List of missions to the Moon

Summary

As part of human exploration of the Moon, numerous space missions have been undertaken to study Earth's natural satellite. Of the Moon landings, Luna 2 of the Soviet Union was the first spacecraft to reach its surface successfully,[1] intentionally impacting the Moon on 13 September 1959. In 1966, Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to achieve a controlled soft landing,[2] while Luna 10 became the first mission to enter orbit.

A replica of Luna 9, the first spacecraft to land on the Moon
The first image taken of the far side of the Moon, returned by Luna 3, Kodak Film, U.S.

Between 1968 and 1972, crewed missions to the Moon were conducted by the United States as part of the Apollo program. Apollo 8 was the first crewed mission to enter orbit in December 1968, and it was followed by Apollo 10 in May 1969. Six missions landed humans on the Moon, beginning with Apollo 11 in July 1969, during which Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon. Apollo 13 was intended to land; however, it was restricted to a flyby due to a malfunction aboard the spacecraft. All nine crewed missions returned safely to the Earth.

While the United States focused on the crewed Apollo program, the Soviet Union conducted uncrewed missions that deployed rovers and returned samples to the Earth. Three rover missions were launched, of which two were successful, and eleven sample return flights were attempted with three successes.

Missions to the Moon have been conducted by the following nations and entities (in chronological order): the Soviet Union, the United States, Japan, the European Space Agency, China, India, Luxembourg, Israel, Italy, and South Korea. The Moon has also been visited by five spacecraft not dedicated to studying it; four spacecraft have flown past it to gain gravity assistance, and a radio telescope, Explorer 49, was placed into selenocentric orbit in order to use the Moon to block interference from terrestrial radio sources.

Moon missions, 2001 to presentα
Year Missions
2022 16 16
 
2021 0
2020 1 1
 
2019 2 2
 
2018 4 4
 
2017 0
2016 0
2015 0
2014 2 2
 
2013 2 2
 
2012 0
2011 2 2
 
2010 1 1
 
2009 2 2
 
2008 1 1
 
2007 4 4
 
2006 2 2
 
2005 0
2004 0
2003 1 1
 
2002 0
2001 1 1
 

Missions by dateEdit

 
Map of all soft landings
Mission Spacecraft Launch date Carrier rocket Operator Mission type Outcome
Pioneer 0

(Able I)[3]

Pioneer 0 17 August 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I[4]   USAF Orbiter Launch failure
First attempted launch beyond Earth orbit; failed to orbit due to turbopump gearbox malfunction resulting in first-stage explosion.[5] Reached apogee of 16 kilometres (9.9 mi).[6]
Luna E-1 No.1 Luna E-1 No.1 23 September 1958 Luna   OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure
Failed to orbit; rocket disintegrated due to excessive vibration.[7][8]
Pioneer 1

(Able II)[9]

Pioneer 1 11 October 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I[10]   NASA Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit; premature second-stage cutoff due to accelerometer failure. Later known as Pioneer 1.[11] Reached apogee of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi).[12]
Luna E-1 No.2 Luna E-1 No.2 11 October 1958 Luna   OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure
Failed to orbit; carrier rocket exploded due to excessive vibration.[13][8]
Pioneer 2

(Able III)

Pioneer 2 8 November 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I   NASA Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit; premature second-stage cutoff due to erroneous command by ground controllers; third stage failed to ignite due to broken electrical connection.[14] Reached apogee of 1,550 kilometres (960 mi).[15]
Luna E-1 No.3 Luna E-1 No.3 4 December 1958 Luna   OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure
Failed to orbit; seal failure in hydrogen peroxide pump cooling system resulted in core-stage underperformance.[16][8]
Pioneer 3 Pioneer 3 6 December 1958 Juno II   NASA Flyby Launch failure
Failed to orbit; premature first-stage cutoff.[17] Reached apogee of 102,360 kilometres (63,600 mi).[18]
Luna 1

(E-1 No.4)

Luna 1 2 January 1959 Luna   OKB-1 Impactor Partial failure
Carrier rocket guidance problem resulted in failure to impact Moon, flew past in a heliocentric orbit.[19] Closest approach 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi) on 4 January.[20] First spacecraft to fly by the Moon.
Pioneer 4 Pioneer 4 3 March 1959 Juno II   NASA Flyby Partial failure
Second-stage overperformance resulted in flyby at greater altitude than expected, out of instrument range, with 58,983 kilometres (36,650 mi) of distance.[21] Closest approach at 22:25 UTC on 4 March. First U.S. spacecraft to leave Earth orbit.[22]
E-1A No.1 E-1A No.1 18 June 1959 Luna   OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure
Failed to orbit; guidance system malfunction.[23]
Luna 2

(E-1A No.2)

Luna 2 12 September 1959 Luna   OKB-1 Impactor Successful
Successful impact at 21:02 on 14 September 1959. First spacecraft to reach lunar surface.[24]
Luna 3

(E-2A No.1)

Luna 3 4 October 1959 Luna   OKB-1 Flyby Successful
Returned first images of the far side of the Moon.[25]
Pioneer P-3

Able IVB

Pioneer P-3 26 November 1959 Atlas-D Able   NASA Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit;[26] payload fairing disintegrated due to design fault.[27]
Luna E-3 No.1 Luna E-3 No.1 15 April 1960 Luna   OKB-1 Flyby Launch failure
Failed to orbit; premature third-stage cutoff.[28]
Luna E-3 No.2 Luna E-3 No.2 16 April 1960 Luna   OKB-1 Flyby Launch failure
Failed to orbit; rocket disintegrated ten seconds after launch.[29]
Pioneer P-30

(Able VA)

Pioneer P-30 25 September 1960 Atlas-D Able   NASA Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit; second-stage oxidizer system malfunction resulting in premature cutoff.[30][31]
Pioneer P-31

(Able VB)

Pioneer P-31 15 December 1960 Atlas-D Able   NASA Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit, exploded 68 seconds after launch, at an altitude of 12.2 kilometres (7.6 mi). Second stage ignited while first stage was still attached and burning.[32][33]
Ranger 3

(P-34)

Ranger 3 26 January 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure
Ranger 3 lander Lander Spacecraft failure
Partial launch failure due to guidance problem; attempt to correct using spacecraft's engine resulted in it missing the Moon by 36,793 kilometres (22,862 mi).[34][35]
Ranger 4

(P-35)

Ranger 4 23 April 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure
Ranger 4 lander Lander Spacecraft failure
Failed to deploy solar panels, ran out of power ten hours after launch; incidental impact on the far side of the Moon on 26 April. First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon.[36][37]
Ranger 5

(P-36)

Ranger 5 18 October 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure
Ranger 5 lander Lander Spacecraft failure
Solar panels erroneously disengaged from power system, failed 8+34 hours after launch when batteries were depleted.[38] Missed the Moon as course correction was not completed.[39]
Luna E-6 No.2 Luna E-6 No.2 4 January 1963 Molniya-L   OKB-1 Lander Launch failure
Failed to depart Low Earth orbit;[40] guidance system power failure prevented upper-stage ignition.[41]
Luna E-6 No.3 Luna E-6 No.3 3 February 1963 Molniya-L   OKB-1 Lander Launch failure
Failed to orbit; guidance failure.[42]
Luna 4

(E-6 No.4)

Luna 4 2 April 1963 Molniya-L   OKB-1 Lander Spacecraft failure
Failed to perform mid-course correction,[43] remained in high Earth orbit until given escape velocity by orbital perturbation.[44]
Ranger 6

(P-54)

Ranger 6 30 January 1964 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure
Impacted on 2 February 1964, failed to return images due to power system failure.[45][46]
Luna E-6 No.6 Luna E-6 No.6 21 March 1964 Molniya-M   OKB-1 Lander Launch failure
Failed to orbit; third stage underperformed due to oxidiser valve failure.[47]
Luna E-6 No.5 Luna E-6 No.5 20 April 1964 Molniya-M   OKB-1 Lander Launch failure
Failed to orbit; power failure caused by broken connection resulted in premature third-stage cutoff.[48]
Ranger 7 Ranger 7 28 July 1964 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Successful
Impacted on 30 July 1964 at 13:25:48 UTC.[49]
Ranger 8 Ranger 8 17 February 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Successful
Impacted on 20 February 1965 at 09:57:37 UTC.[50][51]
Kosmos 60(E-6 No.9) Kosmos 60 12 March 1965 Molniya-L   Lavochkin Lander Launch failure
Upper stage failed to restart due to guidance system short circuit,[52] Failed to depart low Earth orbit.[53]
Ranger 9 Ranger 9 21 March 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B   NASA Impactor Successful
Impacted on 24 March 1965 at 14:08:20 UTC.[54][55]
Luna E-6 No.8 Luna E-6 No.8 10 April 1965 Molniya-L   Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure
Third stage failed to ignite due to loss of oxidiser pressure, failed to orbit.[56]
Luna 5(E-6 No.10) Luna 5 9 May 1965 Molniya-M   Lavochkin lander Spacecraft failure
Loss of control after gyroscope malfunction,[57] failed to decelerate for landing and impacted the Moon at 19:10 UTC on 12 May 1965.[58]
Luna 6

(E-6 No.7)

Luna 6 8 June 1965 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure
Engine failed to shut down after performing mid-course correction manoeuvre,[59] flew past the Moon in a heliocentric orbit.[60]
Zond 3

(3MV-4 No.3)

Zond 3 18 July 1965 Molniya   Lavochkin Flyby Successful
Flew past the Moon on 20 July 1965 at a distance of 9,200 kilometres (5,700 mi).[61] Conducted technology demonstration for future planetary missions.[62]
Luna 7

(E-6 No.11)

Luna 7 4 October 1965 Molniya   Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure
Attitude control failure shortly before landing prevented controlled descent; impacted the lunar surface 22:08:24 UTC on 7 October 1965.[63][64]
Luna 8(E-6 No.12) Luna 8 3 December 1965 Molniya   Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure
Landing airbag punctured, resulting in loss of attitude control shortly before planned touchdown,[65] impacted Moon on 6 December 1965 at 21:51:30 UTC.[66]
Luna 9

(E-6 No.13)

Luna 9 31 January 1966 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Lander Successful
First spacecraft to land successfully on the Moon. Touchdown on 3 February 1966 at 18:45:30 UTC.[67] Returned data until 6 February at 22:55 UTC.[68]
Kosmos 111

(E-6S No.204)

Kosmos 111 1 March 1966 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Orbiter Launch failure
Upper stage lost attitude control and failed to ignite;[69] spacecraft never left low Earth orbit.[70]
Luna 10(E-6S No.206) Luna 10 31 March 1966 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Orbiter Successful
Entered orbit at 18:44 UTC on 3 April 1966, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.[71] Continued to return data until 30 May.[72]
Surveyor 1 Surveyor 1 30 May 1966 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Successful
Landed in Oceanus Procellarum on 2 June 1966 at 06:17:36 UTC.[73] Returned data until loss of power on 13 July.[74]
Explorer 33(AIMP-D) Explorer 33 1 July 1966 Delta E1   NASA Orbiter Launch failure
Magnetospheric probe; rocket imparted greater velocity than had been planned, leaving spacecraft unable to enter orbit.[75] Repurposed for Earth orbit mission which was completed successfully.[76]
Lunar Orbiter 1 Lunar Orbiter 1 10 August 1966 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D   NASA Orbiter Partial failure
Orbital insertion at around 15:36 UTC on 14 August. Deorbited early due to lack of fuel and to avoid communications interference with the next mission, impacted the Moon at 13:30 UTC on 29 October 1966.[77]
Luna 11(E-6LF No.101) Luna 11 21 August 1966 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Orbiter Partial failure
Entered orbit on 28 August 1966. Failed to return images; other instruments operated correctly.[78] Conducted gamma ray and X-ray observations to study the composition of the Moon, investigated the lunar gravitational field, the presence of meteorites in the lunar environment and the radiation environment at the Moon. Ceased operations on 1 October 1966 after power was depleted.[79]
Surveyor 2 Surveyor 2 20 September 1966 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Spacecraft failure
One thruster failed to ignite during mid-course correction manoeuvre resulting in loss of control.[80] Impacted the Moon at 03:18 UTC on 23 September 1966.[81]
Luna 12(E-6LF No.102) Luna 12 22 October 1966 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Orbiter Successful
Entered orbit on 25 October 1966 and returned data until 19 January 1967.[82] Completed photography mission intended for Luna 11.[83]
Lunar Orbiter 2 Lunar Orbiter 2 6 November 1966 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D   NASA Orbiter Successful
Entered orbit at about 19:51 UTC on 10 November 1966 to begin photographic mapping mission. Impacted on the far side of the lunar surface following deorbit burn on 11 October 1967 at end of mission.[84]
Luna 13

(E-6M No.205)

Luna 13 21 December 1966 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Lander Successful
Successfully landed in Oceanus Procellarum at 18:01 UTC on 24 December 1966.[85] Returned images from the surface and studied the lunar soil.[86] Operated until depletion of power at 06:31 UTC on 28 December.[85]
Lunar Orbiter 3 Lunar Orbiter 3 5 February 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D   NASA Orbiter Successful
Entered orbit at 21:54 UTC on 8 February 1967. Deorbited at end of mission and impacted the Moon on 9 October 1967.[87]
Surveyor 3 Surveyor 3 17 April 1967 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Successful
Landed at 00:04 UTC on 20 April 1967 and operated until 3 May.[88][89] Visited by Apollo 12 astronauts in 1969, with some parts removed for return to Earth.[90]
Lunar Orbiter 4 Lunar Orbiter 4 4 May 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D   NASA Orbiter Successful
Entered orbit at 21:54 UTC on 8 May 1967, operated until 17 July. Decayed from orbit, with lunar impact occurring on 6 October 1967.[91][92]
Surveyor 4 Surveyor 4 14 July 1967 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Spacecraft failure
Contact with spacecraft lost at 02:03 UTC on 17 July, two and a half minutes before scheduled landing.[93] NASA determined that the spacecraft may have exploded, otherwise it impacted the Moon.[94]
Explorer 35(AIMP-E) Explorer 35(AIMP-E) 19 July 1967 Delta E1   NASA Orbiter Successful
Magnetospheric probe, studying the Moon and interplanetary space. Deactivated on 27 June 1973.[95] Presumed to have impacted the Moon during the 1970s.[96]
Lunar Orbiter 5 Lunar Orbiter 5 1 August 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D   NASA Orbiter Successful
Final mission in the Lunar Orbiter series, entered selenocentric orbit on 5 August at 16:48 UTC and conducted a photographic survey until 18 August. Deorbited and impacted the Moon on 31 January 1968.[97]
Surveyor 5 Surveyor 5 8 September 1967 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Successful
Landed in Mare Tranquillitatis at 00:46:44 UTC on 11 September. Last signals received at 04:30 UTC on 17 December 1967.[98]
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L 27 September 1967 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Spacecraft failure
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions. Failed to reach orbit after a blocked propellant line caused one of the first-stage engines to not ignite.[99]
Surveyor 6 Surveyor 6 7 November 1967 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Successful
Landed in Sinus Medii at 01:01:04 UTC on 10 November.[100] Made brief flight from lunar surface at 10:32 UTC on 17 November, followed by second landing after travelling 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in). Last contact at 19:14 UTC on 14 December.[101]
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L 22 November 1967 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions; unable to achieve orbit after second-stage engine failed to ignite.[102]
Surveyor 7 Surveyor 7 7 January 1968 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D   NASA Lander Successful
Final Surveyor mission.[103] Landed 29 kilometres (18 mi) from Tycho crater at 01:05:36 UTC on 10 January. Operated until 21 February 1968.[104]
Luna E-6LS No.112 Luna E-6LS No.112 7 February 1968 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit after third stage ran out of fuel.[105]
Luna 14(E-6LS No.113) Luna 14 7 April 1968 Molniya-M   Lavochkin Orbiter Successful
Tested communications for proposed crewed missions and studied the mass concentration of the Moon. Entered orbit on 10 April at 19:25 UTC.[106]
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.7L Soyuz 7K-L1 No.7L 22 April 1968 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions. Failed to orbit after second-stage engine incorrectly commanded to shut down. Spacecraft was recovered using its prototype launch escape system.[107]
Zond 5(7K-L1 No.9L) Zond 5 14 September 1968 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Successful
Two tortoises and other life forms on board a technology demonstration for planned crewed missions. Made a closest approach of 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) on 18 September, and circled the Moon before returning to Earth. Landed in the Indian Ocean on 21 September at 16:08 UTC, becoming the first Lunar spacecraft to be recovered successfully and carried the first Earth life to travel to and around the Moon.[108]
Zond 6(7K-L1 No.12L) Zond 6 10 November 1968 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Spacecraft failure
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions. Flyby occurred on 14 November, with a closest approach of 2,420 kilometres (1,500 mi).[109] Reentered Earth's atmosphere on 17 November; however, recovery was unsuccessful after parachutes were prematurely jettisoned.[110]
Apollo 8 Apollo 8 21 December 1968 Saturn V   NASA Crewed orbiter Successful
First crewed mission to the Moon; entered orbit around the Moon with four-minute burn beginning at 09:59:52 UTC on 24 December. Completed ten orbits of the Moon before returning to Earth with an engine burn at 06:10:16 UTC on 25 December. Landed in the Pacific Ocean at 15:51 UTC on 27 December.[111]
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.13L Soyuz 7K-L1 No.13L 20 January 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions. Failed to orbit after one of the four second-stage engines shut down prematurely. Third-stage engine also shut down prematurely. The spacecraft was recovered using its launch escape system.[112]
Luna E-8 No.201 Luna E-8 No.201 19 February 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Launch failure
Lunokhod Rover Launch failure
First launch of the Lunokhod rover. Launch vehicle disintegrated 51 seconds after launch and exploded.[113]
Soyuz 7K-L1S No.3 Soyuz 7K-L1S No.3 21 February 1969 N1   OKB-1 Orbiter Launch failure
First launch of N1 rocket; intended to orbit the Moon and return to Earth. First stage prematurely shut down 70 seconds after launch; launch vehicle crashed 50 kilometres (31 mi) from launch site. Spacecraft landed some 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the launch pad after successfully using its launch escape system.[114]
Apollo 10 Apollo 10 18 May 1969 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 10 Lunar Module Orbiter Successful
Dress rehearsal for Apollo 11. Lunar Module with two astronauts on board descended to a distance of 14.326 kilometres (8.902 mi) above the lunar surface.[115]
Luna E-8-5 No.402 Luna E-8-5 No.402 14 June 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Launch failure
Luna E-8-5 No.402 Return Craft Sample Return Launch failure
Intended to land on the Moon and return lunar soil sample. Did not reach Earth orbit after fourth stage failed to ignite.[116]
Soyuz 7K-L1S No.5 Soyuz 7K-L1S No.5 3 July 1969 N1   OKB-1 Orbiter Launch failure
Intended to orbit the Moon and return to Earth. All first-stage engines shut down 10 seconds after launch; launch vehicle crashed and exploded on the launch pad. Spacecraft landed safely 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the launch site after using launch escape sequence.[117]
Luna 15

(E-8-5 No.401)

Luna 15 13 July 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure
Luna 15 Return Craft Sample Return Launch failure
Reached lunar orbit at 10:00 UTC on 17 July. Descent retro-rocket burn started at 15:47 UTC on 21 July. Contact lost three minutes after de-orbit burn; probably crashed on the Moon.[118]
Apollo 11 Apollo 11 16 July 1969 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 11 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
First crewed landing on the Moon. The Lunar Module Eagle landed at 20:17 UTC on 20 July 1969.
Zond 7(7K-L1 No.11L) Zond 7 7 August 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Successful
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions. Lunar flyby on 10 August, with a closest approach of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi); returned to Earth and landed in Kazakhstan at 18:13 UTC on 14 August.[119]
Kosmos 300(E-8-5 No.403) Kosmos 300 23 September 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Launch failure
Kosmos 300 Return Craft Sample return Launch failure
Third attempt at lunar sample return. After reaching low Earth orbit, the fourth-stage engine failed to fire for trans-lunar injection due to oxidiser leak. Spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere about 4 days after launch.[120]
Kosmos 305

(E-8-5 No.404)

Kosmos 305 22 October 1969 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Launch failure
Kosmos 305 Return Craft Sample Return Launch failure
Fourth attempt at lunar sample return. After reaching low Earth orbit, the fourth-stage engine failed to fire for trans-lunar injection due to control system malfunction. Spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere within one orbit after launch.[121]
Apollo 12 Apollo 12 14 November 1969 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 12 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
Second crewed lunar landing.
Luna E-8-5 No.405 Luna E-8-5 No.405 6 February 1970 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Launch failure
Luna E-8-5 No.405 Return Craft Sample return Launch failure
Failed to orbit
Apollo 13 Apollo 13 11 April 1970 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Spacecraft failure
Apollo 13 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
Lunar landing aborted following Service Module oxygen tank explosion en route to the Moon; flew past the Moon (free-return trajectory) and returned the crew safely to Earth.
Luna 16(E-8-5 No.406) Luna 16 12 September 1970 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Successful
Luna 16 Return Craft Sample return Successful
First robotic sampling mission.
Zond 8(7K-L1 No.14L) Zond 8 20 October 1970 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Flyby Successful
Technology demonstration for planned crewed missions; returned to Earth successfully.
Luna 17(E-8 No.203) Luna 17 10 November 1970 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Successful
Lunokhod 1 Rover Successful
Luna 17 deployed Lunokhod 1.
Apollo 14 Apollo 14 31 January 1971 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 14 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
Third crewed lunar landing.
Apollo 15 Apollo 15 26 July 1971 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 15 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
Lunar Roving Vehicle Rover Successful
Fourth crewed lunar landing, and first to use the Lunar Roving Vehicle.
PFS-1 PFS-1 26 July 1971 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
PFS-1 was deployed from Apollo 15.
Luna 18(E-8-5 No.407) Luna 18 2 September 1971 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure
Luna 18 Return Craft Sample return Spacecraft failure
Failed during descent to lunar surface.
Luna 19(E-8LS No.202) Luna 19 28 September 1971 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Orbiter Successful
Entered an orbit around the Moon on 2 October 1971 after two midcourse corrections on 29 September and 1 October.
Luna 20(E-8-5 No.408) Luna 20 14 February 1972 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Successful
Luna 20 Return Craft Sample return Successful
Luna 20 soft landed on the Moon in a mountainous area known as the Terra Apollonius (or Apollonius highlands) near Mare Fecunditatis (Sea of Fertility), 120 km from where Luna 16 had landed.
Apollo 16 Apollo 16 16 April 1972 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 16 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
Lunar Roving Vehicle Rover Successful
5th crewed lunar landing.
PFS-2 PFS-2 16 April 1972 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
PFS-2 deployed from Apollo 16.
Soyuz 7K-LOK No.1 Soyuz 7K-LOK No.1 3 July 1972 N1   OKB-1 Orbiter Launch failure
Failed to orbit; intended to orbit the Moon and return to Earth.
Apollo 17 Apollo 17 7 December 1972 Saturn V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Apollo 17 Lunar Module Lander/Launch Vehicle Successful
Lunar Roving Vehicle Rover Successful
Sixth and last crewed lunar landing and last use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle; the orbiting command module included five mice.
Luna 21(E-8 No.204) Luna 21 8 January 1973 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Successful
Lunokhod 2 Rover Successful
Deployed Lunokhod 2.
Explorer 49(RAE-B) Explorer 49 10 June 1973 Delta 1913   NASA Orbiter Successful
Radio astronomy spacecraft, operated in selenocentric orbit to avoid interference from terrestrial radio sources.
Mariner 10 Mariner 10 3 November 1973 Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A   NASA Flyby Successful
Interplanetary spacecraft, mapped lunar north pole to test cameras.
Luna 22(E-8LS No.206) Luna 22 29 May 1974 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Orbiter Successful
Inserted into a circular lunar orbit on 2 June 1974
Luna 23(E-8-5M No.410) Luna 23 16 October 1975 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Partial failure
Luna 23 Return Craft Sample Return Precluded
Tipped over upon landing, precluding any sample return attempt. Functioned for three days on surface.
Luna E-8-5M No.412 Luna E-8-5M No.412 16 October 1975 Proton-K/D Lander Launch failure
Luna E-8-5M No.412 Return Craft Sample Return Launch failure
Failed to orbit.
Luna 24(E-8-5M No.413) Luna 24 9 August 1976 Proton-K/D   Lavochkin Lander Successful
Luna 24 Return Craft Sample Return Successful
Final mission of the Luna programme. Entered orbit on 11 August 1976 and landed in Mare Crisium at 16:36 UTC on 18 August. Sample capsule launched at 05:25 UTC on 19 August and recovered 96+12 hours later.[122] Returned 170.1 grams (6.00 oz) of lunar regolith.[123] Final mission to the Moon from the Soviet Union.
ISEE-3(ICE/Explorer 59) ISEE-3 12 August 1978 Delta 2914   NASA Flyby Successful
Five flybys in 1982 and 1983 en route to comet 21P/Giacobini–Zinner.
Hiten

(MUSES-A)

Hiten 24 January 1990 Mu-3S-II   ISAS Orbiter Successful
Hagoromo 24 January 1990 Mu-3S-II   ISAS Orbiter Spacecraft failure
Designed for flyby, placed into selenocentric orbit during extended mission after failure of Hagoromo. Deorbited and impacted in USGS quadrangle LQ27 on 10 April 1993.[124] Hagoromo was deployed from Hiten.
Geotail Geotail 24 July 1992 Delta II 6925     ISAS/NASA Flyby Successful
Series of flybys to regulate high Earth orbit.
WIND WIND 1 November 1994 Delta II 7925-10   NASA Flyby Successful
Made two flybys on 1 December 1994 and 27 December 1994 to reach the Earth–Sun L1 Lagrangian point.
Clementine(DSPSE) Clementine 25 January 1994 Titan II (23)G Star-37FM   USAF/NASA Orbiter Successful
Completed Lunar objectives successfully; failed following departure from selenocentric orbit.
HGS-1 HGS-1 24 December 1997 Proton-K/DM3   Hughes Flyby Successful
Communications satellite; made two flybys in May and June 1998 en route to geosynchronous orbit after delivery into wrong orbit.
Lunar Prospector(Discovery 3) Lunar Prospector 7 January 1998 Athena II   NASA Orbiter Successful
The mission ended on July 31, 1999
Nozomi(PLANET-B) Nozomi 3 July 1998 M-V   ISAS Flyby Successful
Two flybys en route to Mars.
WMAP WMAP 30 June 2001 Delta II 7425-10   NASA Flyby Successful
Flyby on 30 July 2001 to reach the Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point.
SMART-1 SMART-1 27 September 2003 Ariane 5G   ESA Orbiter Successful
Impacted Moon in USGS quadrangle LQ26 at end of mission on 3 September 2006.
STEREO STEREO A 25 October 2006 Delta II 7925-10L   NASA Flyby Successful
STEREO B Successful
Both component spacecraft entered heliocentric orbit on 15 December 2006.
ARTEMIS ARTEMIS P1 17 February 2007 Delta II 7925   NASA Orbiter Operational
ARTEMIS P2 Orbiter Operational
Two THEMIS spacecraft moved to selenocentric orbit for extended mission; entered orbit July 2011.
SELENE Kaguya 14 September 2007 H-IIA 2022   JAXA Orbiter Successful
Okina Orbiter Successful
Ouna Orbiter Successful
Deployed Okina and Ouna satellites. Kaguya and Okina impacted the Moon at end of mission.[125] Ouna completed operations on 29 June 2009[126] but remains in selenocentric orbit.
Chang'e 1 Chang'e 1 24 October 2007 Long March 3A   CNSA Orbiter Successful
Impacted Moon in USGS quadrangle LQ21 on 1 March 2009, at end of mission.
Chandrayaan-1 Chandrayaan-1 22 October 2008 PSLV-XL   ISRO Orbiter Successful
Moon Impact Probe Impactor Successful
Succeeded through mission. Orbit lasted 312 days, short of intended 2 years; However mission achieved most of its intended objectives. ; Terminated in 2009, remains in selenocentric orbit; discovered water ice on the Moon.[127] Moon Impact Probe was deployed from the Orbiter. It successfully impacted Moon's Shackleton Crater in the in USGS quadrangle LQ30 at 20:31 on 14 November 2008 releasing underground debris that could be analysed by the orbiter for presence of water/ice. With this mission, India became the fifth nation to reach the lunar surface.
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 18 June 2009 Atlas V 401   NASA Orbiter Operational
Entered orbit on June 23, 2009
LCROSS LCROSS 18 June 2009 Atlas V 401   NASA Impactor Successful
Observed impact of Centaur upper stage that launched it and LRO, then impacted itself. Impacts in USGS quadrangle LQ30.
Chang'e 2 Chang'e 2 1 October 2010 Long March 3C   CNSA Orbiter Successful
Following completion of six month Lunar mission, departed selenocentric orbit for Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point;[128] subsequently flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis.[129]
GRAIL Ebb(GRAIL-A) 10 September 2011[130][131] Delta II 7920H   NASA Orbiter Successful
Flow(GRAIL-B) Orbiter Successful
Impacted the Moon in USGS quadrangle LQ01 on 17 December 2012 at end of mission.[132]
LADEE LADEE 7 September 2013 Minotaur V   NASA Orbiter Successful
Mission ended on 18 April 2014, when the spacecraft's controllers intentionally crashed LADEE into the far side of the Moon.
Chang'e 3 Chang'e 3 1 December 2013 Long March 3B   CNSA Lander Operational
Yutu Rover Successful
Entered orbit on 6 December 2013 with landing at 13:12 UTC on 14 December. Yutu was deployed from Chang'e 3.
Chang'e 5-T1 Chang'e 5-T1 23 October 2014 Long March 3C   CNSA Orbiter Successful
Chang'e 5-T1 Return Capsule Orbiter Successful
Demonstration of re-entry capsule for Chang'e 5 sample-return mission at lunar return velocity.
Manfred Memorial Moon Mission Manfred Memorial Moon Mission 23 October 2014 Long March 3C   LuxSpace Flyby / Impactor (post mission) Successful
Attached to third stage of CZ-3C used to launch Chang'e 5-T1. Impacted the Moon on 4 March 2022.
TESS TESS 18 April 2018 Falcon 9 Full Thrust   NASA Flyby Successful
Flyby on 17 May 2018 to designated high Earth orbit.[133]
Queqiao Queqiao 21 May 2018 Long March 4C   CNSA Orbiter Operational
Entered designated Earth–Moon L2 orbit on 14 June in preparation of Chang'e 4 far-side lunar lander in December 2018.
Longjiang Longjiang-1 21 May 2018 Long March 4C   CNSA Orbiter Spacecraft failure
Longjiang-2 Orbiter Successful
Launched on the same rocket as Queqiao. Longjiang-1 never entered Moon orbit,[134] while Longjiang-2 operated in lunar orbit until 31 July 2019, when it impacted the lunar surface.[135]
Chang'e 4 Chang'e 4 7 December 2018 Long March 3B   CNSA Lander Operational
Yutu-2 Rover Operational
First spacecraft to soft land on the far side of the Moon (South Pole–Aitken basin). Landed 3 January 2019 and deployed the Yutu-2 rover.[136][137]
Beresheet Beresheet 22 February 2019 Falcon 9   SpaceIL Lander Spacecraft failure
First Israeli and first privately funded lunar lander mission. Technology demonstration. Instrumentation included a magnetometer and laser retroreflector.[138][139] Spacecraft crashed into the lunar surface after main engine failure during descent from lunar orbit phase.[140]
Chandrayaan-2 Chandrayaan-2 22 July 2019 GSLV Mk III   ISRO Orbiter Operational
Vikram Lander Unsucessful
Pragyan Rover Precluded
Entered orbit on 20 August 2019. Lander separated from orbiter but crashed during a landing attempt on 6 September 2019, attributed to a software glitch. Both lander and rover were lost. Orbiter remained operational.[141]
Chang'e 5 Chang'e 5 Orbiter 23 November 2020 Long March 5   CNSA Orbiter Operational
Chang'e 5 Lander Lander Successful
Chang'e 5 Ascender Launch Vehicle Successful
Chang'e 5 Returner Sample Return Successful
First lunar sample return mission from China, which returned 1,731 g (61.1 oz) of lunar samples on 16 December 2020. The orbiter received a mission extension and is currently in a distant retrograde orbit (DRO) of the Moon.[142]
CAPSTONE CAPSTONE 28 June 2022[143] Electron   NASA Orbiter Operational
Lunar orbiting CubeSat that will test and verify the calculated orbital stability planned for the Gateway space station.
Danuri (Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter) Danuri 4 August 2022[143] Falcon 9   KARI Orbiter[144][145] Operational
Lunar Orbiter by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) of South Korea. The orbiter, its science payload and ground control infrastructure are technology demonstrators. The orbiter will also be tasked with surveying lunar resources such as water ice, uranium, helium-3, silicon, and aluminium, and produce a topographic map to help select future lunar landing sites.
Artemis 1 Artemis 1 Orion MPCV CM-002 16 November 2022[146] SLS Block 1   NASA Orbiter Successful
Uncrewed test of Orion spacecraft in lunar flyby and lunar Distant retrograde orbit.
LunaH-Map and Lunar IceCube LunaH-Map 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   NASA Orbiter Operational
Lunar IceCube Orbiter Operational
H-Map will search for evidence of lunar water ice inside permanently shadowed craters using its neutron detector while, IceCube will uses its infrared spectrometer to detect water and organic compounds in the lunar surface and exosphere.
ArgoMoon ArgoMoon 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   ASI Flybys Operational
It is designed to image the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage and will collect telemetry validating the nanotechnology on board the platform in the hostile environment of deep space.
LunIR LunIR 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   Lockheed Martin Flyby Successful
It is to flyby the Moon and collect its surface thermography.
Near-Earth Asteroid Scout Near-Earth Asteroid Scout 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   NASA Flyby Spacecraft failure
It is a solar sail that will flyby a near-Earth asteroid.
EQUULEUS EQUULEUS 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   JAXA Flybys Operational
It will image the Earth's plasmasphere, impact craters on the Moon's far side, and small trajectory maneuvers near the Moon.
OMOTENASHI OMOTENASHI 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   JAXA Lander Spacecraft failure
It was a lunar surface probe attempting to semi-hard land using solid rocket motors. Carrier and solid motor was to impact. Communication failure occurred and it's missed target to become a flyby.
BioSentinel BioSentinel 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   NASA Flyby Successful
CubeSat spacecraft on a astrobiology mission that will use budding yeast to detect, measure, and compare the impact of deep space radiation on DNA repair over long time beyond low Earth orbit.
CubeSat for Solar Particles CubeSat for Solar Particles 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   NASA Flyby Successful
CubeSat to orbit the Sun to study the dynamic particles and magnetic fields.
Team Miles Team Miles 16 November 2022 SLS Block 1   Fluid & Reason Flyby Successful
CubeSat that will demonstrate navigation in deep space using innovative plasma thrusters.
Hakuto-R Mission 1 Hakuto-R 11 December 2022 Falcon 9 Block 5   ispace Lander Enroute
SORA-Q 11 December 2022 Falcon 9 Block 5   Tomy/JAXA/Dodai Rover Enroute
Lunar lander technology demonstration.[147]
Emirates Lunar Mission Rashid 11 December 2022 Falcon 9 Block 5   UAESA/MBRSC Rover Enroute
Lunar rover demonstration. Launched aboard ispace's Hakuto-R lander.[148]
Lunar Flashlight Lunar Flashlight 11 December 2022 Falcon 9 Block 5   NASA Orbiter Enroute
Initially scheduled to be launched on the Artemis 1 mission, moved to a Falcon 9 Block 5 after not making it for the payload integration deadline.

Future missionsEdit

There are several future lunar missions scheduled or proposed by various nations or organisations.

Funded and under developmentEdit

RoboticEdit

Country Agency or company Name Launch date Launch vehicle Nature of mission
  USA Intuitive Machines IM-1 March 2023[149] Falcon 9 Part of Commercial Lunar Payload Services-2 (CLPS-2) mission. First Nova-C lunar lander. Payloads delivery for NASA's CLPS and for private customers.[150]
  USA Astrobotic Technology Mission One Q1 2023[151] Vulcan Centaur Part of Commercial Lunar Payload Services-1 (CLPS-1) mission. Peregrine lander will deliver 25 payloads to Gruithuisen Gamma
  Mexico
  USA
UNAM Colmena RQ1 2023[151] Vulcan Centaur Part of Commercial Lunar Payload Services-1 (CLPS-1) mission. A microrover going to be launched on Peregrine lander as a rideshare payload.
  India ISRO Chandrayaan-3 June 2023[152] GSLV Mk III[153] India's second attempt to soft land on the Moon.
  USA Intuitive Machines IM-2 Q2 2023[154] Falcon 9 Second Nova-C. Payloads delivery for NASA's CLPS.
  USA NASA Lunar Trailblazer Q2 2023[154][155] Falcon 9 Orbiter
  Russia Roscosmos Luna 25 July 2023[156] Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat Lander will explore natural resources, part of Luna-Glob programme.
  Japan JAXA SLIM[157] 2023[158][159] H-IIA 202 Pinpoint landing, roving[160][161][162]
  JPN Tomy, JAXA, Doshisha University Lunar Excursion Vehicle 2 (LEV-2) 2023 H-IIA 202 Lunar rover technology demonstration. Rideshare payload on SLIM.[163]
  Australia Fleet space, OZ Minerals, University of Adelaide, UNSW, Unearthed, Tyvak and Fugro Australia Lunar Exploration Mission[164][165] 2023 TBD Nanosatellites for the Artemis program
  Netherlands Lunar Zebro, Delft University of Technology Laika Late 2023[166] TBD South pole radiation measurements to investigate the feasibility of human settlement
  Japan JAXA DESTINY+ 2023 or 2024[167] Epsilon Lunar flyby toward asteroid 3200 Phaethon
  USA Intuitive Machines IM-3 Q2 2024[154][168] Falcon 9 Third Nova-C.
  Germany   Spain Plus Ultra Harmony 1 Q4 2024 RFA One Lunar communication and navigation constellation
  USA Astrobotic Technology Griffin Mission 1[169] November 2024 Falcon Heavy Will host the VIPER Rover
  USA NASA VIPER rover November 2024[170] Falcon Heavy Will prospect for lunar resources in the south pole region, especially for water ice.
  USA NASA/ESA/Northrop Grumman PPE and HALO November 2024 Falcon Heavy Key elements of Lunar Gateway.
  USA Firefly Aerospace Blue Ghost M1 2024[171] Falcon 9 Lunar lander, carrying NASA-sponsored experiments and commercial payloads to Mare Crisium.[172][173]
  JPN ispace Hakuto-R Mission 2 2024[174] Falcon 9 Rover technology demonstration
  Russia Roscosmos Luna 26 2024[175] Soyuz-2 Orbiter, part of the Luna-Glob programme.[176]
  JPN ispace ispace Mission 3 2024[177] TBD Lunar lander
  Canada Canadensys Aerospace Cooperation and NGC Aerospace Light weight camera and planetary navigation system 2024 TBD Two separate spacecraft for the Canadian Space Agency's LEAP program
  USA Momentus Space Ardoride 2024 TBA Orbiter, rideshare mission carrying 50 kg payload for Canadensys, two CubeSats for Qosmosys, and other payloads
  USA Blue Origin Blue Moon 2024[179] TBA Lander
  China CNSA Queqiao 2 2024[180] TBA Relay satellite to support future missions of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program targeting south pole region.[181]
  China CNSA Chang'e 6 2025[180] Long March 5 Sample-return from the south pole Aitken basin on the far side of the Moon.[181]
  Europe ESA, SSTL Lunar Pathfinder 2025[182] TBA Commercial telecom orbiter, with support from ESA.[183]
  Russia Roscosmos Luna 27 2025[175] Soyuz[184] Lander, part of Luna-Glob programme.
  Israel SpaceIL Beresheet 2 2025 TBD One orbiter, Two landers
  China CNSA Chang'e 7 2026[185] Long March 5 Payloads include an orbiter, south pole lander, rover, and a mini flying probe to look for the presence of water-ice. Lander will also carry the Rashid 2 rover from the United Arab Emirates.[185]
  China CNSA Chang'e 8 2027[186] Long March 5 South pole lander.[187] Testing technology for using local resources and manufacturing with 3D printing.[188]
  Europe

  Japan

  Canada

ESA, CSA, JAXA HERACLES 2030 TBD Robotic Lander system with rover, Robotic

Sample Return

CrewedEdit

Country Agency or company Name Launch date Launch vehicle Nature of mission
  USA SpaceX dearMoon project 2023[189] Starship Space tourism and art project; free-return trajectory and Earth re-entry of the Starship.
  USA/  CAN NASA Artemis 2 May 2024[190] SLS Block 1 Crewed test of the Orion spacecraft on a free-return trajectory around the Moon.
  USA NASA Artemis 3 NET Q2 2025[191][190] SLS Block 1 Deliver the "first woman and next man" to the Moon.
  USA NASA Artemis 4 NET 2027 SLS Block 1B First flight of Block 1B configuration. Deliver I-Hab and conduct second Artemis crewed lunar landing.
  Russia Roscosmos Orel spacecraft 2029[192] Yenisei Crewed lunar flyby.
  China CNSA Chinese Crewed Lunar Mission 2030[193] Long March 5G Two launches of the LM-5DY to put a pair of astronauts on the Moon for a 6-hour stay.[181]

Proposed but full funding still unclearEdit

RoboticEdit

The following robotic space probe missions have been proposed:

Country Name Proposed launch Nature of mission Agency or company
  India
  Japan
Lunar Polar Exploration Mission 2025 Lander and rover, part of the Chandrayaan programme; a proposal under study.[194] ISRO,JAXA
  Brazil Garatéa-L 2025[195] Orbiter Airvantis
  USA ISOCHRON 2025 Lunar sample-return NASA
  USA moon diver 2025 Lander and rover NASA
  USA MoonRise May compete in New Frontiers program NF5 selection in the late 2020s[196] Sample return from South Pole–Aitken basin[197] NASA
  Russia Luna 28 and Luna 29 2027–2028[175] Technology development for prospecting water and other natural resources needed for a future lunar base; part of Luna-Glob program. Roscosmos
  China
  Russia
ILRS 2030 - 2035 5 crucial missions planned for comprehensive establishment of ILRS to complete the in-orbit and surface facilities CNSA, Roscosmos
  South Korea Phase 2 of the Korean lunar exploration program 2030 [198] Lander and rover KARI
  South Africa #AfricaToMoon 2030 Orbiter or a Lunar Rover and Lander SANSA
  USA BOLAS TBD 2 tethered CubeSats on a very low lunar orbit.[199] NASA
  USA Lunar Crater Radio Telescope TBD Radio telescope made by 4 rovers NASA
  Canada Autonomous Impactor for Lunar Exploration TBD Impactor for LEAP Magellan Aerospace
  USA LEAP2 ? Lunar Site Development Exploration Architecture Corporation
  USA Lunar space elevator ? Creating a reusable, replaceable and expandable Lunar elevator to open up the resources present on the Moon LiftPort Group

Lunar missions by organization/companyEdit

Country Agency
or company
Successful Partial Failure Failure Operational Total
  USA NASA 36 2 14 3 55
USAF 1 - 1 - 2
  USSR Lavochkin 16 2 22 - 40
Energia 2 - 16 - 18
  China CNSA 4 - - 4 8
  Japan ISAS 2 - 2 - 4
JAXA 1 - - - 1
  India ISRO 1 1 - 1 2
  EU ESA 1 - - - 1
  Luxembourg LuxSpace 1 - - - 1
  Israel SpaceIL - - 1 - 1
 South Korea KARI 1 - - 1 1

Unrealized conceptsEdit

2010sEdit

  • Resource Prospector – concept by NASA of a rover that would have performed a survey expedition on a polar region of the Moon. It was canceled in April 2018.[200]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Why failure is the fuel for a trip to Moon". The Times of India. 11 September 2019. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  2. ^ "Chandrayaan-2 landing: 40% lunar missions in last 60 years failed, finds Nasa report". Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  3. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  4. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  5. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  6. ^ "Pioneer 0". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  7. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Wade, Mark. "Luna E-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  9. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  10. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  11. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Pioneer 1". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 5 April 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  13. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  14. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Pioneer 2". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  16. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  17. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1958" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 17–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Pioneer 3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  19. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1959" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 21–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Luna 1". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  21. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1959" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 21–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  22. ^ "Pioneer 4". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  23. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1959" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 21–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  24. ^ "Luna 2". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  25. ^ "Luna 3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  26. ^ "Pioneer P-3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  27. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1959" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 21–24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  28. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1960" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 25–27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  29. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1960" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 25–27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  30. ^ "Pioneer P-30". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  31. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1960" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 25–27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  32. ^ "Pioneer P-31". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  33. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1960" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 25–27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  34. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  35. ^ "Ranger 3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  36. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  37. ^ "Ranger 4". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  38. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1962" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 34–37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  39. ^ "Ranger 5". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  40. ^ "Sputnik 25". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  41. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1963" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 39–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  42. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1963" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 39–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  43. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1963" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 39–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  44. ^ "Luna 4". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  45. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  46. ^ "Luna 4". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  47. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  48. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1964" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 41–45. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  49. ^ "Ranger 7". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  50. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  51. ^ "Ranger 8". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  52. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  53. ^ "Cosmos 60". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  54. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  55. ^ "Ranger 9". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  56. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  57. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  58. ^ "Luna 5". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  59. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  60. ^ "Luna 6". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  61. ^ "Zond 3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 19 March 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  62. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  63. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  64. ^ "Luna 7". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  65. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1965" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  66. ^ "Luna 8". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  67. ^ "Luna 9". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  68. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  69. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  70. ^ "Cosmos 111". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  71. ^ "Luna 10". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  72. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  73. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  74. ^ "Surveyor 1". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  75. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  76. ^ "Explorer 33". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  77. ^ "Lunar Orbiter 1". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  78. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  79. ^ "Luna 11". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  80. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  81. ^ "Surveyor 2". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  82. ^ "Luna 12". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  83. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  84. ^ "Lunar Orbiter 2". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  85. ^ a b Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1966" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  86. ^ "Luna 13". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 22 November 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  87. ^ "Lunar Orbiter 3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  88. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  89. ^ "Surveyor 3". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  90. ^ "Surveyor Lunar Spacecraft". Boeing. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  91. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  92. ^ "Lunar Orbiter 4". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  93. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  94. ^ "Surveyor 4". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  95. ^ "Explorer 35". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  96. ^ "Explorer 35". NASA. Archived from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2023.
  97. ^ "Lunar Orbiter 5". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  98. ^ "Surveyor 5". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  99. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  100. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  101. ^ "Surveyor 6". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  102. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1967" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  103. ^ "Surveyor 7". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  104. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1968" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 69–72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  105. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1968" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 69–72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  106. ^ "Luna 14". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  107. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1968" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 69–72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  108. ^ "Zond 5". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2014. [dead link]
  109. ^ "Zond 6". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  110. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1968" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 69–72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  111. ^ "Apollo 8". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 8 July 2009. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  112. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80.
  113. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  114. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  115. ^ "APOLLO 10 (AS-505)". Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  116. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80.
  117. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  118. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  119. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  120. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  121. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1969" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 73–80. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  122. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2002). "1976" (PDF). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958–2000. Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 24. NASA History Office. pp. 115–116. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  123. ^ "Luna 24". US National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  124. ^ "Hiten". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA). Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  125. ^ "Japanese probe crashes into Moon". BBC. 11 June 2009. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  126. ^ "月周回衛星「かぐや(SELENE)」 – SELENE通信 – お知らせ" (in Japanese). JAXA. 30 June 2009. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  127. ^ Varanasi, P.; Tompkins, S.; Taylor, L. A.; Sunshine, J.; Staid, M.; Runyon, C.; Petro, N.; Nettles, J.; Mustard, J. (23 October 2009). "Character and Spatial Distribution of OH/H2O on the Surface of the Moon Seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1". Science. 326 (5952): 568–572. Bibcode:2009Sci...326..568P. doi:10.1126/science.1178658. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 19779151. S2CID 447133.
  128. ^ "China's Moon orbiter Chang'e-2 travels 1.5 km into outer space". The Economic Times. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  129. ^ "Chang'e 2: The Full Story". The Planetary Society. 25 August 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
  130. ^ Gold, Scott (11 September 2011). "After delay, GRAIL moon mission launches". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
  131. ^ Harwood, William. "NASA launches GRAIL lunar probes". CBS News. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  132. ^ Blau, Patrick. "GRAIL Mission Design and Timeline". Spaceflight 101. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
  133. ^ Trajectory Design Enhancements to Mitigate Risk for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) (PDF). ntrs.nasa.gov (Report). NASA. 13 September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  134. ^ How China's lunar relay satellite arrived in its final orbit Archived 17 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Luyuan Xu, The Planetary Society. 15 June 2018.
  135. ^ @planet4589 (31 July 2019). "The Chinese Longjiang-2 (DSLWP-B) lunar orbiting spacecraft completed its mission on Jul 31 at about 1420 UTC, in a planned impact on the lunar surface" (Tweet). Retrieved 1 August 2019 – via Twitter.
  136. ^ Rincon, Paul (7 December 2018). "China mission launches to far side of Moon". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  137. ^ "China Makes Historic 1st Landing on Mysterious Far Side of the Moon". Space.com. 3 January 2019. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  138. ^ Grush, Loren (21 February 2019). "Watch SpaceX launch a trio of spacecraft, including a lander bound for the Moon". The Verge. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  139. ^ "Beresheet". NASA Solar System Exploration. 19 February 2019. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019..
  140. ^ Foust, Jeff (12 April 2019). "SpaceIL says "chain of events" led to crash of lunar lander". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  141. ^ "Lander Vikram located: K Sivan". www.aninews.in. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  142. ^ "China's Chang'e-5 orbiter is heading back to the moon". SpaceNews. 6 September 2021. Archived from the original on 30 August 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  143. ^ a b Figliozzi, Gianine (8 June 2022). "CAPSTONE Mission Launch No Longer Targeting June 13". NASA. Archived from the original on 9 June 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  144. ^ "NASA Funds CubeSat Pathfinder Mission to Unique Lunar Orbit". NASA (Press release). 13 September 2019. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  145. ^ "Rocket Lab to Launch NASA Funded Commercial Moon Mission from New Zealand". Rocket Lab. 9 August 2021. Archived from the original on 8 August 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  146. ^ Foust, Jeff (11 November 2022). "NASA moving ahead with Nov. 16 Artemis 1 launch attempt". SpaceNews. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  147. ^ "ispace Begins Final Assembly of Lunar Lander Flight Model Ahead of First Mission". ispace. 14 July 2021. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  148. ^ "MBRSC Teams Up with Japan's ispace on Emirates Lunar Mission". ispace. 14 April 2021. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  149. ^ Baylor, Michael. "Falcon 9 Block 5 - Nova C (IM-1)". Archived from the original on 19 January 2023. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  150. ^ Kanayama, Lee (13 April 2020). "NOVA-C selects landing site, Masten gains CLPS contracts". NASASpaceFlight. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  151. ^ a b Roulette, Joey (10 October 2022). "United Launch Alliance's debut Vulcan mission slips to 2023 -CEO". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 October 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  152. ^ "ISRO to launch Chandrayaan-3, its third mission to moon, in June 2023". Mint. 20 October 2022. Archived from the original on 21 October 2022. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  153. ^ Park, Si-soo (3 February 2022). "India targets August launch for Chandrayaan-3 lunar lander". SpaceNews. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  154. ^ a b c Crain, Timothy (18–20 July 2022). Commercial Capabilities to Support Lunar Exploration – Intuitive Machines (PDF). John Glenn Memorial Symposium. Case Western Reserve University: American Astronautical Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  155. ^ Foust, Jeff (22 June 2022). "NASA moves up Lunar Trailblazer launch". SpaceNews. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  156. ^ "Запуск первой в истории современной России миссии на Луну может пройти в июле 2023 года" [The launch of the first mission to the Moon in the history of modern Russia may take place in July 2023]. TASS (in Russian). 19 September 2022. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  157. ^ "小型探査機による高精度月面着陸の技術実証(SLIM)について" (PDF) (in Japanese). 3 June 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  158. ^ "Missions of Opportunity (MO) in Development - X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM)". GSFC. NASA. Archived from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  159. ^ "天文衛星「ひとみ」代替機と月面着陸機、H2Aで相乗り-JAXA". Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (in Japanese). 21 August 2017. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017. ... 2020年度に国際プロジェクトとして打ち上げ予定のX線天文衛星代替機を搭載した国産ロケット「H2A」に月面着陸機「SLIM(スリム)」を相乗りさせる計画を示した。 ...'
  160. ^ "Small lunar-lander "SLIM" for the pinpoint landing technology demonstration" (PDF). 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  161. ^ "The tiny rover payload in SLIM mission" (PDF). 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  162. ^ "Japan to attempt uncrewed lunar landing in 2018". 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 8 October 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  163. ^ Hirano, Daichi (7 October 2022). "Palm-Sized Lunar Excursion Vehicle 2 (LEV-2)". JAXA. Archived from the original on 3 October 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  164. ^ "Australian Lunar Exploration Mission Unveiled by Fleet Space Technologies | Spaceaustralia". Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  165. ^ "Satellite communications and space exploration | Fleet Space Technologies - News | Australia's Lunar Exploration Mission Announced". Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  166. ^ "Lunar Zebro | Nano Rover TU Delft". Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  167. ^ Sommer, M.; Krüger, H.; Srama, R.; Hirai, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Arai, T.; Sasaki, S.; Kimura, H.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Strub, P.; Lohse, A.-K. (21 September 2020). Destiny+ Dust Analyzer – Campaign & timeline preparation for interplanetary & interstellar dust observation during the 4-year transfer phase from Earth to Phaethon. Europlanet Science Congress 2020. Copernicus Publications. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  168. ^ "Three-peat: Intuitive Machines Selects SpaceX Falcon 9 Rocket for Third Moon Mission". Intuitive Machines (Press release). 10 August 2021. Archived from the original on 12 February 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  169. ^ "Astrobotic selects Falcon Heavy to launch NASA's VIPER lunar rover". SpaceNews. 13 April 2021. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  170. ^ "NASA Replans CLPS Delivery of VIPER to 2024 to Reduce Risk". NASA. 18 July 2022. Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  171. ^ "Firefly Completes Integration Readiness Review of its Blue Ghost Lunar Lander". Firefly Aerospace. 26 April 2022. Archived from the original on 1 May 2022. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  172. ^ "NASA Selects Firefly Aerospace for Artemis Commercial Moon Delivery in 2023". NASA (Press release). 4 February 2021. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  173. ^ "Lunar Lander". Firefly Aerospace. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  174. ^ "Key Updates for HAKUTO-R Announced as Mission 1 Lander Prepares to Enter Final Stage of Integration". ispace. 25 January 2022. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  175. ^ a b c "Россия запустит космический аппарат на Луну 1 октября 2021 года" [Russia will launch a spacecraft to the moon on 1 October 2021]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  176. ^ Russian Moon exploration program Archived 15 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Russian Research Institute (IKI). 2017.
  177. ^ Solomon, Shoshanna (19 July 2021). "Israel's Helios hitches ride on Japan lunar lander in bid to make oxygen on Moon". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  178. ^ "Momentus and Qosmosys Announce First Singaporean Lunar Mission on Momentus' Ardoride Service Vehicle". www.businesswire.com. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  179. ^ Weitering, Hanneke (10 May 2019). "Blue Moon: Here's How Blue Origin's New Lunar Lander Works". Space.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  180. ^ a b China N' Asia Spaceflight [@CNSpaceflight] (24 November 2022). "Update:
    2024 Queqiao-2 data relay
    2025 Chang'e-6 lunar sample return from far side
    2026 Chang'e-7 lunar landing in south pole
    2028 Chang'e-8 basic model of lunar research station" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  181. ^ a b c Jones, Andrew (8 September 2022). "China's Moon Missions Shadow NASA Artemis's Pace". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  182. ^ "Lunar Mission Services from SSTL". SSTL. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  183. ^ Amos, Jonathan (20 May 2021). "Europe plans sat-nav and telecoms network at the Moon". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  184. ^ Mitrofanov, Igor. "Luna-Glob" and "Luna-Resurs": science goals, payload and status (PDF). EGU General Assembly 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  185. ^ a b Jones, Andrew (19 September 2022). "UAE rover to fly on China's Chang'e-7 lunar south pole mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  186. ^ Chen, Stephen (29 December 2021). "China speeds up moon base plan in space race against the US". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 21 August 2022. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  187. ^ China's Deep Space Exploration Roadmap Archived 14 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine. 2018.
  188. ^ Jones, Andrew (29 December 2021). "China has moon's south pole in its sights with 3 missions launching this decade". Space.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  189. ^ "#dearMoon". #dearMoon. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  190. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (9 November 2021). "NASA delays human lunar landing to at least 2025". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  191. ^ Gohd, Chelsea (10 August 2021). "US astronaut moon landing 'not feasible,' by 2024 due to spacesuit delay, NASA's inspector general finds". Space.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  192. ^ "Определен срок полета российского корабля "Орел" с экипажем на МКС" [The scheduled time for the first crewed flight of the Russian spacecraft Orel to the ISS has been determined]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 13 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  193. ^ Jones, Andrew (15 November 2021). "Chinese crewed moon landing possible by 2030, says senior space figure". SpaceNews. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  194. ^ ISRO planning 7 interplanetary missions, Venus on the to-do list Archived 7 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Sidharth MP, DNA India. 18 May 2019.
  195. ^ "Conheça a Garatéa-L, missão que pretende levar o Brasil à Lua em 2025" (in Brazilian Portuguese). 10 August 2022. Archived from the original on 14 August 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2022.
  196. ^ "Executive Summary" (PDF). solarsystem.nasa.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  197. ^ "ILN". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  198. ^ https://www.korea.kr/news/policyNewsView.do?newsId=148885478 . Blue House, 문 대통령 "내년 달 궤도선·2030년 달 착륙…7대 우주강국 도약". 18 May 2021.
  199. ^ Bi-Sat Observations of the Lunar Atmosphere Above Swirls (BOLAS): Tethered SmallSat Investigation of Hydration and Space Weathering Processes at the Moon. (PDF) Stubbs, T. J.; Malphrus, B. K.; Hoyt, R., etal. 49th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; 19–23 March 2018 at The Woodlands, Texas, USA.
  200. ^ NASA scraps a lunar surface mission — just as it's supposed to focus on a Moon return Archived 3 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine Loren Grush, The Verge April 27, 2018

External linksEdit

  • Interactive map of every successful moon landings to date