Internacional de la Eliminación de la Discriminación Racial" pag.7, CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Encuesta Nacional Sobre Discriminación en Mexico", "CONAPRED", Mexico DF, June 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "DOCUMENTO INFORMATIVO SOBRE DISCRIMINACIÓN RACIAL EN MÉXICO", CONAPRED, Mexico, 21 March 2011, retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Wayback Machine". 17 December 2011. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- Adams, J. Q.; Strother-Adams, Pearlie (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7872-8145-8.
- "CSO 2011 Census – Volume 5 – Ethnic or Cultural Background (including the Irish Traveller Community)" (PDF). 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
- 2011 Census: KS201UK Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom ONS, Retrieved 21 October 2013
- Être né en France d'un parent immigré, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau; Insee.fr
- Francisco Lizcano Fernández (2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). UAEM. p. 218. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2008.
- "Puerto Rico: People; Ethnic groups". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Bermuda: 2010 Census of Population & Housing Final Results" (PDF). Bermuda Department of Statistics. December 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- INE- Caracterización estadística República de Guatemala 2012 Retrieved, 2015/04/17.
- "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "D.R.: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results". factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- "Panama: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- "El Salvador: Censos de Población 2007" [El Salvador: Population Census 2007] (PDF) (in Spanish). digestyc.gob.sv. 2008. p. 13. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Turks and Caicos 2001 Census (Page: 22)
- National Population Census Report 2001, The British Virgin Islands Percentage Distribution of Population by Ethnic Group, Intercensal Change and Sex, 1991 and 2001 White/Caucasian 6.8% + Portuguese 0.1%.
- Bahamas 2010 census TOTAL POPULATION BY SEX, AGE GROUP AND RACIAL GROUP "In 1722 when the first official census of The Bahamas was taken, 74% of the population was white and 26% black. Three centuries later, and according to the 99% response rate obtained from the race question on the 2010 Census questionnaire, 91% of the population identified themselves as being black, five percent (5%) white and two percent (2%) of a mixed race (black and white) and (1%) other races and (1%) not stated." (Page: 10 and 82)
- Anguilla Population and Housing Census (AP&HC) 2011 Who are we? – Ethnic Composition and Religious Affiliation.
- BARBADOS – 2010 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS Table 02.03: Population by Sex, Age Group and Ethnic Origin (Page: 51-54)
- POPULATION, DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Archived 11 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUPS (Page:16-17) 1.4% white (608 "Portuguese" and 870 other "white").
- Trinidad and Tobago 2011 Census Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Ethnic Composition: "Caucasian 0.59%, Portuguese 0.06%", Total: 0.65% (Page: 15)
- "Extended National Household Survey, 2006: Ancestry" (PDF) (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics.
- Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. by David Levinson. Page 313. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. ISBN 1-57356-019-7
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "2010 Brazilian Census" (PDF). ibge.gov.br (in Portuguese). 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
- Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011, (p. 14).
- "Colombia: A Country Study" (PDF). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 101–102.
- Simon Schwartzman (25 July 2008). "Étnia, condiciones de vida y discriminación" (PDF). Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- EL UNIVERSO (2 September 2011). "Población del país es joven y mestiza, dice censo del INEC". El Universo. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 214.
- El Dia Encusta (Ipsos) 2014: "INE: el 69% de los bolivianos no pertenece a ningún pueblo indígena. Estudio. Según la encuesta Ipsos, el 25% se autodefine aymara, el 11% quechua, el 3% blanco y el 1% guaraní y afroboliviano. Los indígenas aseguran que están visibilizados."
- "2013 Census QuickStats about national highlights". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Estimer appartenir à une ou plusieurs communautés 2009 census – New Caledonia according to ethnic group
- Guam (Territory of the US) CIA Factbook – based on the 2010 official Census statistics
- The Northern Mariana Islands 2010 Census
- Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
- Namibia-Travel Archived 1 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine – retrieved 3 February 2016
- ZIMBABWE Archived 10 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine – POPULATION CENSUS 2012 – retrieved November 2017
- Schweimler, Daniel (12 February 2007). "Argentina's last Jewish cowboys". BBC News. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Argentina Archived 6 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine This figure is the sum of 72,3 of White/European and 10% Arab.
- The Joshua Project: Ethnic people groups of Argentina "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) These figures do not show up explicitly, but after doing some mathematics, the results are as follows: Argentinians White -the resulting ethnic group out of the melting pot of immigration in Argentina- sum up 29,031,000 or 72,3% of the population. The other relatively unmixed European/Caucasus ethnic groups sum up 4,258,500 (10.6%), and the Arabs sum 1,173,100 more (2.9%). All together, whites in Argentina comprise 34,462,600 or 85.8% out of a total population of 40,133,230.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – Argentina". Archived from the original on 13 May 2009.
- Enrique Oteiza y Susana Novick sostienen que «la Argentina desde el siglo XIX, al igual que Australia, Canadá o Estados Unidos, se convierte en un país de inmigración, entendiendo por esto una sociedad que ha sido conformada por un fenómeno inmigratorio masivo, a partir de una población local muy pequeña.» Iigg.fsoc.uba.ar Archived 31 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo. [en línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 [Citado FECHA]. (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, N° 14). Disponible en la World Wide Web: Iigg.fsoc.uba.ar[dead link]
- El antropólogo brasileño Darcy Ribeiro incluye a la Argentina dentro de los «pueblos trasplantados» de América, junto con Uruguay, Canadá y Estados Unidos (Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires:EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.)
- El historiador argentino José Luis Romero define a la Argentina como un «país aluvial» (Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en La experiencia Argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64)
- Federaciones Regionales Archived 2 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine feditalia.org.ar
- Dinámica migratoria: coyuntura y estructura en la Argentina de fines del XX Archived 1 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Alhim.revues.org (3 November 2004).
- Rock, David. Argentina: 1516–1982. University of California Press, 1987.
- Levene, Ricardo. History of Argentina. University of North Carolina Press, 1937.
- Yale immigration study Archived 16 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Yale.edu.
- Racial Discrimination in Argentina Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Academic.udayton.edu.
- Ackerman, Ruthie (27 November 2005). "Blacks in Argentina – officially a few, but maybe a million". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Corach, Daniel; Lao, Oscar; Bobillo, Cecilia; Van Der Gaag, Kristiaan; Zuniga, Sofia; Vermeulen, Mark; Van Duijn, Kate; Goedbloed, Miriam; Vallone, Peter M; Parson, Walther; De Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred (2010). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. PMID 20059473.
- "Medicina (B. Aires) vol.66 número2; Resumen: S0025-76802006000200004". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011.
- Homburger; et al. (2015). "Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America". PLOS Genetics. 11 (12): e1005602. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602. PMC 4670080. PMID 26636962.
- Avena; et al. (2012). "Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina". PLOS ONE. 7 (4): e34695. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734695A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034695. PMC 3323559. PMID 22506044.
- "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas" (PDF). Repositorio.unb.br. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Reference Populations – Geno 2.0 Next Generation". Genographic.nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Immigration Restriction Act 1901 Archived 1 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Foundingdocs.gov.au.
- Stephen Castles, "The Australian Model of Immigration and Multiculturalism: Is It Applicable to Europe?," International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, Special Issue: The New Europe and International Migration. (Summer, 1992), pp. 549–67.
- "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and the Census After the 1967 Referendum". Abs.gov.au. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Belize Mennonites". Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Censo Demográfi co 2010 Características da população e dos domicílios Resultados do universo" (PDF). 8 November 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Gregory Rodriguez, "Brazil Separates Into Black and White Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine," LA Times, 3 September 2006. Note that the figures belie the title.
- Rodriguez, Gregory. (3 September 2006) Brazil Separates Into a World of Black and White | The New America Foundation Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Newamerica.net.
- "Groups" in Statistics Canada, Sample 2001 Census form Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Visible Minority and Population Group User Guide Archived 24 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2001 Employment Equity Data Report[dead link]
- Census 2001: 2B (Long Form)
- "Chile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
Chile's ethnic makeup is largely a product of Spanish colonization. About three fourths of Chileans are mestizo, a mixture of European and Amerindian ancestries. One fifth of Chileans are of white European (mainly Spanish) descent.
- Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americanoal Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Convergencia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "5.2.6. Estructura racial". University of Chile (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 February 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Online Data Analysis". Latinobarómetro. Corporación Latinobarómetro. 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Chile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
...Basque families who migrated to Chile in the 18th century vitalized the economy and joined the old Castilian aristocracy to become the political elite that still dominates the country.
- Madariaga, Ainara (19 November 2008). "Presentación del libro Santiago de Chile". Departmento de Salud. Eusko Jaurlaritza – Gobierno Vasco. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Elorza, Waldo Ayarza (1995). ...de los Vascos, Oñati y Los Elorza. pp. 59, 65, 66, 68.
- Salazar Vergara, Gabriel; Pinto, Julio (1999). "La Presencia Inmigrante". Historia Contemporánea de Chile. Santiago de Chile: LOM Ediciones. pp. 76–81. ISBN 978-956-282-174-2. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Censo de Población 1907 Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Censo de Población 1920 Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Censo de Población 1930 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Durán, Hipólito (1997). "El crecimiento de la población latinoamericana y en especial de Chile • Academia Chilena de Medicina". Superpoblación. Madrid: Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. p. 217. ISBN 978-84-923901-0-6. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Pérez Rosales, Vicente (1860). Recuerdos del Pasado. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "Embajada de Chile en Alemania". www.echile.de. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
- "Kuwi.europa-uni.de" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2012.
- http://www.blog-v.com, BLOGG /. "Arabes en Chile". www.blog-v.com.
- "Aurora | Aurora". www.aurora-israel.co.il. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012.
- http://www.blog-v.com, BLOGG /. "Arabes en Chile". www.blog-v.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013.
- "Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome". adnkronos International. 7 April 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Comunidad palestina en Chile acusa "campaña de terror" tras nuevas pintadas". soitu.es actualidad. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "www.Hrvatskiimigracije.es.tl - Diaspora Croata". hrvatskimigracije.es.tl. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016.
- "Naslovna". HRVATSKA MATICA ISELJENIKA. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012.
- "Hrvatski". Hrvatski.cl. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
- "Historia de Chile, Británicos y Anglosajones en Chile durante el siglo XIX". Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- "ar.vg – Desde Argentina para el mundo". Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
- 90,000 descendants Swiss in Chile. Archived 25 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "5% de los chilenos tiene origen frances". Archived from the original on 12 April 2008.
- "Italiani nel Mondo: diaspora italiana in cifre" (PDF) (in Italian). Migranti Torino. 30 April 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Library of Congress Country Studies. "Colombia: Race and Ethnicity". Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "En blanco y negro". semana.com. 25 October 1993.
- "El 85 por ciento de las madres colombianas tiene origen indígena". eltiempo.com.
- Hudson, Rex A.; Division, Library of Congress (U S. ), Federal Research (8 September 2010). Colombia: A Country Study. Government Printing Office. ISBN 9780844495026 – via Google Books.
- "Colombia - History Background". education.stateuniversity.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World by William A. Douglass, Jon Bilbao, p. 167
- Possible paradises: Basque emigration to Latin America by José Manuel Azcona Pastor, p. 203
- Latin America during World War II by Thomas M. Leonard, John F. Bratzel, P.117
- "SCADTA Joins the Fight". stampnotes.com.
- juntaislamica.com. "La comunidad musulmana de Maicao (Colombia) – Webislam". www.webislam.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- (in Spanish) Luis Angel Arango Library: Los sirio-libaneses en Colombia Archived 25 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine lablaa.org
- "Costa Rica". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- "Costa Rica". The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015.
- "Report on the Census of Cuba, 1899". sc.edu.
- Pedraza, Silvia (17 September 2007). Political Disaffection in Cuba's Revolution and Exodus. ISBN 9780521867870.
- "Official 2012 Census" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 June 2014.
- "2012 Cuban Census". One.cu. 28 April 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Censo en Cuba concluye que la población decrece, envejece y se vuelve cada vez más mestiza". latercera.com. Grupo Copesa. 8 November 2013.
- "Etat des propriétés rurales appartenant à des Français dans l'île de Cuba". (from Cuban Genealogy Center)
- "In Cuba, Finding a Tiny Corner of Jewish Life". The New York Times. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- "A barrier for Cuba's blacks – New attitudes on once-taboo race questions emerge with a fledgling black movement". Archived from the original on 21 August 2013.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Cuba : Afro-Cubans". Refworld. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Cuba : Overview". Archived from the original on 10 May 2011.
- "El Salvador". The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- Bonnet 2000, p. 37
- "Caracterización estadística República de Guatemala 2012" (PDF). INE. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Metz, Brent (1 May 2006). Ch'orti'-Maya Survival in Eastern Guatemala: Indigeneity in Transition. UNM Press. ISBN 9780826338815 – via Google Books.
- "La cara Europea de Guatemala". europaenguatemala.blogspot.com. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Resultados del Modulo de Movilidad Social Intergeneracional" Archived 9 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, INEGI, 16 June 2017, Retrieved on 30 April 2018.
- "Visión INEGI 2021 Dr. Julio Santaella Castell", INEGI, 3 July 2017, Retrieved on 30 April 2018.
- "Por estas razones el color de piel determina las oportunidades de los mexicanos", Huffington post, 26 July 2017, Retrieved on 30 April 2018.
- "Ser Blanco", El Universal, 6 July 2017, Retrieved on 19 June 2018.
- "Comprobado con datos: en México te va mejor si eres blanco", forbes, 7 August 2018, Retrieved on 4 November 2018.
- David A. Branding; Woodrow Borah (1975). Mineros y comerciantes en el México borbónico (1763–1810). Fondo de Cultura Económica. p. 150. ISBN 9789681613402. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "Ser mestizo en la nueva España a fines del siglo XVIII. Acatzingo, 1792", Scielo, Jujuy, November 2000. Retrieved on 1 July 2017.
- Federico Navarrete (2016). Mexico Racista. Penguin Random house Grupo Editorial Mexico. p. 86. ISBN 9786073143646. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- Sherburne Friend Cook; Woodrow Borah (1998). Ensayos sobre historia de la población. México y el Caribe 2. Siglo XXI. p. 223. ISBN 9789682301063. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Household Mobility and Persistence in Guadalajara, Mexico: 1811–1842, page 62", fsu org, 8 December 2016. Retrieved on 9 December 2018.
- Sijia Wang; Nicolas Ray; Winston Rojas; Maria V. Parra; Gabriel Bedoya; Carla Gallo; et al. (21 March 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4 (3): e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC 2265669. PMID 18369456.
Large differences in the variation of individual admixture estimates were seen across populations, with the variance in Native American ancestry between individuals ranging from 0.005 in Quetalmahue to 0.07 in Mexico City (Figure 4, Figure S1, and Table S2), an observation consistent with previous studies...
- Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" [Ethnic Composition of the Three Cultural Areas of the American Continent at the Beginning of the 21st Century] (PDF). Convergencia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales (in Spanish). 12 (38): 169. ISSN 1405-1435. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
Al respecto no debe olvidarse que en estos países buena parte de las per so nas consideradas biológicamente blancas son mestizas en el aspecto cultural, el que aquí nos interesa. [In this respect, it should not be forgotten that in these countries a large part of the people considered to be biologically white are mixed in the cultural aspect, which concerns us here.]
- "Mexico | History, Geography, Facts, & Points of Interest". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- "Racismo y salud mental en estudiantes universitarios en la Ciudad de México", Scielo, Cuernavaca, April–March 2011. Retrieved on 28 April 2017.
- "Stratification by Skin Color in Contemporary Mexico", Jstor org, available creating a free account , Retrieved on 27 January 2018.
- "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals" table 1, Plosgenetics, 25 September 2014. Retrieved on 9 May 2017.
- "Alteraciones cutáneas del neonato en dos grupos de población de México", Scielo, March/April 2005. Retrieved on 18 May 2017.
- Miller (1999). Nursing Care of Older Adults: Theory and Practice (3, illustrated ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 90. ISBN 978-0781720762. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Congenital Dermal Melanocytosis (Mongolian Spot): Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". EMedicine.medscape.com. 7 January 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- Lawrence C. Parish; Larry E. Millikan, eds. (2012). Global Dermatology: Diagnosis and Management According to Geography, Climate, and Culture. M. Amer, R.A.C. Graham-Brown, S.N. Klaus, J.L. Pace. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 197. ISBN 978-1461226147. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "About Mongolian Spot". tokyo-med.ac.jp. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "Tienen manchas mongólicas 50% de bebés", El Universal, January 2012. Retrieved on 3 July 2017.
- Howard F. Cline (1963). THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO. Harvard University Press. p. 104. ISBN 9780674497061. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Cuéllar Moreno, Raúl (12 December 2004). "Coahuila y sus Hombres / Los indios bárbaros del norte". Elsiglodetorreon.com (in Spanish).
- Avila, Oscar (22 November 2008). "Mexico's insular Mennonites under siege, overlooked: The Tribune's Oscar Avila reports on Mexico's insular and targeted sect". McClatche-Tribune Business News. Washington. p. 8.
- "Menonitas que huyeron de Chihuahua ahora alimentan Asia desde Campeche", El Financiero, 1 March 2018. Retrieved on 8 December 2018.
- Montagner Anguiano, Eduardo. "El dialecto véneto de Chipilo" [The Venician dialect of Chipilo]. Orbis Latinus (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Germans: First Arrivals (from the Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand)
- Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "4. – History of immigration – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz.
- Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu. "5. – History of immigration – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". teara.govt.nz.
- "Nicaragua". The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Eddy Kuhl Inmigración centro-europea a Matagalpa, Nicaragua Archived 4 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Consultado, 05/12/2014.
- Revista Vinculado Nicaragua: historia de inmigrantes. De dónde eran y por qué emigraron Retrieved, 05/12/2014.
- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Census.gov. 20 July 2015. Archived from the original on 20 July 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Racial composition data for Puerto Rico: 2000 Census" (PDF). Topuertorico.org. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- Klein, Herbert S. (28 May 2012). A Population History of the United States. ISBN 9781107379206.
- How Puerto Rico Became White—University of Wisconsin-Madison Archived 7 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF).
- "Home". Center for Demography and Ecology.
- Representation of racial identity among Island Puerto Ricans. Mona.uwi.edu.
- Thomas McGhee, Charles C., ed. (1989). The plot against South Africa (2nd ed.). Pretoria: Varama. ISBN 978-0-620-14537-4.
- Fryxell, Cole. To Be Born a Nation. pp. 9, 327.
- Kaplan, Irving. Area Handbook for the Republic of South Africa. pp. 120–166.
- Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa (1981). South Africa: Time running out: The report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-520-04547-7.
- Mafika (11 August 2017). "South Africa's population". Brand South Africa. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
- Million whites leave SA – study, fin24.com, 24 September 2006
- Kruszelnicki, Karl, News in Science: Skin Colour 1
- Bonnet 2000, p. 32
- Bonnet 2000, p. 31
- "Short History of Immigration". BBC News. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Culture and Ethnicity Differences in Liverpool – Chinese Community". Chambré Hardman Trust. Archived from the original on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Vargas-Silva, Carlos (10 April 2014). "Migration Flows of A8 and other EU Migrants to and from the UK". Migration Observatory, University of Oxford. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Ethnic group statistics: A guide for the collection and classification of ethnicity data" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2003. p. 9. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
- Kissoon, Priya.Asylum Seekers: National Problem or National Solution. 2005. 7 November 2006.
- 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, accessed 13 June 2014.
- Table 2 – Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011 Scotlands Census published 30 September 2013, accessed 13 June 2014.
- "2011 Census – Key Statistics for Northern Ireland". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 11 January 2017.
- "Table DC2206NI: National identity (classification 1) by ethnic group". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "2011 Census: Key Results on Population, Ethnicity, Identity, Language, Religion, Health, Housing and Accommodation in Scotland – Release 2A" (PDF). National Records for Scotland. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- "NISRA 2011 Census: Ethnic Group: Accessed 3 June 2013".
- Table 1. United States – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990 (pdf). Archived 18 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data Geographic Area: United States. Factfinder.census.gov.
- The White Population: 2000, Census 2000 Brief C2010BR-05., U.S. Census Bureau, September 2011.
- The White Population: 2010, Census 2010 Brief C2KBR/01-4, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2001.
- Roediger, Wages of Whiteness, 186; Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (New York, 1998).
- Tehranian, John (2000). "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America". The Yale Law Journal. 109 (4): 825–27. doi:10.2307/797505. JSTOR 797505.
- Armas Kustaa Ensio Holmio, "History of the Finns in Michigan", p. 17 | She had barely reached the front porch when the friend's mother realized that her daughter's playmate was a Finn. Helmi was turned away immediately, and the daughter of the house was forbidden to associate with "that Mongolian". John Wargelin, a pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and a former president of Suomi College, also tells how, when he was a child in Crystal Falls some years earlier, he and his friends were ridiculed and stoned on their way to school. "Because of our strange language," he says, "we were considered an alien race who had no right to settle in this country."
- Eric Dregni, Vikings in the attic: In search of Nordic America, p. 176.
- John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan. 2000), pp. 817–48.
- United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, Certificate From The Circuit Court Of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, No. 202. Argued 11, 12 January 1923. —Decided 19 February 1923, United States Reports, v. 261, The Supreme Court, October Term, 1922, 204–215.
- John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan. 2000), pp. 833–36.
- John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan. 2000), pp. 837–39.
- "No Middle Eastern Or North African Category On 2020 Census, Bureau Says". NPR.org. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- Frank W Sweet, Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule, Backintyme (3 July 2013), p. 50.
- Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation, p. 97 (2004) Archived 3 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Anthony Walsh (2004). "Race and crime: a biosocial analysis". Nova Publishers. p. 23. ISBN 1-59033-970-3
- Jeffrey S. Passel and D'Vera Cohn: U.S. Population Projections: 2005–2050. Archived 3 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Pew Research Center, 11 February 2008.
- Bryc, Katarzyna et al. "The genetic ancestry of African, Latino, and European Americans across the United States" 23andme. pp. 22, 38 doi:10.1101/009340. "Supplemental Tables and Figures". p. 42. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Scott Hadly, "Hidden African Ancestry Redux", DNA USA*, 23andMe, 4 March 2014.
- "African Ancestry of the White American Population" (pdf). The Ohio Journal of Science, vol. 58, n. 3 (May, 1958), pp. 155–60.
- One drop of blood. People.vcu.edu (24 July 1994).
- Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; et al. (2009). "Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (2): 786–791. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107..786B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909559107. PMC 2818934. PMID 20080753.
- Shriver, Mark D.; et al. (2003). "Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping" (PDF). Human Genetics. 112 (4): 387–99. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0896-y (inactive 20 August 2019). PMID 12579416. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012.
- Frank W Sweet (2004). "Afro-European Genetic Admixture in the United States: Essays on the Color Line and the One-Drop Rule". Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Debra J. Dickerson: The End of Blackness. Returning the Souls of Black Folk to Their Rightful Owners. Anchor Books, New York and Toronto 2005.
- Mariah Carey: 'Not another White girl trying to sing Black.'. Findarticles.com.
- Larry King interview with Mariah Carey. Transcripts.cnn.com (19 December 2002).
- Cf. Jim Wooten, "Race Reversal Man Lives as ‘Black’ for 50 Years – Then Finds Out He’s Probably Not", ABC News (2004).
- Uruguay (07/08). State.gov (2 April 2012).
- CIA – The World Factbook – Uruguay. Cia.gov.
- Uruguay – Population. Countrystudies.us.
- Publishing, D. K. (17 January 2005). Financial Times World Desk Reference 2005. Penguin. ISBN 9780756673093 – via Google Books.
- Lesser, Jeff; Rein, Raanan (30 May 2018). Rethinking Jewish-Latin Americans. UNM Press. ISBN 9780826344014 – via Google Books.
- "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011 (Mayo 2014)" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. p. 29. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Ine.gob.ve Venezuelan population by 30/Jun/2014 is 30,206,2307 according to the National Institute of Statistics
- Godinho, Neide Maria de Oliveira (2008). "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas" (PDF). Universidade de Brasília. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- Tinker-Salas, Miguel (30 May 2018). Venezuela: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199783298 – via Google Books.
- Allen, Theodore, The Invention of the White Race, 2 vols. Verso, London 1994.
- Baum, Bruce David, The rise and fall of the Caucasian race: a political history of racial identity. NYU Press, New York and London 2006, ISBN 978-0-8147-9892-8.
- Bonnett, Alastair (2000), White Identities: Historical and International Perspectives, Harlow: Pearson
- Brodkin, Karen, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says About Race in America, Rutgers, 1999, ISBN 0-8135-2590-X.
- Coon, Carleton Stevens (1939). The Races Of Europe. New York: The Macmillan Company.
- Foley, Neil, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997)
- Gossett, Thomas F., Race: The History of an Idea in America, New ed. (New York: Oxford University, 1997)
- Guglielmo, Thomas A., White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890–1945, 2003, ISBN 0-19-515543-2
- Hannaford, Ivan, Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1996)
- Ignatiev, Noel, How the Irish Became White, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-91825-1.
- Jackson, F. L. C. (2004). Book chapter: Human genetic variation and health: new assessment approaches based on ethnogenetic layering at the Wayback Machine (archived 16 February 2008) British Medical Bulletin 2004; 69: 215–35 doi:10.1093/bmb/ldh012. Retrieved 29 December 2006.
- Jacobson, Matthew Frye, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, Harvard, 1999, ISBN 0-674-95191-3.
- Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story. Constable and Robinson Ltd., London. ISBN 978-1-84529-158-7.
- Rosenberg NA, Mahajan S, Ramachandran S, Zhao C, Pritchard JK, et al. (2005) Clines, Clusters, and the Effect of Study Design on the Inference of Human Population Structure. PLoS Genet 1(6) e70 doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0010070 PMID 16355252
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, et al. (2002) Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298: 2381–85. Abstract
- Segal, Daniel A., Review of Racial Situations: Class Predicaments of Whiteness in Detroit American Ethnologist May 2002, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 470–73 doi:10.1525/ae.2002.29.2.470
- Smedley, Audrey, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview, 1999).
- Tang, Hua., Tom Quertermous, Beatriz Rodriguez, Sharon L. R. Kardia, Xiaofeng Zhu, Andrew Brown, James S. Pankow, Michael A. Province, Steven C. Hunt, Eric Boerwinkle, Nicholas J. Schork, and Neil J. Risch (2005) Genetic Structure, Self-Identified Race/Ethnicity, and Confounding in Case-Control Association Studies Am. J. Hum. Genet. 76:268–75.
- Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V.; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Guido; Hill, Kim (21 March 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4 (3): e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 2265669. PMID 18369456.